Login

Zulu

General Info
  ISO 639-3 Code: zul
  latlong: -29.983486718474694,30.5859375  Map it!
Properties Values Contributor Comments  
+ 01_Subject Verb Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: U-Sipho u-hamb-ile.
  Gloss: 1a-Sipho 1a-leave-PRF
  Translation: 'Sipho has left.'
  Contributor: Esther Park
   02_Verb Subject Yes Claire Halpert Forum
+ 03_Verb Object Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: U-Sipho u-fund-e isi-fundo.
  Gloss: 1a-Sipho 1a-study-PRF 7-lesson
  Translation: 'Sipho has studied a lesson.'
  Contributor: Esther Park
   04_Object Verb No Claire Halpert Forum
+ 05_Subject Verb Object Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: U-Sipho u-fund-a isi-Zulu.
  Gloss: 1a-Sipho 1a-study-PRES 7-Zulu
  Translation: 'Sipho is studying Zulu.'
  Contributor: Esther Park
   06_Subject Object Verb No Claire Halpert Forum
   07_Verb Subject Object No Claire Halpert Forum
   08_Verb Object Subject No Claire Halpert Forum
   09_Object Subject Verb No Claire Halpert Forum
   10_Object Verb Subject No Claire Halpert Forum
+ 11_Adposition Noun_Phrase Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: Ngi-hamb-a nge-bhasi.
  Gloss: 1SG-travel-PRES by.5-bus
  Translation: 'I travel by bus.'
  Contributor: Esther Park
  Words: U-gogo u-hamb-a no-Sipho.
  Gloss: 1a-grandmother 1a-walk-PRES with.1a-Sipho
  Translation: 'Grandmother is walking with Sipho.'
  Comment: "no" is a result of combining "na" (with) with "u" (prefix of noun class 1a).
  Contributor: Esther Park
+ 12_Noun_Phrase Adposition Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: Uku-dla ku-s-en-sim-ini.
  Gloss: 15-food 15-LOC-9-field-in
  Translation: 'The food is in the field.'
  Contributor: Esther Park
   13_Adjective Noun No Claire Halpert Forum
+ 14_Noun Adjective Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: Umu-ntu om-khulu u-fik-ile.
  Gloss: 1-person 1-big 1-arrive-PRF
  Translation: 'The big person has arrived.'
  Contributor: Esther Park
   15_Numeral Noun No Claire Halpert Forum
+ 16_Noun Numeral Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: B-a-gawula umu-thi mu-nye.
  Gloss: 2-PST-cut.down 2-tree 2-one
  Translation: 'They cut down one tree.'
  Contributor: Esther Park
+ 17_Demonstrative Noun Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: Lo m-fana mu-de.
  Gloss: this.DEM.AGR 1-boy 1-tall
  Translation: 'This boy is tall.'
  Contributor: Esther Park
+ 18_Noun Demonstrative Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: I-:hashi lelo li-ya-gijim-a.
  Gloss: 5-horse that.DEM.AGR 5-PRES-run-PRES
  Translation: 'That horse is running.'
  Contributor: Esther Park
   19_Possessor Noun No Claire Halpert Forum
+ 20_Noun Possessor Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: I-:geja lentombazana l-aphuk-ile.
  Gloss: 5-hoe 5.POSS.9.young.girl 5-break-STAT
  Translation: 'The young girl's hoe is broken.'
  Comment: The process of vowel coalescence between "la-" and "intombazana" results in "lentombazana" where "la-" is the possessive concord and "in-" of "intombazana" is the noun class 9 prefix. The stem of "intombazana" is "-ntombazana" so a morpheme division was not made. (STAT=stative tense)
  Contributor: Esther Park
  Words: ikhaya l-akho
  Gloss: 5house 5-2sg
  Translation: `your house'
  Contributor: Claire Halpert
   21_Pronominal Possessor Noun No Claire Halpert Forum
   22_Noun Pronominal Possessor Yes Claire Halpert Forum
+ A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: Um-khonto wasibhoboz-a isi-hlangu esi-qatha.
  Gloss: 3-spear pierce-PST 7-shield 7-thick
  Translation: 'The spear pierced the thick shield.'
  Contributor: Esther Park
+ A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: Um-gwaqo u-banzi.
