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AuxSel 01_Auxiliary Selection

Definition
The property Auxiliary Selection has the value "yes" when the language has an active perfect aspect (or past tense) that makes use of a past participle and an auxiliary verb where the auxiliary verb alternates between "have" or "be" depending on various factors. Some factors known to influence auxiliary selection include verb class (unergative versus unaccusative), transitivity, and person features of the subject.

NA (Not Applicable): This property is defined for a language only if: (a) the language has main verb "have" (e.g., "John has a book", where the possessor is the subject "John" and the possessed is the object "a book"), (b) the language uses auxiliary verbs in the formation of the perfect (past). Otherwise, the language is NA for this property.

Examples:

1.
Italian is "yes" for Auxiliary Selection, since the intransitive verb "telephone" takes a different auxiliary verb from the intransitive verb "arrive" in the past.

Gianni ha/*è telefonato
G. has/*is telephoned
"Gianni called."

Gianni è/*ha arrivato
G. is/*has arrived
"Gianni arrived."

2.
English is "no" for auxiliary selection since English expresses the perfect with the verb "have", but it never expresses the perfect with the verb "be":

John has left.
*John is left.
(* means ungrammatical)

Comment: For many speakers, the verb 'go' can occur with both 'be' or 'have' in the perfect, (Mary is/has gone to the movies). Since only the verb 'go' behaves in this way, and is not productive, this does not suffice for a 'yes' value.
Contributed by: Chris Collins
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Acehnese NA Julie Legate
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer Afrikaans perfect tenses are all formed with invariant "het" ("have"). The only relic of Dutch auxiliary selection can be found in structures like "Hy is dorp toe" - he is town to, i.e. "He has gone to town".
   Agni indénié No Hilda Koopman
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: Patatet ishin zier.
  Gloss: potatoes.the were cooked
  Translation: Potatoes were/had been boiled.
  Comment: both verbal and adjectival passive
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
  Words:  Beni kishte zier patatet.
  Gloss:  Ben.the had boiled potatoes.the
  Translation: Peter had boiled the potatoes.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner No "be"; "have" not used as auxiliary or tense/aspect marker.
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Aymara NA Matt Coler
   Babanki NA Pius Akumbu
   Bafut NA Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
   Bardi NA Claire Bowern
   Basaa NA Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
+ Bellinzonese Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Al Gianni l=è/*à telefunò
  Gloss: the Gianni he=be.AUX.PRS.3/have.AUX.PRS.3 call.PTCP
  Translation: Gianni called.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng NA Denis Paperno
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese Yes ---
+ Breton Yes Steve Hewitt
  Words: gweled a meus
  Gloss: seen AFF I.have
  Translation: I have seen ~ I saw
  Comment: AFF = affirmative tense particle
  Contributor: Steve Hewitt
  Words: aed on
  Gloss: gone I.am
  Translation: I have gone ~ I went
  Contributor: Steve Hewitt
  Words: gweled a meus
  Gloss: seen AFF I.have
  Translation: I have seen ~ I saw
  Comment: AFF = affirmative tense particle
  Contributor: Steve Hewitt
  Words: aed on
  Gloss: gone I.am
  Translation: I have gone ~ I went
  Comment: Unaccusative with "be" - as in French, plus a few extra, such as padoud "last", koustoud "cost", and all change-of-state deadjectivals
  Contributor: Steve Hewitt
   Bulgarian No Iliana Krapova
+ Burgenland-Romani NA Michelle McComb This property is set to NA as Burgenland-Romani has no verb 'have'. Instead, it uses the verb 'to be' + accusative on the possessor and nominative on the possession.
  Words: Man jek kher hi
  Gloss: 1SG.ACC one house.NOM be.3SG.PRS
  Translation: 'I have a house.'
  Contributor: Michelle McComb
   Burmese NA Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) NA Zixian Qiu
+ Catalan No Txuss Martin
  Words: En Joan ha vingut / ha menjat pome-s
  Gloss: the.SG.M John have.3SG come.PTCP / have.3SG eat.PTCP apple-PL
  Translation: John has come / has eaten apples
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: *La=veuré la teva mare
  Gloss: ACC.3SG.F=see.FUT.1SG the.SG.F POSS.2SG.F mother
  Translation: I will see your mother
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
   Chalcatongo Mixtec NA Jess Combs
   Chichewa NA Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw NA Pam Munro
   Chol NA Jessica Coon
   Cypriot Greek NA Marios Andreou
   Czech No Peter Kosta
   Dagaare NA Adams Bodomo
   Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo NA Hilda Koopman
   Dida Lakota (diéko) NA Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Digo NA Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic NA David Erschler
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Marie heeft zo hard gelachen dat Jan vertrokken is
  Gloss: Mary has so loud laugh.PCPT that John left is
  Translation: Mary laughed so loudly that John has left.
  Comment: 'laugh' takes 'have' as perfect auxiliary; leave takes 'be.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: O João tem comido batatas.
  Gloss: the.masc.sing João have.3sg.pres eat.past-part potatoes.pl
  Translation: João has been eating potatoes
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari NA Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese Yes Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Fijian NA Zhenyu Sun
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Jean est arrive.
  Gloss: Jean be.3sg.pres arrive.past.participle
  Translation: Jean arrived./John has arrived.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: Jean a mange.
  Gloss: Jean have.3sg.pres eat.past.participle
  Translation: John ate./John has eaten.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician NA Naír García
