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Turkish

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: tur
  latlong: 38.963745,35.243322  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Ryan Caro Forum
  Words: Kedi uy-uyor.
  Gloss: cat sleep-PROG
  Translation: The cat is sleeping.
  Contributor: Ryan Caro
  Words: Melda var-di Ankara'ya?
  Gloss: Melda arrive-PST Ankara-DAT
  Translation: Melda arrived in Ankara, (right)?
  Comment: Pitch rises on the last syllable to express that it is a polar question.
  Contributor: Deniz Ozyildiz
   02_Verb Subject Yes Murat Kural Forum
   03_Verb Object Yes Murat Kural Forum
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Ryan Caro Forum
  Words: Oda-yı temizle-me-miş-ler.
  Gloss: room-ACC clean-NEG-REP-PL
  Translation: Apparently they did not clean the room/They must not have cleaned the room.
  Comment: The 'reported speech' marker in Turkish is used for actions which the speaker did not witness firsthand.
  Contributor: Ryan Caro
   05_Subject Verb Object Yes Murat Kural Note that all the possible clausal orders in Turkish other than Subject-Object-Verb indicate some variation in topic/focus, old/new information or other discourse relevant variations. The best way to understand the effects of this using ENglish syntax is clefting. The element that appears immediately preverbal corresponds to a clefted phrase. Any element that appears aftrer the verb is backgrounded and/or has the "afterthought " flavor. Forum
+ 06_Subject Object Verb Yes Ryan Caro Forum
  Words: Anne-m yemeğ-i piş-ir-iyor
  Gloss: mother-1SG food-ACC cook-CAUS-PROG
  Translation: My mother is cooking the food.
  Contributor: Ryan Caro
   07_Verb Subject Object Yes Murat Kural Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject Yes Murat Kural Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb Yes Volkan Tümer Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject Yes Murat Kural Forum
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase No Murat Kural Forum
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Murat Kural Forum
+ 13_Adjective Noun Yes Volkan Tümer Forum
  Words: genç kız
  Gloss: young girl
  Translation: young girl
  Contributor: Volkan Tümer
   14_Noun Adjective No Murat Kural Forum
+ 15_Numeral Noun Yes Ryan Caro Forum
  Words: üç portakal
  Gloss: three orange
  Translation: three oranges
  Contributor: Ryan Caro
   16_Noun Numeral No Volkan Tümer Forum
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Volkan Tümer Forum
  Words: şu kapı
  Gloss: that door
  Translation: that door
  Contributor: Volkan Tümer
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Murat Kural Forum
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Ryan Caro Forum
  Words: abla-m-ın kitab-ı
  Gloss: elder.sister-1SG-GEN book-POSS
  Translation: my elder sister's book
  Comment: Turkish marks both the possessor and the possessed.
  Contributor: Ryan Caro
   20_Noun Possessor No Murat Kural Forum
+ 21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Volkan Tümer Forum
  Contributor: Volkan Tümer
+ 22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Volkan Tümer Forum
  Contributor: Volkan Tümer
  Contributor: Volkan Tümer
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement No Murat Kural Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Murat Kural Forum
+ A 03_Degree Adjective Yes Volkan Tümer Forum
  Words: çok büyük
  Gloss: very big
  Translation: very big
  Contributor: Volkan Tümer
+ A 04_Adjective Degree No Volkan Tümer Forum
  Contributor: Volkan Tümer
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Murat Kural Forum
   C 01_Complementizer Clause NA Murat Kural Forum
   C 02_Clause Complementizer NA Murat Kural Or more like "maybe": I argued in "V to (I to ) C in Turkish: in UCLA Occasional Papers vol 11, that one of the morphological elements found attached to a verb, outside of tense but inside of agreement is potentially a complementizer incorporated into the verb. This is by no means a widely accepted opinion, so I am leaving this as "N/A". But I believe argument can be made for a clause-complementizer order in Turkish ... with potentially a nominalizing effect on the subordinate clause. Forum
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause No Murat Kural Forum
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator Yes Murat Kural Forum
   Extra Examples No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) Yes Murat Kural Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) No Murat Kural Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) Yes Murat Kural Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) No Murat Kural Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Murat Kural There are no definite articles, with or without numerals Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Murat Kural Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative No Murat Kural Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Murat Kural no plural marker occurs with numerals with or without definiteness. Plural is only allowed if there is no numeral Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking Yes Murat Kural In the object position, an indefinite object can have its accusative marker missing. This does not happen with indirect objects, locatives, etc. Only with accusative acase and direct objects Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Murat Kural Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Murat Kural Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Murat Kural Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Murat Kural Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix No Murat Kural Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix Yes Murat Kural Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Murat Kural Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Murat Kural Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Murat Kural Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Murat Kural Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Murat Kural Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Murat Kural Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property Yes Murat Kural See note on negation in the predicative context Forum
+ Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity Yes Murat Kural see note on negation in predicative context Forum
  Words: Ahmet hasta değil
  Gloss: Ahmet sick NEG
  Translation: Ahmet is not sick
  Comment: "değil" is the negation marker that is used in negation in the predicative context, i.e., nominal or adjectival predicates, locational predicates, or otherwise any instance where the predicate is not a verb
  Contributor: Murat Kural
  Words: Ahmet öğrenci değil
  Gloss: Ahmet student NEG
  Translation: Ahmet is not a student
  Comment: See note above for negation in predicative context.
