04_Object Verb

The property Object Verb has the value "yes" when a verb can follow its object in a neutral context. The clause in this property is an active (non-passive) declarative (non-interrogative) clause. The object in this property is a noun phrase (we exclude pronouns). As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

Definition of Object

General Note on Word Order Properties: A "yes" value for Object Verb does not exclude a "yes" value for Verb Object. In other words, a language could allow both orders in a neutral context.

NA (Not Applicable): Since all languages have verbs and objects, no language will have the value NA for this property.


English does have Object Verb word orders, but they are not used in neutral contexts.

So English is "no" for Object Verb:

A: What happened?
B: I dropped the mug.
B': #The mug, I dropped. (object precedes verb)
(# stands for grammatical but not appropriate)

German is "yes" for Object Verb because of sentences like these where the main verb follows the object:

Hans hat die Tasse gesehen.
Hans has the mug seen
"Hans has seen the mug"

Note: in determining whether a language allows the order Verb Object or Object Verb, it is necessary to look the order of the main verb and its object, not the order of the auxiliary verb and the object of the clause.

German is also "yes" for Verb Object because of sentences such as the following:

Hans sah die Tasse.
Hans saw the mug
"Hans saw the mug."

In other words, German is "yes" for both Verb Object, and Object Verb.

Japanese is "yes" for the property Object Verb:

dareka-ga koppu-o otosi-ta.
someone-Nom cup-Acc drop-Past
"Someone dropped a cup."
Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Abaza Yes Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: Hy het die boek gelees
  Gloss: he has the book read
  Translation: He has read the book
  Comment: This is the required order in main and complementiserless embedded clauses featuring complex tenses and also in all embedded clauses introduced by an overt subordinator/adverbial marker.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
+ Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
  Words: #akullore bleva
  Gloss: ice-cream bought-1SG
  Translation: I bought (an) ice-cream
  Comment: his is bad in a ‘neutral’ (e.g. out-of-the-blue) context only, but fine in a context such as ‘What did you buy?
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: mäs'haf gäzza-hu
  Gloss: book buy.PFV-1ss
  Translation: 'I bought a book'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: ho zōgráfos klínēn poieî
  Gloss: ART-NOM.M.SG painter-NOM.SG bed-ACC.SG make-IND.PRS.3SG
  Translation: ‘the painter makes a couch’
  Comment: Pl. Republic 596e
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: * Ahmed r-resalah keteb
  Gloss: Ahmed DET-letter write.PST
  Translation: Ahmed wrote a letter
  Contributor: Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
  Words: Ani-n salor kerav
  Gloss: Ani-DET plum eat.3SG.PST
  Translation: Ani ate plum
  Contributor: Sona Haroutyunian
   Atayal (Squliq) No Sihwei Chen
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: kàá mfɔ̀ wá kɨ̀ wá’à nó kô
  Gloss: Neg chief the PST Neg snake catch
  Translation: The chief did not catch a snake
  Comment: the SOV order is used exceptionally in negative sentences.
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
+ Bambara Yes Bryan Villa
  Words: a bè nyò san
  Gloss: He BE grain buy
  Translation: He buys grain
  Comment: from TNBG pg 43
  Contributor: Bryan Villa
   Bandial No Wolfgang Berndt
+ baoulé - faafouê de kokumbo Yes kouakou koffi salomon
  Words: fa duo bla
  Gloss: prendre igname venir
  Translation: amène l'igname
  Contributor: kouakou koffi salomon
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
   baule-kôdeh No Andréa ALLA
+ Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: * Un libro vöri
  Gloss: a book eat.PRS.1.SG
  Translation: I want a book.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng Yes Denis Paperno
+ Bengali Yes Satarupa Das
  Words: ami boi-ta pore-ch-i
  Gloss: 1.SG.NOM book-CLF read.PRF-PRS-1
  Translation: I have read the book
  Contributor: Satarupa Das
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
+ Breton No Steve Hewitt
  Words: an êr az-peus da houzoud ar vicher
  Gloss: det air 2SG-has P to.know det job
  Translation: "you seem to know about the job/what you are doing"
  Comment: Breton Leon, (ref. Seite 1998:135)
  Contributor: Mélanie Jouitteau
   Bulgarian No Ljuba Veselinova Again, this is a possible but very marked order. The object cannot appear as a bare noun, it must have an object clitic
   Burgenland-Romani Yes Michelle McComb
   Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: zokjip se-zo
  Gloss: homework write-PFV
  Translation: (someone) have/has done the homework.
  Comment: In object topicalization (object-(subject)-verb, where subject may or may not be present), sencondary topicalization. also in constructions with dou (S O dou V) and in the zoeng-construction (S zoeng O V). Reference: Stephen,Matthews and Yip, Virginia. 1994. Cantonese: A comprehensive grammar. Routledge, 2013. chapter 4.1.1 & 4.2.3
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Txuss Martin
   Chalcatongo Mixtec No Jess Combs
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
   Chol No Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
  Words: *Aftokiniton egorasen (o Kostas).
  Gloss: car bought (the Kostas)
  Translation: Kostas bought a car.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Pavel Caha
  Words: Petra zasypal sníh.
  Gloss: Petr.acc bury snow.nom
  Translation: The snow buried Peter.
  Comment: The sentence may be used as an answer to a `what happened' type of question. It seems important that the object is prominent on an animacy scale.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: #Petr maso krájí.
  Gloss: petr.nom meat.acc cut.3sg
  Translation: Peter is cutting meat.
  Comment: The sentence is infelicitous as an answer to `what is going on' question.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: #Maso krájí Petr.
  Gloss: meat.acc cut.3sg Petr
  Translation: Petr is cutting the meat.
  Comment: This shows that inanimate objects do not precede the verb in `what happened' queries (compare the first example for this parameter)..
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
   Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby ALS4 workshop 2016
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: mtihani wa-u-henda vinono
  Gloss: CL3.exam 3SG.PST-CL3.OBJ-do well
  Translation: in the exam, you did well
  Comment: Used when object NP is a switch topic.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic Yes David Erschler
  Words: ʤerašš-i ku ra-kurd-ta wɐd ɐ-χe-cɐn jew k’ɐs ba-lχɐd-ta
  Gloss: Dzerassa-OBL CPL PRV-ask.PST-PST.3SG then POSS.3SG-REFL-DAT one hut PRV-buy.PST-PST.3SG
  Translation: 'When he married Dzerassa, he bought himself a hut.'
  Comment: CPL complementizer PRV preverb
  Contributor: David Erschler
   Djambarrpuyŋu Yes Claire Bowern
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Marie heeft Jan hard geduwd
  Gloss: Mary has John hard ge.push.PRTC
  Translation: Mary has pushed John hard