   Garifuna NA Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German Yes Martin Haspelmath
   Ghɔmáĺá' NA Francine Moguo
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Chris Collins
  Words: O Petros ehi fai patates.
  Gloss: the Peter has eaten potatoes
  Translation: Peter has eaten potatoes.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
  Words: O Jiann-is eh-i fig-i
  Gloss: the-masc.sing John-masc.sing has-3sg left-part
  Translation: John has left.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
   Greek (Cappadocian) NA Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) NA Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) No Stephen Mayeaux
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene NA Samuel Atintono
   Haitian NA Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hanga No Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa No Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew NA Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) NA Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Gurprit Bains
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
   Hungarian NA Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
+ Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
  Words: Jón hefur komið til Parísar / Jón er kominn til Parísar
  Gloss: Jon.NOM has.3SG come.N.SG.ACC to Paris.GEN / Jon.NOM is.3SG come.M.SG.NOM to Paris.GEN
  Translation: John has been to Paris / John has arrived in Paris
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   Ilokano No Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian NA Mark Donohue
+ Irish NA Bridget Nixdorf
  Comment: Irish has no verb "have"
  Contributor: Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic NA David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun No Iris Wu
   Italian Yes Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Tonjes Veenstra
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara NA Alan Vogel
   Jingulu NA Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Karachay No Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya NA John Gluckman
   KiLega NA Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kiswahili NA Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka NA Lukowa Kidima
   Kom NA Richard Kwamong
   Konni No Michael Cahill
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Kuot NA Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) NA Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal NA Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lani NA Mark Donohue
   Lao NA Alif Silpachai Lao does not use "have" nor "be" as an auxiliary
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) NA Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic NA Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian No Felix Thies
   Lubukusu NA Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) NA Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy NA Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
+ Mandarin No Arthur Wang
  Comment: Mandarin dose not use auxiliary verbs to form perfect (past) tense.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Maori NA Ray Harlow
   Marshallese NA Heather Willson Sturman
   Masarak NA Jessica Chen
   Medumba NA KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: du hebste langhe genoech ghedwaelt/alle menschen die ghedwaelt sijn van minen lieven sone
  Gloss: thou hast long enough erred / all people that erred are from my dear son
  Translation: you have erred long enough / all people that went astray from my dear Son
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   Miya NA Michael A. Estrada Miya does not use 'have' or 'be' as auxiliaries
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang NA Bebey Théodore
   N|u No Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
+ Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
  Words: o=peuh-qui tlaço-ti tlacual-tzin-tli
  Gloss: PAST=begin-PAST increase-CAUS food-DIM-ABS
  Translation: food began to get more expensive
  Comment: An auxiliary 'opeuhqui' can be used here to form the past tense. Nonetheless this form is /have/ nor /be/ nor do they alternate. I assume this implies this property should be set to 'no.' Example provided by: Townsend, Camilla. Here in This Year: Seventeenth-century Nahuatl Annals of the Tlaxcala-Puebla Valley. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 2010. Print.
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Naki NA Jeff Good
   nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam
   Ndut NA Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce NA Amy Rose Deal
   Nkore-Kiga NA Hilda Koopman
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien There is dialectal variation in Norwegian with respect to this property. In most spoken varieties, participles of unaccusative verbs can combine with BE or HAVE in the perfect. See Christensen, Kirsti Koch & Tarald Taraldsen (1989): "Expletive chain formation and past participle agreement in Scandinavian dialects." In Paola Benincá (ed.) Dialect Variation and the Theory of Grammar, pp. 53-84. Foris, Dordrecht. However, some dialects in the southeast of Norway only use the auxiliary HAVE in active eventive perfect constructions.
   Nupe NA Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh NA Hilda Koopman
+ Occitan Yes Patrick Sauzet
  Words: Joan es tombat.
  Gloss: joan 'be'-AUX-3 fallen
  Translation: John has fallen
  Contributor: Patrick Sauzet
  Words: Joan a tombat lo veire.
  Gloss: John "have"-AUX-3 fallen DEF-ART glass
  Translation: John caused the glass to fall.
  Comment: tombar "to fall" selects the auxiliary "be" when intransitive and the auxiliary "have" when it receives a causative interpretation (and licences two arguments).
  Contributor: Patrick Sauzet
   Okinawan NA Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English Yes Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden See Arnett, Carlee (1997). Perfect auxiliary selection in the Old Saxon Heliand. American Journal of Germanic Linguistics and Literatures 9, 23-72.
