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Tuki (Tukombo)

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: bag
  latlong: 4.73005,11.287101  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: Putá a- banga- ḿ
  Gloss: Puta SM- cry- IND
  Translation: Puta is crying
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   02_Verb Subject No Edmond Biloa Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: Mbárá a- dinga- ḿ Putá
  Gloss: Mbara SM- love- IND Puta
  Translation: Mbara loves Puta
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: nya manya móó
  Gloss: eat food 2.POSS
  Translation: Eat your food
  Comment: As shown, the order is Verb Object in imperative constructions as well.
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   04_Object Verb No Edmond Biloa This ordering is only possible if the object is topicalized. Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: Putá a- kutu- namba kuru
  Gloss: Puta SM- PROG- cook rat
  Translation: Puta is cooking rat
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: a- dinga- ḿ Putá
  Gloss: SM- loves -Inc Puta
  Translation: “he/she loves Puta”
  Comment: In Tuki, null subjects are attested
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   06_Subject Object Verb No Edmond Biloa Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Edmond Biloa Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Edmond Biloa Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Edmond Biloa This ordering is only possible if the object is topicalized. Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Edmond Biloa Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: Mbárá a- mu- enda na sukuru
  Gloss: Mbara SM- P1- go to school
  Translation: Mbara went to school
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition No Edmond Biloa Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: Putá a- mu osya okutu
  Gloss: Puta SM be.3.PRS beautiful woman
  Translation: Puta is a beautiful woman
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: Mbárá a- má- fowa akáná yĕndze púú
  Gloss: Mbara SM- PST2- build big house white
  Translation: Mbara built a big white house
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Edmond Biloa This ordering is only possible for color adjectives. Forum
  Words: vatu va- dinga- ḿ mbwá f́íítiti
  Gloss: people SM- love- ASP dog black
  Translation: people like black dogs
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: Mbárá a- má- fowa akáná yĕndze púú
  Gloss: Mbara SM- PST2- build big house white
  Translation: Mbara built a big white house
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: * mbárá a-má fowa púú y`éndze
  Gloss: Mbara SM- P2 build big white house
  Translation: Mbara built a big white house”
  Comment: color adjectives must be postnominal
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   15_Numeral Noun No Edmond Biloa Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: vakutu vaba
  Gloss: woman.PL two
  Translation: two women
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun No Edmond Biloa This ordering is only possible with contrastive focus. Forum
  Words: a. ódzú mwana b. ává vana
  Gloss: a. this child b. these children
  Translation: a. THIS child b. THESE children
  Comment: Constrative focus (it means it is this child, and not any other child)
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: aye yĕndze
  Gloss: this house
  Translation: THIS house
  Comment: only with coontrastive focus
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: yĕndze aye
  Gloss: house this
  Translation: this house
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: okutu ódzú eena a nŏ- ḿ
  Gloss: woman this here SM sick-INC
  Translation: This woman is sick
  Comment: In Tuki, as in some other languages, demonstratives co-occur with a locative reinforce inside NP.
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: okuu ódzú dzu
  Gloss: woman this reinforcer
  Translation: ThIS woman
  Comment: another reinforcer Another reinforcer appears to be a diminutive form of the demonstrative. the reinforcer seems to lay emphasis on the demonstrative. That is the demonstrative is focalized due to the presence of the reinforcer.
