03_Verb Object

The property Verb Object has the value "yes" when a verb can precede its object in a neutral context. The clause in this property is an active (non-passive) declarative (non-interrogative) clause. The object in this property is a noun phrase (we exclude pronouns). As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

Definition of Object

General Note on Word Order Properties: A "yes" value for Verb Object does not exclude a "yes" value for Object Verb. In other words, a language could allow both orders in a neutral context.

NA (Not Applicable): Since all languages have verbs and objects, no language will have the value NA for this property.


English is "yes" for the property Verb Object.

I saw the house.

German is "yes" for Verb Object because of sentences such as the following:

Hans sah die Tasse.
Hans saw the mug
"Hans saw the mug."

3. Similarly, German is "yes" for Object Verb because of sentences like these where the main verb follows the object:

Hans hat die Tasse gesehen.
Hans has the mug seen
"Hans has seen the mug"

In other words, German is "yes" for both Verb Object, and Object Verb.

Note: in determining whether a language allows the order Verb Object or Object Verb, it is necessary to look at the order of the main verb and its object, not the order of the auxiliary verb and the object of the clause.

Japanese is "no" for the property Verb Object because this order is always ungrammatical, as illustrated in the following example:

*dareka-ga otosi-ta koppu-o
someone-Nom drop-Past cup-Acc
"Someone dropped a cup."
(* stands for ungrammatical)
Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Titi ʼa ʼám ǁkà“e
  Gloss: Titi PROG eat meat
  Translation: ‘Titi is eating meat’ (Collins and Gruber: 17).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ Acehnese Yes Julie Legate
  Words: Uleue nyan di-kap aneuk miet nyan
  Gloss: snake that 3(familiar)-bite child small that
  Translation: The snake bit the child
  Contributor: Julie Legate
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: Doen jou oefeninge!
  Gloss: do your exercises
  Translation: Do your exercises!
  Comment: Imperatives exhibit VO order wherever an object is present. In colloquial Afrikaans, this pattern has even been extended to particle verb-containing imperatives (see next example).
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
  Words: Maak toe die deur!
  Gloss: make closed the door
  Translation: Close the door!
  Comment: The prescriptively sanctioned version of this imperative is: "Maak die deur toe", but the VO order is very commonly heard in colloquial Afrikaans.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
   Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: Kofi bɔ -ɔ ballo.
  Gloss: Kofi play -PST ball
  Translation: Kofi played ball
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: Eva bleu akullore.
  Gloss: Eva bought ice-cream
  Translation: Eva bought (an) ice-cream.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner (JOHN/IX) LIKE MARY
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: yɨ-näd-u-all saykɨl ɨndä-hayle
  Gloss: 3pls-ride.IPFV-3pls bicycle like-Haile
  Translation: One should ride a bicycle like Haile.
  Comment: VO order is unproductive in current Amharic and found only with impersonal constructions of the above example type where the subject is always null and identified by a third person plural agreement. -u in the above example will be deleted by labializing the preceding consonant. [example entered for GS, because of a bug in the dataentry process: to be transferred to Girma Demeke in the future)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words:  yɨ-rot'-u-all ɨndä-hayle
  Gloss: 3pls-run.IPFV-3pls-Aux like-H.
  Translation: 'one should run like Haile'
  Comment:  VO order is unproductive in current Amharic and found only with impersonal constructions of the above example type (with a PP postverbal). If there is an object, the object will follow the V and precede the PP).The subject is always null and identified by a third person plural agreement. -u in the above example will be deleted by labializing the preceding consonant. (Example entered by HK because of dataentry bug: to be transferred in the future to GD)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: e: hûs esthíei toùs ófeis
  Gloss: ART-NOM.F.SG sow-NOM.SG eat-PRS.3SG ART-ACC.M.PL snake-ACC.PL
  Translation: Sows eats snakes
  Comment: Aristoteles, Historia animalium, Bekker page 609b line 30
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: Ahmed keteb r-resalah
  Gloss: Ahmed write.PST DET-letter
  Translation: Ahmed wrote the letter
  Contributor: Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
  Words: Ani-n kerav salor
  Gloss: Ani-DET eat.3SG.PST plum
  Translation: Ani ate plum
  Contributor: Sona Haroutyunian
   Atayal (Squliq) Yes Sihwei Chen
   Babanki Yes Pius Akumbu
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: mfɔ̀ wá kɨ̀ kó nó
  Gloss: chief the PST catch snake
  Translation: The chief caught a snake
  Comment: Change of tense/aspect or definiteness/indefiniteness does not affect case
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa There isn't any sentence that ends in VERB OBJECT
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
+ baoulé - faafouê de kokumbo Yes kouakou koffi salomon
  Words: fa duo