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
  Words: Mariam-a khndzor-a kerav
  Gloss: Mariam.DEF apple.DEF eat.3SG.PST
  Translation: Mariam ate the apple
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe Yes Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese No Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
+ Farsi Yes Natasha Schimka
  Words: Ketâb xarid-am
  Gloss: Book buy-1SG.PST
  Translation: I bought a book / I bought books
  Contributor: Natasha Schimka
   Fijian No Zhenyu Sun
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg Possible if the sentence has an initial focused constituent.
   French No Chris Collins
   French (Ivorian) No Akpoué Josué
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna No Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
+ German Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Den Apfel gegessen hat er nicht.
  Translation: Eat the apple he did not
  Comment: case of VP fronting; ( object, verbal complex subject)
  Contributor: Dorothee Beermann
   Ghɔmáĺá' No Francine Moguo
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Arhonto Terzi
  Words: *ena pagoto efaga
  Gloss: an ice-cream ate-1SG
  Translation: I ate an ice-cream
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: kotʃa ena aθropos erapsa=to (Dawkins 1916: 448)
  Gloss: recently INDF man.SG.ACC sew.PST.1SG=3SG.ACC
  Translation: I recently sewed up a man
  Comment: This order is grammatical only if the direct object is clitic-doubled.
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
+ Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) Yes Stephen Mayeaux
  Words: tuttu taku-aa
  Gloss: caribou see-3s.3s.IND
  Translation: ‘He saw the caribou’
  Contributor: Stephen Mayeaux
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hanga No Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa No Russell Schuh
+ Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
  Words: *Gabi xatul-im ohev
  Gloss: Gabi act-M.PL like-PR
  Translation: Gabi likes cats
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: Yhwh tefillati iqqach (Sal 6,10)
  Gloss: Yhwh.SBJ my prayer (tefillati).OBJ receives.IPFV3SG
  Translation: Yhwh receives my prayer
  Comment: The natural order is verb-subject-object, but a variation may occur in order to emphasize the object
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Hittite Yes Mattyas Huggard
+ Hixkaryana Yes Laura Kalin
  Words: kuraha y-onyhorye-no biryekomo
  Gloss: bow 3SBJ.3OBJ-make-IMMEDPST child
  Translation: The child made a bow.
  Comment: This is the unmarked, canonical word order for transitive sentences. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 31)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Kati leves-t ev-ett.
  Gloss: Kati[NOM] soup-ACC eat-PST.3SG.IND
  Translation: `Kati ate soup'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha Yes Mark Donohue
   Ijo (Kaiama) Yes Hilda Koopman
   Ilokano No Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Irish Yes Bridget Nixdorf in some non finite contexts
   Iron Ossetic Yes David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun No Iris Wu
   Italian No Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Tonjes Veenstra
+ Japanese Yes Ken Hiraiwa
  Words: dareka-ga koppu-o otosi-ta.
  Gloss: someone-NOM cup-ACC drop-PST
  Translation: Someone dropped a/the cup
  Contributor: Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara Yes Alan Vogel
   Jingulu Yes Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
+ Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) Yes Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: Raama Siite-yannu nooD-id-anu
  Gloss: Rama Siita-ACC see-PAST-3sg.m.
  Translation: ‘Rama saw Sita.’
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   Karachay Yes Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi No Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima animate objects must agree with the verb, and can follow or precede the verb. Non agreeing objects must follow the verb in neutral contexts.
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Konni No Michael Cahill
+ Korean Yes Chung-hye Han
  Words: Toli-ka mantwu-lul mek-ess-ta.
  Gloss: Toli-NOM dumpling-ACC eat-PST-DECL
  Translation: Toli ate a/the dumpling.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Koyo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Kuot No Eva Lindström Object (or subject or an adverbial) can be fronted, but the unmarked order is VSO
+ Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
  Words: Hana sew a-xuw-at
  Gloss: Hana apple IPFV-eat-3SG
  Translation: Hana eats (is eating) an apple.
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: *biig la diib la sa di
  Gloss: child Def food Def PRT eat.perf
  Translation: ‘the child ate the food yesterday.’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lani Yes Mark Donohue
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
+ Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Arma virumque cano
  Gloss: weapon.ACC.PL.N man.ACC.SG sing.PRS.1SG
  Translation: I sing (of) arms and (of) a man
  Comment: Virg (Aen. 1,1)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) No Giovanni Pairotti a value ‘no’ was assigned since the statistical distribution is below 30%
  Words: hoc palatium fecit
  Gloss: this: ACC palace: ACC build: PFV: 3SG
  Translation: ‘he built this palace’
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 19.15). The pattern is found in 27,2% (my own data) of the main active declarative clauses in the sample. OV sequences are residual in Late Latin. See Adams 1977: 93; Nocentini 1990: 151-153 – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ Lebanese Arabic No Lina Choueiri
