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Vata

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: dic
  latlong: 6.13, -5.310473  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
   01_Subject Verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   02_Verb Subject No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: n le bI sakaa
  Gloss: I eat.IPFV now rice.D
  Translation: I am eating the rice now
  Comment: V-O is not a surface constituent
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 04_Object Verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Aya ka yOO saka nyE
  Gloss: Aya will child-D rice give
  Translation: Aya will give the child some rice
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: n le bI saka
  Gloss: n eat.IPFV now rice
  Translation: I am eating rice now
  Comment: In tensed clauses; VO alternates with I X V; in nonfinite clauses strictly OV; *in all examples: Vs with capital letters=ATR; tones omitted (4 tones)*
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   06_Subject Object Verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Hilda Koopman Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Hilda Koopman Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Hilda Koopman Forum
   11_Adposition Noun_Phrase No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: a budole samana mlI
  Gloss: we wash.APPL soap P
  Translation: We wash ourselves with soap
  Comment: mlI also has clitic form (H tone); mlI (related to 'inside') is a bleached P; instrumental requires applied verb form (V-lE); applied form cooccurs with PP
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   13_Adjective Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   14_Noun Adjective Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   15_Numeral Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   16_Noun Numeral Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: mEnI kO
  Gloss: this.NI man
  Translation: This man
  Comment: Dem prenominally are followed by NI; nI also follows possessors (DP ni N); postnominal demonstratives [NP mE]
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: kO mE
  Gloss: man this
  Translation: this man
  Comment: mE: short form after N; prenominally augmented with nI (also occurring on prenominal possessors)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ 19_Possessor Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: Kofi nI slee
  Gloss: Kofi nI(H.L) house.D
  Translation: Kofi's house
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   20_Noun Possessor No Hilda Koopman Forum
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: kO kadO//kua kadua//cIcE kadE
  Gloss: man.SG big-SG// man.PL big.PL//eagle.SG big.SG
  Translation: a big man// big men// a large eagle
  Comment: sg "class" markers: O, E, A, U, I; pl. ua, I (All examples need to be recoded in html with tonal marks and standard IPA vowels)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement NA Hilda Koopman Forum
   A 03_Degree Adjective NA Hilda Koopman Forum
   A 04_Adjective Degree NA Hilda Koopman Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection No Hilda Koopman The language has a verb of possession like have (ka); the language has a perfect auxiliary (la). There is also a future auxiliary Ka. Forum
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: ngOnU n wa na n ka ngOnU a
  Gloss: sleep you want NA you FUT sleep Q
  Translation: Do you want to SLEEP?
  Comment: na (related to the paradigm for the light verb 'say'), followed by full tensed clause (direct or indirect discourse); extraposed S I X(O) V [na CP]; only in selected contexts (say, think, want,..) excluded from relatives
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ C 02_Clause Complementizer No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: n n'ɪ-ka y'ɔɔ saka flʊ ka lowo
  Gloss: 1S FUTAUX-FUT [ child.D rice buy C ] send
  Translation:  I will send the child buy rice
  Comment: Given the definition of C (introducing a verb of sayng, thinking believing),this property is NO. Vata has a final C s however in other contexts. A C (ka) occurs as an infinitival C with complements of movement verbs (go, etc). This constituent can be fronted to left peripheral position.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Comment: "adverbial subordinators" often are translated as special auxiliaries in I (+T), with I (+T)followed by D (bO) in S I (D) X V order; D (bO) shows up in relatives in the same position.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
+ C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: O yi-bO gbu
  Gloss: 3sg come-D cause
  Translation: because she came
  Comment: [S I-bO(=D) X V] cause; *no inf about tense on V at this point* D final (bO) shows up in relative clause type contexts after the I+T complex
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Extra Examples Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Hilda Koopman Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: n nÍ saká li
  Gloss: 1s NEG rice eat-PERF
  Translation: I did not eat rice
  Comment: negative perfective is an auxiliary in T, with a mid high tone (raises to high after mid high in certain environments). Perfective aspect is marked on the main verb (root and a tonal pattern), which follows objects, adverbs, particles, but precedes tensed complement clauses (introduced by a light verb "say" na). see Koopman, 1984 for discussion )
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone Yes Hilda Koopman the form of negaton varies with mood and aspect. In imperfective forms, negation is a high tone sandwiched between the subject and the verb in T. Perhaps there is a negative mora. (S NEG T (Adv) O ...). Since the verb is no lonfer in the imperfective, perhaps this value should be set to NO.. Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: `n le saká-a
  Gloss: 2S eat.IMP rice-Q
  Translation: Do you eat rice?
  Comment: Question particle is a mid high tone. (tones to be added)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: n ka-la-bO saka li-e
  Gloss: you FUT-REP-bO rice prepare-Q
  Translation: Are you going to pepare rice again
  Comment: The clause final question particle can optionally be accompanied by a second particle bO ( homophonous to the D). bO follows the subject and INFL (the inflectional complex). Weak pronouns follow it in Vata, but in Gbadi, weak pronouns precede such particles. bo occurs in all relative clause. This suggests the following literal translation: is it a fait/true that you will go prepare rice again? This needs to be developed/ supported. (see Koopman 1984)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Q04_Polar question by intonation No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Hilda Koopman Forum
+ Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Hilda Koopman Forum
  Words: aba mO O blI a
  Gloss: Aba PRON 3SRES sing Q
  Translation: Was it Aba who sang?
  Comment: The subject is topicalized, followed by a strong pronoun and a weak subject resumptive pronoun which carries a low tone (it can be fully segmental O, or reduced to the low tone).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Hilda Koopman Forum
   Q19ANegQ_Truth-based confirmation Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Hilda Koopman Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w01a_Indef mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w01b_Indef mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w01c_Indef mass Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02a_Def mass Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02b_Def mass Ns in O position: must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w02c_Def mass Ns in O position: can have an article Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03a_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03b_Indef sing count Ns in O position: must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w03c_Indef sing count Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w05a_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can be bare Yes Hilda Koopman Forum
   w05b_Indef pl count Ns in O position: must have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum
   w05c_Indef pl count Ns in O position: can have an article No Hilda Koopman Forum