Login

Xhosa

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: xho
  latlong: -33.3042200,26.5327600  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
  Words: U-Thole u-fik-ile.
  Gloss: 1a.Thole SM1-arrive-dis.prf
  Translation: Thole arrived/has arrived.
  Comment: Dis refer to the disjoint form.
  Contributor: Xiujie Ma
+ 02_Verb Subject No Xiujie Ma Forum
  Words: Ku-fik-e u-Thole
  Gloss: EXPL-arrive-Prf 1a.Thole
  Translation: THOLE arrived/has arrived
  Comment: In the subject-verb inversion construction, there is a focus falling on the postverbal subject.
  Contributor: Xiujie Ma
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
  Words: U-Thole u-theng-e in-cwadi.
  Gloss: 1a-Thole SM1-buy-Prf 9-book
  Translation: Thole bought a book.
  Contributor: Xiujie Ma
   04_Object Verb No Xiujie Ma Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
  Words: U-Thole u-thand-a u-Mary.
  Gloss: 1a-Thole SM1-love-FV 1a-Mary
  Translation: Thole loves Mary
  Contributor: Xiujie Ma
   06_Subject Object Verb No Xiujie Ma Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Xiujie Ma Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Xiujie Ma Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Xiujie Ma Forum
+ 10_Object Verb Subject No Xiujie Ma Forum
  Words: I-moto i-hamb-a u-Thole.
  Gloss: 9-car SM9-walk-FV 1a-Thole
  Translation: Lit: 'The car is walking Thole.'-‘The car is being used by THOLE.’
  Comment: There is a focus falling on the logical subject THOLE (not John).
  Contributor: Xiujie Ma
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
  Words: In-kawu i-se-m-thi-ni.
  Gloss: 9-monkey SM9-Loc-3-tree-Loc
  Translation: The monkey is in the tree.
  Contributor: Xiujie Ma
   12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   13_Adjective Noun No Xiujie Ma Forum
   14_Noun Adjective Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   15_Numeral Noun No Xiujie Ma Forum
   16_Noun Numeral Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   18_Noun Demonstrative No Xiujie Ma Forum
   19_Possessor Noun No Xiujie Ma Forum
   20_Noun Possessor Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Xiujie Ma Forum
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   A 03_Degree Adjective No Xiujie Ma Forum
   A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Xiujie Ma Forum
   C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Xiujie Ma Forum
   C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Xiujie Ma Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Xiujie Ma Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Xiujie Ma Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Xiujie Ma Forum
   N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   N2 07_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) lacks a definite article or demonstrative Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Xiujie Ma Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Xiujie Ma Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Xiujie Ma Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Neg 08_Standard Negation is Tone plus Other Modification No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Neg 10_Standard Negation is Infix No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Order N3 04_Noun Demonstrative Adjective No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   Order N3 09_ Noun Numeral Demonstrative No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Order N3 10_Noun Demonstrative Numeral No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q03_Clause internal polar Q-marker No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q09_Affirmative answer by verb No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Xiujie Ma Forum
   Q18NEGA_Negative answer by sentential negation plus bare verb No Xiujie Ma Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Xiujie Ma Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Xiujie Ma Forum
   w20a Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   w20b Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Xiujie Ma Forum
   w20c Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Xiujie Ma Forum
   W20d Singular count nouns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Xiujie Ma Forum
   w20e Singular count nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   w21a Proper names in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   w21b Proper names in vocative phrases must have an article No Xiujie Ma Forum
   w21c Proper names in vocative phrases can have an article No Xiujie Ma Forum
   w21d Proper names in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Xiujie Ma Forum
   w21e Proper names in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   w22a Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can be bare Yes Xiujie Ma Forum
   w22b Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases must have an article No Xiujie Ma Forum
   w22c Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have an article No Xiujie Ma Forum
   w22d Plural (count) nuns in vocative phrases must have a special vocative marker No Xiujie Ma Forum
   w22e Plural (count) nouns in vocative phrases can have a special vocative marker Yes Xiujie Ma Forum