  Words: *Toufic l-beet zaar
  Gloss: Toufic the-house visited.3MSG
  Translation: Toufic visited the house
  Contributor: Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
+ Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang In the ba-construction (S ba O V)
  Comment: In object topicalization (object- (subject)-verb), sencondary topicalization. also in constructions with dou (S O dou V) and in the ba-construction (S ba O V)
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Mankanya No Tim Gaved
   Maori No Ray Harlow
+ Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: *Kuuj eo e=j dāpij.
  Gloss: cat the.SG 3SG.AGR=PRS hold.TR
  Translation: She is holding the cat.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
+ Masarak Yes Jessica Chen
  Words: daʊd bitalo t-aɾtʃ-a
  Gloss: Daowd cup.SG 3SG-dropped-PST
  Translation: 'Daowd dropped the cup'
  Comment: Neutral order
  Contributor: Jessica Chen
   Mbuko No Richard Gravina
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: (...) wet wel, dat ic al dit niet dore v en hebbe gheseghet, mer...
  Gloss: know PRT, that I all this not by you NEG have said, but ...
  Translation: do know that I have not said all this because of you, but
  Comment: in composed tenses and embbeded clauses
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   N|u No Chris Collins
+ Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
  Words: ni-xochi-chihua
  Gloss: 1SG.S-flower-make
  Translation: "I arrange flowers"
  Comment: Noun incorporation. Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
  Words: ne chichi qui-mictih
  Gloss: that dog 3SG.O-kill.PAST
  Translation: "he killed that dog"
  Comment: Not frequent. Only ok in context: What's going on? Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
+ Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
  Words: tlaxcal-chihua
  Gloss: tortilla-make
  Translation: he/she makes tortillas
  Comment: The case of noun incorporation is from:Carochi, Horacio. Compendio del arte de la lengua Mexicana. 1759.
  Contributor: John Garcia
  Words: yn corona o=qui-huica-c yn regidor
  Gloss: the corona past=it-take-PAST the regidor
  Translation: The regidor [don alonso diaz] carried the crown
  Comment: Found in a neutral context in: Townsend, Camilla. Here in This Year: Seventeenth-century Nahuatl Annals of the Tlaxcala-Puebla Valley. Stanford, CA: Stanford UP, 2010. Print. (page 108)
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Naki Yes Jeff Good
   Navajo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Nawdm No Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' No Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
   Ndut No Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
+ Nkore-Kiga No Arwa Rangwala
  Words: n-aa-ki-mw-oreka
  Gloss: I-TP-it-him-show
  Translation: I showed it to him
  Comment: OK for clitics/weak pronouns. Taylor (177b)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: omukama omwambari a-mw-eta a-lJa
  Gloss: king messenger he-him-call he-come
  Translation: The King sent for a messenger to come'
  Comment: Taylor remarks that expections to V O occur, "apparently for stylistic variation rather than for emphasis" This looks like left dislocation.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: n-aa-mu-ha ekitabo/ n-aa-ki-ha Mugimba
  Gloss: I-TP-him-give book/ I-TP-it-give Mugimba
  Translation: I gave him the book/ I gave to to Mugimba
  Comment: either IO or DO can cliticize (or both)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa a nakan ba.
  Gloss: Musa PRF meat cut
  Translation: Musa has cut the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan Yes Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English Yes Steve Seegmiller
+ Old French Yes Heather Burnett
  Words: Mult larges teres de vous avrai
  Gloss: many large lands from you have.2.FUT
  Translation: I will have many large lands from you
  Comment:  (Roland 2352; M-N, 74)
  Contributor: Heather Burnett
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden Both VO and OV are attested in Old Saxon, without clear information-structural differences. See Walkden, George (2014). Object position and Heavy NP Shift in Old Saxon and beyond. In Kristin Bech & Kristine G. Eide (eds.), Information structure and syntactic change in Germanic and Romance languages, 313–340. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  Words: that sia thia ferahquâla frummian scoldun
  Gloss: that they the.ACC life-pain.ACC do.INF should
  Translation: that they should carry out the painful act
  Comment: (Heliand 5396)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One No Mark Donohue
   Palue Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
+ Pashto Yes Taylor Roberts
  Words: spi pisho khog krr-a
  Gloss: dog(OBL M) cat(DIR F) hurt do(PST PFV)-F3SG
  Translation: the dog hurt the cat.
  Comment: Roberts 2000:12.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Piotra zasypał śnieg.
  Gloss: Piotr.acc burried snow.nom
  Translation: The snow burried Peter.
  Comment: The sentence can answer 'What happened?'. It is important that the verb is in the spray/load class. Substituting an animate subject, with 'snow' in the instrumental, cannot be an answer to 'What happened?'.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: #Piotr mięso kroi.
  Gloss: Piotr.nom meat.acc cut.3sg
  Translation: Peter is cutting meat.
  Comment: Infelicitous as anwer to 'What happened?'
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: #Mięso kroi Piotr.
  Gloss: meat.acc cut.3sg Piotr.nom
  Translation: Peter is cutting meat.
  Comment: Infelicitous as anwer to 'What happened?'
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Oana Savescu