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   19_Possessor Noun No Edmond Biloa Forum
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: Mbárá a- mu- ena mwana Putá /mwaná (w) a Putá
  Gloss: Mbara SM- PST1- see child Puta/ child 1.ASS Puta
  Translation: Mbara saw Puta's child
  Comment: The genitive marker is not phonetically realized between mwana and Puta. This is typical of cases of inalienable possession in Bantu languages. Rhe phonetic realization of the genitive marker (w)a is optional:
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words:  Nù' nga- má- kúsa matúwa wa mberE ame
  Gloss: 1 SM- P2- buy car of friend my
  Translation: I bought the car of my friend
  Comment: wa functions like a preposition and it agrees in noun class with matuwa.In Bantu Linguistics, it is sometimes called a possessive marker or a genitive marker. That the morphological form of the genitive marker is crucially dependent upon the noun class of the NP to which it refers is evidenced by the fact that if matuwa (car) is substituted for aranga (bicycle) below, wa changes to ya
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Edmond Biloa This ordering is only possible with contrastive focus. Forum
  Words: ame okutu
  Gloss: my wife/woman
  Translation: MY wife
  Comment: The pronominal possessor can only precede the NP in cases of constrastive focus in discourse:
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: wutya wame
  Gloss: farm 1.POSS
  Translation: my farm
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Edmond Biloa This property has a value of "no" for color adjectives, which do not agree with the noun they modify. Forum
  Words: a. osya okuto b. vasya vakutu
  Gloss: a. 1.beautiful woman b. 2. beautiful 2.women
  Translation: a. beautiful woman b. beautiful women
  Comment: Prenominal As agree, but postnominal ones don't
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: a. akana inyíní b. vikana munyíní
  Translation: a. big bird b. big birds
  Comment: agreement is prefixed on A and N
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: a. arónó okutu b. virónó vakutu
  Gloss: a. old woman b. old women
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: karate búútutu omò'si
  Gloss: book red NC.one
  Translation: one red book
  Comment: The postnominal adjectives do not agree, but postnominal numerals do. (o agrees with book)
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: a.inyó búútutu imò'si b. vinyó búútutu vitatú
  Gloss: a. i.yam red i.one b. vi.yam red vi.three
  Translation: a. one red yam b. three red yams
  Comment: These examples show the numerals agree (but postnominal adjectives don't. )
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Edmond Biloa In their predicative use, color adjectives themselves have additional morphology which makes them verbal: they show the regular subject agreement. Other adjectives cannot be used in this way but always modify a N Forum
  Words: Putá a- mú akana okutu
  Gloss: Puta SM- is big woman
  Translation: Puta is a big woman
  Comment: The adjective agrees but it is not used predicatively
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words:  putá a-mú osya *(okutu)
  Gloss: Puta SM- MU beautiful woman
  Translation: Puta is beautiful
  Comment: Beautiful/ big etc. cannot be used predicatively: the head noun is oblgatory
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: onyeme ; wanga-(o+anga); orafa; ogira; opuma (etc)
  Gloss: to be beautiful; to be tall; to be black or dark; to be white (etc)
  Comment: Tuki also has some verbs that express ideas/notions that are semantically encoded by predicate adjectives
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: mwana wáá a- rafa-ḿ
  Gloss: child his/her SM tall-INC
  Translation: his/her child is tall
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: a. Putá a- mú fíítiti b. vakutu vá- mú fííititi
  Gloss: a. Puta SM-is back b. woman are black
  Translation: a. Puta is black b. the woman are black
  Comment: Color adjectives are postnominal, and never agree; they can be used predicatively (whereas the prenominal adjectives cannot not)
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: a.matúwa ódzú a- mú púú b. vamatúwa ava vá- mú púú
  Gloss:  a. this car is white b. cars these SM are white
  Translation: a. This car is white b. These cars are white
  Comment: white is invariant.
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ A 03_Degree Adjective No Edmond Biloa A lexical item must be of category V to allow a degree; this ordering is possible but only with the use of "adjective verbs." Forum
  Words: Putá a- nyeme- ḿ ifundu
  Gloss: Puta SM- be.beautiful- IND much
  Translation: Puta is very beautiful
  Comment: The language resorts to "adjective verbs/predicate adjectives" to express degree.
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ A 04_Adjective Degree No Edmond Biloa A lexical item must be of category V to allow a degree; this ordering is possible but only with the use of "adjective verbs." Forum
  Words: Putá a- banga- ḿ na sáási
  Gloss: Puta SM- be.big- IND with enough
  Translation: Puta is big enough
  Comment: The language resorts to "adjective verbs/predicate adjectives" to express degree.