  Gloss: prendre igname
  Translation: prends de l'igname
  Contributor: kouakou koffi salomon
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: maŋgɛ́ *(a)- bí- sↄ́mb káàt
  Gloss: 1child 1SM- PST2- buy 7book
  Translation: The/a child bought a book
  Comment: SM is obligatory in tensed clauses. The high tone on the object seems to be a property of tensed clauses. In imepratives book will be low toned and only lexically specified high tone can surface.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque No Karlos Arregi
   baule-kôdeh Yes Andréa ALLA
+ Bellinzonese Yes Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: Tödi un libru
  Gloss: buy.PRS.1.SG a book
  Translation: I buy a book.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Priyanka Biswas OK under contrastive focus interpretation.
+ Bole Yes Alhaji Gimba
  Words: n inna dosho
  Gloss: I see (pfv) horse
  Translation: I saw a horse
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
+ Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
  Words: Vi o gato
  Gloss: See.PST.1SG the.M cat
  Translation: I saw the cat
  Contributor: Bruna Moreira
+ Breton Yes Steve Hewitt
  Words: Maite a gano un ton berr.
  Gloss: Maite C sing.FUT det song short
  Translation: Maite will sing a short song
  Contributor: Mélanie Jouitteau
+ Bulgarian Yes Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: S-vərsh-i proekt-a
  Gloss: PFV-do-3.SG.AOR project-DEF.SG.M
  Translation: Finished the project
  Comment: The sentence is much more colloquial if a reflexive-possessive particle 'si' is added 'Svərsh-i si proekt-a' added
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burgenland-Romani Yes Michelle McComb
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: ngo zongji ni bun syu
  Gloss: I like this CLF book
  Translation: I like this book.
  Comment: The demonstrative ni ‘this’ can also be pronounced as li, lei, nei.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
+ Chalcatongo Mixtec Yes Jess Combs
  Words: María ni-teʔnde saʔma
  Gloss: María CP-rip(vi) dress
  Translation: 'María ripped her dress'
  Contributor: Jess Combs
   Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
+ Chol Yes Jessica Coon
  Words: tyi k-mäñ-ä koya'
  Gloss: COMPL 1ERG-buy-TR tomato
  Translation: I bought tomatoes.
  Contributor: Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: O Kostas egorasen aftokiniton.
  Gloss: The Kostas bought car.
  Translation: Kostas bought a car.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Pavel Caha
  Words: Petr krájí maso.
  Gloss: Petr.nom cut.3sg meat.acc
  Translation: Petr is cutting meat.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
+ Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Lars spiste frokost
  Gloss: Lars eat.PRF lunch
  Translation: Lars ate lunch.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby ALS4 workshop 2016
  Words:  lɪ̄ sáká ā
  Gloss: eat.IMP rice DEF
  Translation: Eat the rice
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: ɲɛ̰̄ to̍kù ɲṵ́
  Gloss: give.IMP Tokou water
  Translation: Give Tokou water.
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: lī sáká ā
  Gloss: eat.IMP rice DEF
  Translation: Eat the rice
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: na=hu-som-e-ni Chi-digo
  Gloss: EMPH=1PL-read/study-SBJV-PL CL7-Digo
  Translation: let us read/study the Digo language
  Comment: Canonical order.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic Yes David Erschler
  Words: ra-jsta aguvžiʣag
  Gloss: PRV-take.PST.3SG full.glass
  Translation: (He) took a full glass.
  Comment: Iræf 2006(2)
  Contributor: David Erschler
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Marie bouwt dit jaar twee kamers
  Gloss: Mary build this year two rooms
  Translation: Mary is building two rooms this year
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
  Words: Mariam-a kerav khndzor-a
  Gloss: Mariam.DEF eat.3SG.PST apple.DEF
  Translation: Mariam ate the apple
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Egyptian Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: Eu estimo esta professora.
  Gloss: I esteem.PRES.1SG this.F professor
  Translation: I esteem this professor.
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
+ Ewe Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Kofi kpO Ama
  Gloss: Kofi see.PST Ama
  Translation: Kofi saw Ama
  Contributor: Chris Collins
+ Farefari Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: Ba di sagebɔ
  Gloss: 3PL eat porridge
  Translation: They ate porridge (tz)
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese Yes Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Farsi No Natasha Schimka
+ Fijian Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: lako-v-a na i-sele
  Gloss: fetch-it DEF knife
  Translation: ‘fetch the knife’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: On sattunut onnettomuus.
  Gloss: is happened accident.NOM
  Translation: There has been an accident.
  Comment: Possible chiefly with verbs of occurrence/appearance.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
  Words: Anna juo kahvi-a.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
  Words: Anna juo kahvi-a.
  Gloss: Anna drink.PRS.3SG coffee-PART
  Translation: Anna drinks/is drinking coffee.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Les oiseaux mangent des vers.
