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Tupi (Ancient)

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: tpi
  latlong: -23.470973,-45.060425  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: Abá o-syk
  Gloss: indian (3SG) come.PRS/PST
  Translation: The indian(s) come(s)/came closer (the indian(s) arrive(s)(d))
  Comment: No distinction between 3.SG and 3.PL. Although there is a way of expressing the plural, it is not required.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: O-s-epîak paranã Pindobusu
  Gloss: (3.SG) see.PST/PRS sea Pindobuçu
  Translation: Pindobuçu saw the sea
  Comment: Barbosa (1956: )
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   02_Verb Subject Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: A-s-ausub abá
  Gloss: (1.SG) love.PRS/PST.IND indian
  Translation: I love the indian
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: Xe kutuk
  Gloss: I.OBJ poke.3.SG
  Translation: He pokes me
  Comment: This order is only possible if the object is a 1st. person pronoun (sg., pl. incl. or excl.).
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Although the above sentence is possible and grammatical, another order is more common: Pedro kunhã kuaba (Pedro knows the woman). Forum
  Words: Pedro o-î-kuab kunhã
  Gloss: P. (3.SG)-3.SG.OBJ know.PRS/PST.IND woman
  Translation: Peter knows/knew the woman
  Comment: Although the above sentence is possible and grammatical, another order is possible and most common: Peter kunhã kuaba (Pedro woman knows/Pedro's knowledge (infinitive) of the woman). Every infinitive in Tupi is also a noun, so that all transitive verbs require a nominal complement (of the woman).
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: A-î-pysyk
  Gloss: 1SG-3SG.OBJ-catch.IND
  Translation: I catch/caught him
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Pindobusu so’o o-îuká
  Gloss: P. animal.PL (3.SG) kill.PRS/PST.IND
  Translation: Pindobusu kills/killed (the) animals
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   07_Verb Subject Object No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
+ 09_Object Subject Verb Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: Paranã Pindobusu o-s-epîak?
  Gloss: Sea Pindobsu (3.SG) see.PRS/PST
  Translation: Pindobusu saw the sea
  Comment: Barbosa (1956: )
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   10_Object Verb Subject Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi OVS is possible for second person (sg. and pl.) object pronouns, depending on which personal pronoun is the subject. Example: Nde kuab Pedro (you.OBJ knows Pedro 'Pedro knows you') Forum
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: Abá ygar-usu-pe o-só
  Gloss: Indian.SG/PL boat-big-to (3.SG/PL)-go.PRS/PST.IND
  Translation: The indian(s) go(es)/went to the big boat (ship)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   13_Adjective Noun No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: Anhang- a’iba / Itá pyranga
  Gloss: devil evil / stone red
  Translation: The evil devil / red stone
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: Mokõî abaré
  Gloss: Two priest.PL
  Translation: Two priests
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: Abaré mokõî
  Gloss: priest two
  Translation: Two priests
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: 'Ã kurumĩ
  Gloss: DEM boy
  Translation: This boy
  Comment: 'Ã means 'this' close to the speaker but not in his sight
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: Tukana tĩ
  Gloss: Toucan beak
  Translation: Toucan's beak
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   20_Noun Possessor No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: Oré anama
  Gloss: Pronoun.1.PL.EXCL family
  Translation: Our family
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   A 03_Degree Adjective No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
+ A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: Tupã sy-porang-eté
  Gloss: God mother-beautiful-very
  Comment: (The) very beautiful mother of god
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   C 01_Complementizer Clause No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
+ C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: O sykyîé-sa(ba)-pe, kunumĩ hnah-i
  Gloss: His fear.NMLZ because of boy run.3SG.PST/PRS.IND
  Translation: The boy runs because he fears (because of his fear)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Extra Examples No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
+ Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi There are different kinds of negation in Tupi. Forum
  Words: a-bebé / Nd' a-bebé-i / A-bebé-ne / Nd' a-bebé-i xó-é-ne
  Gloss: (1.SG) fly / NEG (1.SG) fly NEG /(1.SG) fly FUT /NEG (1.SG) fly NEG FUT NEG.FUT
  Translation: I fly/flew / I do/did not fly / I will fly /I will not fly
  Comment: There is a negative prefix which co-occurs with negative suffix. Template for negation in present past : Neg(nd)- 1S-V- Neg(i)). For the future negative, we use Neg(nd)- 1S-V- Neg(i)) and add xó-é-ne. Further, for other verb forms, there are other forms of negation.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi This form of negation is very rare and far less used than the other form. It is only used for the indicative. Forum
  Words: Nd' a-nhe'eng-e'ym
  Gloss: NEG (1.SG) speak NEG
  Translation: I did not speak
  Comment: The negative particle -e'ym is so rare in the indicative, that some descriptions of ancient Tupi do not even mention its use with the indicative.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
+ Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: Itá endé / Nda itá ruã endé
  Gloss: stone you / NEG stone NEG you
  Translation: You are (a) stone / You are not a stone
  Comment: Nda...ruã... is used to negate when the predicate is a noun, pronoun or adverb. To negate a verb (1st and 2nd class indicative) the negation is nda/na...-i
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: nda itá ruã ixé
  Gloss: NEG stone NEG I
  Translation: I am not (a) stone/I am no stone
  Comment: The standard negation is nda...i. In order to negate noun predicates or nominalized predicates on uses nda...ruã.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
+ Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Besides the interrogative particle -pe there is also an interrogative particle serã, which can be used affirmatively meaning 'maybe'. In negative sentences, serã enhances the meaning of the verb, like the adverb 'certainly' in English. Forum
  Words: Ere-nhe’eng-y-pe peró supé?
  Gloss: 2.SG.speak-Q portuguese to
  Translation: Did you speak to the portuguese man?
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q04_Polar question by intonation No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
+ Q05_Polar question by V-fronting Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Not common, but possible. Forum
  Words: O-só-pe abá peró ygar-usu-pe?
  Gloss: 3.SG/PL.go(es)/went Q indian(s) portuguese boat big to
  Translation: Did/do the indian(s) go to the big boat (ship) of the portuguese?
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
+ Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
  Words: Ere-sem-y-pe ygara suií? / Ygara suí-pe ere-sem?
  Gloss: (2.SG)-come.PRS/PST Q boat from? / boat from Q 2.SG
  Translation: Did you leave the boat? / Was it the boat that you left?
  Comment: Come from = leave
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi In ancient Tupi there is a yes used by men (pá) and a yes used by women (e’ẽ) Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi The particle for negating is a’an. Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi There are no articles in Tupi, of any kind. There are no classifiers. Grammatical number is invariable (although it is possible to express the singular-plural distinction) Forum
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w08a Proper names in object position can be bare Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w08c Proper names in object position can have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w09a Order Art-PN in object position No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w09b Order PN-Art in object position No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w11a Order A--PN in object position No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w11b Order PN--A in object position Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w20c Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w22a Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum
   w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Forum