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Tongan

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: ton
  latlong: -21.178986,-175.198242  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
   01_Subject Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   02_Verb Subject Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   03_Verb Object Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   04_Object Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   05_Subject Verb Object No Hilda Koopman Forum
   06_Subject Object Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Hilda Koopman Forum
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: ha fu'u me'a
  Gloss: a big thing
  Translation: a big thing
  Comment: few adjectives precede N: fu'u (big) ki'i (tiny); these can be preceded by the dual 'ongo' or plural classifiers (u, kau, fanga), and can coocur with postnominal size adjectives: ha fu'u me'a lahi 'a great big thing, a very big thing
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   14_Noun Adjective Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   15_Numeral Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: 'oku 'i fee 'a e kato 'e onó
  Gloss: PRES LOC where ABS ART basket LNK six-D
  Translation: where are the six baskets?
  Comment: Churchward(1965)p 172; postnominal numerals must be preceded by 'e, a linker which only precedes postnominal numerals
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   17_Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   19_Possessor Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   20_Noun Possessor Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: 'oku 'ulu fuo lahi 'eku kulí/ 'ene kulí
  Gloss: PRES head big ABS. D. P(a). 1st dog.D/ Abs.D. P(a). 3rd Dog
  Translation: My/his dog has a big head
  Comment: Pronominal possessors follow the Case(P))/Ds, and a possessive/genitive P ( 'a); with specific forms showing contractions/phonological interactions. Ds:definite (h)e; indefinite (h)a , or si'a ( Churchward's 1953 'emotional' article (the poor, my poor); related to si'i 'little'.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Hilda Koopman Forum
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Hilda Koopman A bit tricky. A few adjectives have a distinct plural form which is used in plural contexts. (also true when used predicatively) Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   A 03_Degree Adjective No Hilda Koopman tricky; should be maybe yes. There is one potential candidate fu'u, a prenominal A. 'ha fu'u me'a lahi' may be (a 'big' sized thing (which is big) may also be translated as 'a very big thing'. or 'oku fu'u momoko: lit: it/there's big cold, it is very cold. I set it as NO, since fu'u cannot form a surface constituent with an A. Forum
   A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Hilda Koopman no verb have Forum
   C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Hilda Koopman Forum
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Extra Examples No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective Not Yet Set Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Hilda Koopman Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Hilda Koopman Forum