  Gloss: DEF-DET-PL bird-PL eat-PRS IND-DET-PL worm-PL
  Translation: "The Birds eat worms."
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   French (Ivorian) Yes Akpoué Josué
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: Yoo lɛ ye brodo
  Gloss: woman the eat bread
  Translation: The woman ate bread
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna Yes Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German Yes Chris Collins
   Ghɔmáĺá' No Francine Moguo
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: (I Eleni) efage ena pagoto.
  Gloss: (the Eleni) ate an ice-cream
  Translation: Eleni ate an ice-cream.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: evrasin ena qazan pandʒara (Dawkins 1916: 404)
  Gloss: boil.PST.3SG one pot.SG.ACC beetroot.PL.ACC
  Translation: he boiled a pot of beetroots
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) No Stephen Mayeaux
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
+ Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: nù sìn, é ná kpóntè
  Gloss: drink water 3sg fut better
  Translation: Drink some water, you will get better
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene Yes Samuel Atintono
   Haitian Yes Michel DeGraff
   Hakka Yes Iris Wu
+ Hanga Yes Geoffrey Hunt
  Words: pa o zu
  Gloss: follow his head
  Translation: follow him
  Contributor: Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa Yes Russell Schuh
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: hu henif degel
  Gloss: he hoist.M.S.PRS flag
  Translation: He hoisted a flag
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: Ra'iti 'et 'ani (Ex 3,7)
  Gloss: PRF 1 (ra'iti) OBJ ('et 'ani)
  Translation: I have seen the affliction
  Comment: 'et is a particle introducing definite object
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Anoop Mahajan
   Hittite No Mattyas Huggard
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Hall-om a zené-t.
  Gloss: hear-1SG.SUBJ.DEF.OBJ.PRS.IND the music-ACC
  Translation: `I hear the music'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
   Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
   Igala Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Igbo Yes Mary Amaechi
  Words: Nye Ngozi
  Gloss: give Ngozi
  Translation: 'Give [it] to Ngozi.'
  Contributor: Mary Amaechi
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   Ilokano Yes Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian Yes Mark Donohue
   Irish Yes Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic Yes David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun Yes Iris Wu
   Italian Yes Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English Yes Tonjes Veenstra
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   Jingulu Yes Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
   Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) No Amrit Amritavalli
   Karachay Yes Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   Kayan Yes Ken Manson
   Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande Yes Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kindendeule Yes Deo Ngonyani
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
+ Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
  Words: mà nyvI múu
  Gloss: I drink water
  Translation: I drank water
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Konni Yes Michael Cahill
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Koyo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: biig la sa di diib la
  Gloss: child Def PRT eat.perf food Def
  Translation: ‘the child ate the food yesterday.’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal Yes Florian Lionnet
+ Lango Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: àcámò dɛ̀k
  Gloss: 1SG.eat.PRF stew
  Translation: I ate stew (Noonan 1992: 119 ex 1b.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Lani No Mark Donohue
+ Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
  Words: maa kin khaw laew
  Gloss: dog eat rice already
  Translation: The dogs have eaten rice
  Contributor: Alif Silpachai
+ Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: novi aedis nostras
  Gloss: know.PRF.1SG houses.ACC.PL our.F.ACC.PL
  Translation: I knew our house(s)
  Comment: Plaut. ( Amph. 1, 448)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Giovanni Pairotti statistically dominant
  Words: deducunt episcopum
  Gloss: accompany: PRS: 3PL bishop: ACC
  Translation: ‘they accompany the bishop’
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 40.1). This pattern is found in 72,8% (my own data) of the main active declarative clauses in the sample. VO sequences are the unmarked ones in Late Latin. See Bauer 2009: 271 – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
  Words: Toufic zaar l-beet
  Gloss: Toufic visited.3MSG the-house
  Translation: Toufic visited the house
  Contributor: Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
   Lubukusu Yes Aggrey Wasike
+ Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: ayieu enkalem kiti
  Gloss: 1S.want SG.FEM.knife.ACC small(fem).ACC
  Translation: I want the/a small knife
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
+ Malagasy Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: Manenjika ny mpangalatra Rabe
  Gloss: PRES.AT.chase DET thief Rabe
  Translation: Rabe chases/is chasing the thief.