+ Russian Yes Stephanie Harves
  Words: Soldata ubilo pulej.
  Gloss: soldier.ACC.M.SG killed.N bullet.INS.F.SG
  Translation: A soldier was killed by a bullet.
  Comment: Although the order Object Verb is not neutral in sentences with a Nominative Subject and an Accusative Direct Object, this order is standard in cases of so-called "adversity impersonals". Note that this sentence is not passive, in spite of the translation. There is no passive morphology on the verb.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: #Ivan knigu kupil.
  Gloss: Ivan.NOM book.ACC bought
  Translation: Ivan bought a book.
  Comment: This example is felicitous only in non-neutral contexts, e.g. when the object is focused.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua Yes Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Saramaccan No Tonjes Veenstra
   Sasak Yes Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Saweru Yes Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic Yes Andrew Carnie
   Senaya Yes Laura McPherson
   Shan No Alif Silpachai
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: na kàsa vìtti
  Gloss: a house I.saw
  Translation: I saw a house
  Comment: Marked order, yet sometimes preferred, in certain contexts (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: A: ki succirìu? B: (a) n'wòmminu ammazzàrru!
  Gloss: A: what happened? B: (to) a man they.killed
  Translation: A: what happened? B: a man was killed!
  Comment: Marked order, yet sometimes preferred, in certain contexts (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
+ Spanish No Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: *El espejo limpió
  Gloss: the.M mirror clean.PST.3SG
  Translation: Intended: He cleaned the mirror
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
   St'át'imcets No Lisa Matthewson
+ Swedish No fredrik heinat
  Words: Tidningen läser jag varje dag.
  Gloss: newspaper.DEF read I every day
  Translation: I read the newspaper every day.
  Comment: Swedish allows topics in first position, before the finite verb. O-V is only possible in certain contexts.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: na kasə vedivə
  Gloss: a house I.saw
  Translation: I saw a house
  Comment: This is a marked order used to put emphasis on the fronted noun.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la kasə virdə vedivə
  Gloss: the house green I.saw
  Translation: I saw the green house
  Comment: This is a marked order used to put emphasis on the fronted noun.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
+ Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: rabbi astar wa-mədər faṭra
  Gloss: God stars and-earth he created
  Translation: ‘God created heaven and earth’
  Comment: The Semitic Languages, Weninger Stefan P1167
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tiwa Yes Virginia Dawson
+ Tlingit Yes James Crippen
  Words: yaaw aawaxítl
  Gloss: herring it.he.raked
  Translation: he raked herring
  Comment: Verb morphology: a-wu-0-ÿa-xítl 3.P-PFV-3.A-CLF[−D,0,+I]-fish.with.rake
  Contributor: James Crippen
  Words: seew daak=0-wu-si-taan
  Gloss: rain falling=3.P-PFV-CLF[−D,s,+I]-carry
  Translation: rain fell; it rained
  Comment: The verb is an unaccusative intransitive. With the preverb daak= the meaning is precipitation rather than carrying.
  Contributor: James Crippen
   Tocharian B Yes Bernhard Koller
+ Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
  Words: Mí áíH=ɲ̀ màŋgóró ób-aa=be-m.
  Gloss: 1SG.PRO friend=OBJ mango give-PFV=be.PST-1SG
  Translation: ‘I gave my friend a mango’ (19: 6b).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa This ordering is only possible if the object is topicalized.
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Xe kutuk
  Gloss: I.OBJ poke.3.SG
  Translation: He pokes me
  Comment: This order is only possible if the object is a 1st. person pronoun (sg., pl. incl. or excl.).
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Turkish Yes Ryan Caro
  Words: Oda-yı temizle-me-miş-ler.
  Gloss: room-ACC clean-NEG-REP-PL
  Translation: Apparently they did not clean the room/They must not have cleaned the room.
  Comment: The 'reported speech' marker in Turkish is used for actions which the speaker did not witness firsthand.
  Contributor: Ryan Caro
+ Tuvan Yes Brian Hsu
  Words: ol kino kördüm
  Gloss: that film see-PAST-1sg
  Translation: I saw that film
  Contributor: Brian Hsu
   Twi No Chris Collins
   Udmurt Yes Orsolya Tanczos
   Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
+ Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Aya ka yOO saka nyE
  Gloss: Aya will child-D rice give
  Translation: Aya will give the child some rice
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian No Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan Yes Tatiana Nikitina
   Warlpiri Yes Margit Bowler
   Welsh No David Willis
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
  Words: k'een dienen boek gekocht
  Gloss: I have-1sg that-masc sg book bought
  Translation: 'I have bought that book'
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
  Words: dan-k dienen boek kopen
  Gloss: that-1sg-I that-ms-sg book buy-1sg
  Translation: 'that I buy that book'
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
+ Wolane Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: rāwdɛ qāwɛ wɛhɛb-t
  Gloss: Rawda coffee buy:PV-3sf
  Translation: ‘Rawda bought coffee’ (252).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen 'ba' construction
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa Yes Mark Donohue
   Yiddish Yes Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zamboageño Chabacano No Grace Gaspardo
   Zulu No Claire Halpert