  Words: endi thiu fîƀi uuârun agangan
  Gloss: and the five were gone
  Translation: and the five had gone
  Comment: (Heliand 47)
  Contributor: George Walkden
  Words: he is lîƀes haƀad mid is uuordun faruuerkod
  Gloss: he his body.GEN has with his words forfeited
  Translation: by his words he has forfeited his body
  Comment: (Heliand 4823-4824)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga NA Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Oluwanga (Eji) NA Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: I-ngubo i-khongo muno / I-ngubo i-khongo munomuno/
  Gloss: 9-dress 9-big too/9-dress 9-big extremely
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   One NA Mark Donohue
   Palue NA Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Pashto NA Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al NA Kathleen O'Flynn
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: Maria a plecat
  Gloss: Mary have.AUX.3 left
  Translation: Mary left.
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
  Words: Cȃnd tu vei sosi, Maria va fi plecat deja
  Gloss: when you will.SG.2 arrive, Mary will.SG.3 be.AUX left already
  Translation: When you arrive, Mary will have already left.
  Comment: The auxiliary verb "a fi" is used for past conditional, future in the past and past subjunctive (irrealis). The auxiliary verb "a avea" ("to have") is employed for regular past tense in the indicative, irrespective of the type of the lexical verb.
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
   Russian NA Jillian Kozyra
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan NA Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe NA Helen Eaton
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Senaya No Laura McPherson
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ki ankòra nunn'a mmancjàtu Gjovànni?
  Gloss: what yet not has eaten John
  Translation: John has not eaten yet?
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ki ankòra nunn’a niscjùtu Ggjovànni?
  Gloss: what yet not has exited John
  Translation: John has not exited yet?
  Comment: Ggjovànni è niscjùtu (lit. John is exited) can only mean that John is not at home
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou NA Mark Donohue
   Slovenian No Franc Marušič
+ Spanish No Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Juan no ha llegado
  Gloss: J. NEG have.AUX.PRS.3SG arrive.PTCP
  Translation: John has not arrived
  Comment: All perfect past constructions use the auxiliary 'haber' (have).
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Juan no ha comido
  Gloss: J. NEG have.AUX.PRS.3SG eat.PTCP
  Translation: Juan has not eaten
  Comment: All perfect past constructions use the auxiliary 'haber' (have).
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Swedish No fredrik heinat
  Words: Flickan har ätit en glass.
  Gloss: girl.DEF has eaten an ice-cream
  Translation: The girl has eaten an ice-cream.
  Comment: 'Be' is not possible to use with perfect aspect:: *Flickan är ('is') ätit en glass.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: Paulə a telefunatə a la kasə
  Gloss: Paul has called to the home
  Translation: Paul called home
  Comment: Teramano shows 'person driven' auxiliary selection in compound tenses (see D'Alessandro and Roberts, 2010 for further details).
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: Paulə a jitə a la kasə
  Gloss: Paul has gone to the home
  Translation: Paul went home
  Comment: Teramano shows 'person driven' auxiliary selection in compound tenses (see D'Alessandro and Roberts, 2010 for further details).
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: noji avamə telefunatə a la kasə
  Gloss: we have called to the home
  Translation: we called home
  Comment: Teramano shows 'person driven' auxiliary selection in compound tenses (see D'Alessandro and Roberts, 2010 for further details).
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: noji samə jitə a la kase
  Gloss: we are gone to the house
  Translation: we went home
  Comment: Teramano shows 'person driven' auxiliary selection in compound tenses (see D'Alessandro and Roberts, 2010 for further details).
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Tigre NA Zhenyu Sun
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tlingit No James Crippen
   Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
   Tongan NA Hilda Koopman no verb have
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi NA Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) NA Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural
   Tuvan NA Brian Hsu
   Twi No Chris Collins
   Ukrainian NA Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata No Hilda Koopman The language has a verb of possession like have (ka); the language has a perfect auxiliary (la). There is also a future auxiliary Ka.
   Welsh NA David Willis
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
  Words: ik een/*zyn gewerkt
  Gloss: I have-1sg/be-1sg work-part
  Translation: 'I have worked'
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
  Words: ik zyn/een vertrokken
  Gloss: I be-1sg/have-1sg leave-part
  Translation: 'I have left'
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
  Words: ik een/zyn dien-en boek gekocht
  Gloss: I have-1sg/be-1sg that-masc book buy-part
  Translation: 'I've bought that book'
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese NA Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa NA Xiujie Ma
   Yémba NA Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu NA Claire Bowern
   Yawa NA Mark Donohue
+ Yiddish Yes Shannon Mooney
  Words: Ix hob geshribn
  Gloss: 1SG.NOM have written
  Translation: I wrote
  Contributor: Shannon Mooney
  Words: Ix bin geblibn
  Gloss: 1SG.NOM am remained
  Translation: "I stayed."
  Contributor: Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zamboageño Chabacano NA Grace Gaspardo
+ Zulu NA Esther Park
  Comment: Although Zulu has the main verb "have", it does not use auxiliary verbs in the formation of the perfect (past).
  Contributor: Esther Park