  Comment: Note: AT stands for 'Actor Topic', which is the voice morphology on the verb indicating that the subject is the agent. Also, in AT, the m- prefix on the verb alternates with n- (for past) and h- (for future).
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam No Mythili Menon
   Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
   Mankanya Yes Tim Gaved
+ Maori Yes Ray Harlow
  Words: Patu-a te kurii raa!
  Gloss: beat-pass the dog dist
  Translation: ‘Beat that dog!’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: Dolly e=ar anōke ļaddik ro.
  Gloss: Dolly 3SG.AGR=PST follow.TR boy the.PL.HUMAN
  Translation: Dolly followed the boys.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
+ Masarak Yes Jessica Chen
  Words: daʊd t-ɑɾtʃ-ɑ bitɑlo
  Gloss: Daowd 3SG-dropped-PST cup.SG
  Translation: 'Daowd dropped the cup'
  Contributor: Jessica Chen
   Mbuko Yes Richard Gravina
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: Ende elken mensche doet sinen vrede
  Gloss: and every man does.3sg his.ACC peace
  Translation: and every man does his peace
  Comment: also with object pronouns
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
  Words: à zar súw zhàak-áy
  Gloss: Pf call Tot donkey-Tot
  Translation: He called a donkey
  Comment: Tot stands for 'totality' but it is not relevant here.
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: kan.Heb daar.ii
  Gloss: like.1SG.PRES house.1SPOSS
  Translation: I like my house.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
  Words: Lawan ó zúm ɗaf
  Gloss: Lawan 3sg eat food
  Translation: Lawan eats food.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Shí yam
  Gloss: Shí yam
  Translation: Drink water
  Comment: Objects always follow the verb (declaratives, imperatives)
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N|u Yes Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Naki Yes Jeff Good
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: kpɛleː bɛːn naŋkpaʔe ʔɛnaːʔe
  Gloss: table+cm(de)+spec be+with leg+cm(ga)-pl cm(ga)-pl+four+cm(ga)-pl
  Translation: “The table has four legs” (16).
  Comment: All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
   Ndut Yes Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
+ Nkore-Kiga Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: n-aa-yoreka Mugimba ekitabo
  Gloss: I-TP-show Mugimba book
  Translation:  'I showed Mugimba the book.
  Comment: Taylor (117b). postverbal order V IO DP is fixed. Object clitics yield DO-IO V order.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Northern Thai Yes Alif Silpachai
  Words: poen taa-sii huean wan-kaan
  Gloss: 3SG paint house Tuesday
  Translation: He painted a house on Tuesday
  Contributor: Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa e ba nakan.
  Gloss: Musa PRS cut meat
  Translation: Musa is cutting the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa e gi nakan.
  Gloss: Musa PRS eat meat
  Translation: Musa is eating the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Occitan Yes Patrick Sauzet
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English Yes Steve Seegmiller
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden Both VO and OV are attested in Old Saxon, without clear information-structural differences. See Walkden, George (2014). Object position and Heavy NP Shift in Old Saxon and beyond. In Kristin Bech & Kristine G. Eide (eds.), Information structure and syntactic change in Germanic and Romance languages, 313–340. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  Words: that hie muosti alôsian thena lîkhamon Cristes fan themo crûcie
  Gloss: that he must retrieve the.ACC body.ACC Christ.GEN from the cross
  Translation: that he must retrieve Christ's body from the cross
  Comment: (Heliand 5724-5725)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ Oluwanga Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: Y-a-lola i-nzu
  Gloss: 3sg-PST-see C9- house
  Translation: She saw a/the house
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   Palue Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay Yes Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Piotr kroi mięso.
  Gloss: Piotr.nom cut.3sg meat.acc
  Translation: Piotr is cutting meat.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Fábio canta a canção
  Gloss: F. sing.3SG.PRS the.F song
  Translation: Fábio sings the song
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: Au plantat pomi
  Gloss: have.AUX.PL .3 planted trees
  Translation: They planted trees.
  Comment: Romanian is a pro-drop language.
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
+ Russian Yes Stephanie Harves
  Words: Ivan kupil knigu.
  Gloss: Ivan.NOM bought book.ACC
  Translation: Ivan bought a book.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua Yes Pieter Muysken
   Samoan Yes Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec Yes George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Saramaccan Yes Tonjes Veenstra
+ Sasak Yes Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
  Words: aku m-beli balé
  Gloss: 1 AV-buy house
  Translation: 'I bought a house'
  Comment: AV=actor voice; Sukadana, Northern Sasak
  Contributor:  Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Saweru Yes Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic Yes Andrew Carnie