  Contributor: Murat Kural
  Words: Ahmet hasta değildi
  Gloss: Ahmet sick NEG-PST
  Translation: Ahmet was not sick
  Comment: This is how predicative negation behaves in past
  Contributor: Murat Kural
  Words: Ahmet öğrenci değildi
  Gloss: Ahmet student NEG-PST
  Translation: Ahmet was not a student
  Comment: Negation in predicative context in past tense
  Contributor: Murat Kural
  Words:  Ahmet hasta olmayacak
  Gloss: Ahmet sick be-NEG-FUT
  Translation: Ahmet will not be sick
  Comment: Predicative negation in future tense -- note that the verb "ol" is closer to "become" than "be" in Turkish. It's minimally ambiguous between the state and achievement, and generallly has the sense of "transition"
  Contributor: Murat Kural
  Words: Ahmet öğrenci olmayacak
  Gloss: Ahmet student be-NEG-FUT
  Translation: Ahmet will not be a student
  Comment: Predicative negation in the future tense. The present tense (which is more like present progressive in that it indicate "right now") also behaves this way, i.e., requires the verb "ol".
  Contributor: Murat Kural
+ Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence Yes Murat Kural There is a specific particle that means "does not exist", i.e., "yok", as opposed to "exists", i.e., "var" Forum
  Words: Elma yok
  Gloss: apple "not-exist"
  Translation: There is no apple
  Comment: "yok" indicates non-existence
  Contributor: Murat Kural
  Words: Elma var
  Gloss: apple "exists"
  Translation: There is (a/some) apple
  Comment: This is the affirmative version, i.e., the existential "there is X"
  Contributor: Murat Kural
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location Yes Murat Kural see note on negation in predicative context Forum
+ Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun Yes Ryan Caro Forum
  Words: şu büyük kapı
  Gloss: that big door
  Translation: that big door
  Contributor: Ryan Caro
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective No Murat Kural Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Murat Kural Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Murat Kural Forum
+ Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Volkan Tümer Forum
  Contributor: Volkan Tümer
+ Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Volkan Tümer Forum
  Contributor: Volkan Tümer
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun Yes Murat Kural Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral No Murat Kural Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Murat Kural Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Murat Kural Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Murat Kural Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Murat Kural Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker No Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
+ Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker Yes Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
  Words: Melda restoran-da mI tavuk yedi ?
  Gloss: Melda restaurant-LOC Q chicken eat-3S
  Translation: Is it at the restaurant that Melda ate chicken?
  Comment: The polar question particle immediately follows the element being questioned.
  Contributor: Deniz Ozyildiz
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus Yes Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb Yes Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Volkan Tümer Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Volkan Tümer Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb Yes Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Volkan Tümer Forum
+ Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
  Words: Q: Kimse geldi mi? A: Geldi
  Gloss: Q: Anyone come-PST-[3SG] Q? A: come-PST-[3SG]
  Translation: Did anyone come? Yes, someone came.
  Contributor: Deniz Ozyildiz
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question Yes Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
+ Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb Yes Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
  Words: Q: Köfte ye-di-n mi? A: Ye-me-di-m
  Gloss: Q: Meatballs eat-PST-2SG Q? A: eat-NEG-PST-1SG
  Translation: Q: Did you eat meatballs? A: No, I didn't
  Contributor: Deniz Ozyildiz
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Not Yet Set Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
   Q20ANegQ_Polarity-based confirmation Yes Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
+ Q21ANegQ_Polarity-reversing particle No Deniz Ozyildiz Forum
  Words: Q: Melda Fransizca bil-me-z miy-di? A: Yoo/Yok, bilir.
  Gloss: Q: Melda French know-NEG-AOR-3S Q? A: Neg/Neg know-AOR-3S
  Translation: Q: Didn't Melda know French? A: Yes, she did.
  Comment: Bare negative particles Yoo or Yok would yield the answer "No, (Melda doesn't know French)". To get a polarity reversing answer, a particle has to be followed by further specification, minimally the verb in the appropriate form.
  Contributor: Deniz Ozyildiz
   Q22ANegQ_Polarity-reversing answer by affirmative and special particle No Volkan Tümer Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Murat Kural Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Murat Kural Forum
+ w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
  Words: Her gün su iç-er-im
  Gloss: every day water drink-AOR-1sg
  Translation: I drink water every day
  Contributor: Sozen Ozkan
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare No Sozen Ozkan Forum
+ w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
  Words: Süt-ü dolab-a koy-du-m
  Gloss: milk-acc fridge-dat put-pst-1sg
  Translation: I put the milk in the fridge
  Contributor: Sozen Ozkan
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w03d_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have a plural reading Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w04a_Def sing count Ns in O position: can be bare No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w04b_Def sing count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w04c_Def sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w06a_Def pl count Ns in O position: can be bare No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w06b_Def pl count Ns in O position: must have an article Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w06c_Def pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w07_a: Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can be bare No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w07_b Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have an article Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w07_c Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position can have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w07_d Nouns with (intrinsically) unique referents in object position must have a 'special article' No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w08a Proper names in object position can be bare No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w08b Proper names in object position must have an article Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w08c Proper names in object position can have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w08d Proper names in object position must have a "special" article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w09a Order Art-PN in object position No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w09b Order PN-Art in object position Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w10a Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can be bare No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w10b Proper names modified by an adjective in object position must have an article in object position Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w10c Proper names modified by an adjective in object position can have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w11a Order A--PN in object position Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w11b Order PN--A in object position No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w12a Order Definite Article – Noun with mass nouns in object position No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w12b Order Noun–Definite Article with mass nouns in object position Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w12c Order Definite Article–Noun with singular count nouns in object position No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w12d Order Noun-Definite Article with singular count nouns in object position Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w12e Order Definite Article–Noun with plural nouns in object position No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w12f Order Noun–Definite Article with plural nouns in object position Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w20c Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w22a Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Sozen Ozkan Forum
   w22e Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker No Sozen Ozkan Forum