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Edmond Biloa Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: Mbárá a- mu- údza ee Putá a- mu- eta
  Gloss: Mbara SM- PST1- say COMP Puta SM- PST1- go back
  Translation: Mbara said that Puta went back
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: Mbárá a- mu- sésá ngí Putá a-mu-eta
  Gloss: Mbara SM p1 ask if Puta P1 go.back
  Translation: Mbara asked if Puta went back
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Edmond Biloa Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: nŭ ngu mú enda ná wáspíta asene nŭ nŏ- ḿ
  Gloss: I SM- PST1- go to hospital because I sick- IND
  Translation: I went to the hospital because I am sick
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Extra Examples No Edmond Biloa Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Edmond Biloa Forum
+ N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: Karaki! vadzu vaaba va-mu n(a) ondzoo
  Gloss: be.careful! 2P.children p.2 SM2.be on N SG.road
  Translation: Be careful! There are two children on the road
  Comment: karaki! is short for: mamu (2S) o-karaki "you be careful'
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Edmond Biloa Forum
+ N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: vadzu vaaba va-mu n(a) ondzoo
  Gloss: 2.children 2.two 2.be on road
  Translation: The two children are on the road
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Edmond Biloa Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Edmond Biloa Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Edmond Biloa Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Edmond Biloa Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Edmond Biloa Forum
+ Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: Mbárá a- má- kutu dinga Putá
  Gloss: Mbara SM- p2- prog love Puta
  Translation: Mbara was loving Puta
  Comment: for the negated form see next sentence
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: Mbárá a- tá- má- kutu dinga Putá
  Gloss: Mbara SM Neg Past2 prog love Puta
  Translation: “Mbara was not loving Puta”
  Comment: The negation follows the subject marker and precedes the past tense marker. This could perhaps qualify as an infix, but there is no reason to assume the order does not reflect a structure where negation combines with past and SM combines with that resut (i.e. negation is never inflexed into the SM V structure).
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Edmond Biloa This ordering is only possible with contrastive focus. Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Edmond Biloa Forum
+ Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Edmond Biloa This ordering is only possible for color adjectives. Forum
  Words: vakarate púú avá
  Gloss: PL.book white these
  Translation: these white books
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Edmond Biloa Forum
+ Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: osya okutu ódzú
  Gloss: beautiful woman this
  Translation: this beautiful woman
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: i fíítiti okutu ódzú
  Gloss: PRES black woman this
  Translation: it is this black woman
  Comment: Color adjectives can only occur pronominally if they are preceded by a presentative morpheme and the head N is followed by a DEM.
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Edmond Biloa Forum
+ Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: ava vadzu banee
  Gloss: THESE 2.child 2.four
  Translation: THESE four children
  Comment: This order is only possible with focus on the demonstrative
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: vadzu banee ava
  Gloss: 2.children 2.four 2.these
  Translation: These four children
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words:  vadzu vana baane
  Gloss: 2.children 2.these two
  Translation: These children
  Comment: Yes or no is tricky: this feels more like these children which are two. However since this order is fine, we tentatively code it as yes.
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Edmond Biloa Forum
+ Q01_Initial polar Q-marker Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: yEE o-mu-suwa tsono roo
  Gloss: Q you P1 wash clothes your?
  Translation: Did you wash your clothes?
  Comment: (E=epsilon)
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: o-mu-suwa tsono roo aa
  Gloss: you wash clothes your Q
  Translation: Did you wash your clothes?
  Comment: Can also cooccur with initial questional particle yEE.
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Edmond Biloa Forum
+ Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Edmond Biloa Forum
  Words: (yEE) mamu odzu o-mu-suwa tsono roo (aa)
  Gloss: (Q) you FOC 2SM-P1-wash clothes your (Q)
  Translation: Is it you who washed your clothes
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Yes Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Edmond Biloa Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Edmond Biloa Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Edmond Biloa Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Edmond Biloa Forum