  Gloss: 3-road 3-wide
  Translation: 'The road is wide.'
  Contributor: Esther Park
   A 03_Degree Adjective No Claire Halpert Forum
   A 04_Adjective Degree Yes Claire Halpert Forum
+ AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection NA Esther Park Forum
  Comment: Although Zulu has the main verb "have", it does not use auxiliary verbs in the formation of the perfect (past).
  Contributor: Esther Park
+ C 01_Complementizer Clause Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: Ngi-cabang-a ukuthi u-siz-e is-alukazi.
  Gloss: 1SG-think-PRES that 2SG-help-SUBJ 7-old.woman
  Translation: 'I think that you should help the old lady.'
  Contributor: Esther Park
   C 02_Clause Complementizer No Claire Halpert Forum
+ C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: Uku-fa kwezin-komo ku-se-khona noma se-ku-damb-ile kancane.
  Gloss: 15-death 15.POSS.10-cattle 15-still-here although already-15-abate-PRF little
  Translation: 'The cattle disease is still here although it has now abated a little.'
  Comment: "kwezin" is a result of combining "kwa" (possessive) with "izin" (prefix of noun class 10).
  Contributor: Esther Park
   C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator No Claire Halpert Forum
   N2 01_Numeral Noun (indefinite) No Claire Halpert Forum
   N2 02_Noun Numeral (indefinite) Yes Claire Halpert Forum
   N2 03_Numeral Noun (definite) No Claire Halpert Forum
   N2 04_Noun Numeral (definite) Yes Claire Halpert Forum
   N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article No Claire Halpert Forum
   N2 08_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains a Plural marker, but Indefinite NP does not No Claire Halpert Forum
   N2 09_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) contains any other marking No Claire Halpert Forum
   N2 10_The Numeral has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Claire Halpert Forum
   N2 11_The Noun has a different form in Definite and Indefinite (Num N, N Num) contexts No Claire Halpert Forum
   Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb No Claire Halpert Forum
   Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb No Claire Halpert Forum
   Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb No Claire Halpert Forum
   Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb No Claire Halpert Forum
   Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone No Claire Halpert Forum
   Neg 09_Standard Negation is Reduplication No Claire Halpert Forum
   Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property No Claire Halpert Forum
   Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity No Claire Halpert Forum
   Neg 13_Distinct Negation of Existence No Claire Halpert Forum
   Order N3 01_ Demonstrative Adjective Noun No Claire Halpert Forum
+ Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective Yes Esther Park Forum
  Words: le n-to en-kulu
  Gloss: this.DEM.AGR 9-thing 9-big
  Translation: 'this big thing'
  Contributor: Esther Park
   Order N3 03_ Noun Adjective Demonstrative Yes Claire Halpert Forum
   Order N3 05_Adjective Demonstrative Noun No Claire Halpert Forum
   Order N3 06_Adjective Noun Demonstrative No Claire Halpert Forum
   Order N3 07_Demonstrative Numeral Noun No Claire Halpert Forum
   Order N3 08_Demonstrative Noun Numeral Yes Claire Halpert Forum
   Order N3 11_Numeral Demonstrative Noun No Claire Halpert Forum
   Order N3 12_Numeral Noun Demonstrative No Claire Halpert Forum
   Q01_Initial polar Q-marker No Claire Halpert Forum
   Q02_Final polar Q-marker Yes Claire Halpert Forum
   Q04_Polar question by intonation Yes Claire Halpert Forum
   Q05_Polar question by V-fronting No Claire Halpert Forum
   Q06_Polar question by Auxiliary-fronting No Claire Halpert Forum
   Q08_Affirmative answer by particle Yes Claire Halpert Forum
   Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary No Claire Halpert Forum
   Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb No Claire Halpert Forum
   Q12_Affirmative answer by particle and verb No Claire Halpert Forum
   Q13_Affirmative answer by predicative 'be' No Claire Halpert Forum
   Q14_Verb answer to indefinite subject question No Claire Halpert Forum
   Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle Yes Claire Halpert Forum
   Q17NEGA_Negative answer by bare sentential negation No Claire Halpert Forum
   V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second No Claire Halpert Forum
   V2 02_Interrogative Verb-Second No Claire Halpert Forum