   Senaya No Laura McPherson
   Shan Yes Alif Silpachai
   Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: vìtti na kàsa
  Gloss: I.saw a house
  Translation: I saw a house
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: A: ki succirìu? B: ammazzàrru a n'wòmminu
  Gloss: A: what happened? B: they.killed a man
  Translation: A: what happened? B: a man was killed
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
+ Spanish Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Juan limpió el espejo
  Gloss: J. clean.PST.3SG the.M mirror
  Translation: Juan cleaned the mirror
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
   St'át'imcets Yes Lisa Matthewson
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
  Words: Flickan äter en glass.
  Gloss: girl.DEF eats an ice-cream
  Translation: The girl is eating an ice-cream.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: b<um>ili nang kotse
  Gloss: <Intr.Perf>buy Obl car
  Translation: bought a car
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
+ Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Juan jota-h-ti ma wíchu-ni riata jimbó.
  Gloss: Juan tie-PFV-3 INDF dog-OBJ rope ADP
  Translation: 'Juan tied up the dog with a rope'
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: vedivə na kasə
  Gloss: I.saw a house
  Translation: I saw a house
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: vedivə la kasə virdə
  Gloss: I.saw the house green
  Translation: I saw the green house
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
+ Tigre No Zhenyu Sun
  Words: təkabbat-att-om
  Gloss: meet-she-them
  Translation: ‘she met them’
  Comment: Tigre grammar and texts / by Shlomo Raz. P39
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Comment: pronominal object markers follow V, but nominal objects must precede
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: həbr-u mī tu
  Gloss: color-his what copula
  Translation: ‘What is his color (həbər)?’
  Comment: The Semitic Language--- Weninger Stefan, P1147
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern
   Tiwa No Virginia Dawson
+ Tlingit Yes James Crippen
  Words: woonáa wé keitl
  Gloss: it(P).died DEM.MDIST dog
  Translation: that dog died
  Comment: Verb morphology: 0-wu-ÿa-náa 3P-PFV-CLF[−D,0,+I]-die
  Contributor: James Crippen
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan Yes Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala Yes George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) Yes Edmond Biloa
  Words: Mbárá a- dinga- ḿ Putá
  Gloss: Mbara SM- love- IND Puta
  Translation: Mbara loves Puta
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: nya manya móó
  Gloss: eat food 2.POSS
  Translation: Eat your food
  Comment: As shown, the order is Verb Object in imperative constructions as well.
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: A-s-ausub abá
  Gloss: (1.SG) love.PRS/PST.IND indian
  Translation: I love the indian
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Murat Kural
   Tuvan No Brian Hsu
+ Twi Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Kofi dii brodo no.
  Gloss: Kofi eat.PST bread DET
  Translation: Kofi ate the bread.
  Contributor: Cansada Martin
   Udmurt No Orsolya Tanczos
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: Taras napysav dopovid'
  Gloss: Taras wrote report
  Translation: Taras wrote a report
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
+ Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: n le bI sakaa
  Gloss: I eat.IPFV now rice.D
  Translation: I am eating the rice now
  Comment: V-O is not a surface constituent
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese Yes Binh Ngo
  Words: Tôi thấy một con chó.
  Gloss: I see one CLF dog
  Translation: "I saw a dog."
  Contributor: Binh Ngo
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian Yes Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
   Welsh Yes David Willis
   West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof Yes Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
+ Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
  Words: U-Thole u-theng-e in-cwadi.
  Gloss: 1a-Thole SM1-buy-Prf 9-book
  Translation: Thole bought a book.
  Contributor: Xiujie Ma
+ Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
  Words: Ší’ kuɛt ndjià
  Gloss: T build house
  Translation: Build a house
  Comment: V object in all neutral affirmative tensed clauses, as well as in imperatives
  Contributor: Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa Yes Mark Donohue
+ Yiddish Yes Shannon Mooney
  Words: Der man lejent dos bux.
  Gloss: the.M.SG.NOM man read.3SG the.M.ACC book.SG
  Translation: "The man is reading the book."
  Contributor: Shannon Mooney
+ Yoruba Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
  Words:  Akin ń gbá ilẹ̀
  Gloss: Akin prog sweep ground/floor
  Translation: 'Akin is sweeping the floor.'
  Comment: 'gbá' here is the verb while 'ilẹ̀' is its object.
  Contributor: Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Tu ta lee el libro.
  Gloss: you PRES.PROG read the book.
  Translation: You are reading the book.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
+ Zulu Yes Esther Park
  Words: U-Sipho u-fund-e isi-fundo.
  Gloss: 1a-Sipho 1a-study-PRF 7-lesson
  Translation: 'Sipho has studied a lesson.'
  Contributor: Esther Park