14_Noun Adjective

The property Noun Adjective has the value "yes" when an adjective can follow the noun it modifies in a neutral context. This definition concerns attributive adjectives that modify a noun such as "big ball", not predicate adjectives such as "big" in the sentence "The ball is big." The noun should be a common noun such as "book", "person", "house", etc. (as opposed to a proper noun, pronoun, or expressions like "something"). As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Noun Adjective does not exclude a "yes" value for Adjective Noun. In other words, a language could allow both orders in a neutral context.

NA (Not Applicable): NA means that the language has either no nouns or no adjectives.


English is "yes" for the property Noun Adjective because of a substantial number of examples such as:

The people present,
The students involved,
The man responsible

English is also "yes" for the property Adjective Noun:

It is a red ball.

In other words, English is "yes" for both the property Noun Adjective and the property Adjective Noun.

French is "yes" for the property Noun Adjective, since there are adjectives that follow the noun in French:

Un homme intéressant
a.M man interesting.M
"An interesting man"

French is also "yes" for the property Adjective Noun since there is a class of adjectives that precede the noun:

Une belle maison
a.F beautiful.F house
"A beautiful house"

Ewe is "yes" for Noun Adjective:

avu nyuie
dog good
"a good dog"

Japanese is "no" for the property Noun Adjective, since this order is always ungrammatical:

*ie ookina
house big
"big house"

Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
  Words: ma ǂkùũ -’a ǁnȁõ kı́-kúri
  Gloss: 1SG buy -PFV shoe old
  Translation: “I bought an old shoe” (Collins and Gruber: 145).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
  Words: kx’ù -qà kı́- zȁ -n|ne
  Gloss: pot -PL PL- new -PL
  Translation: “new pots” (Collins and Gruber: 144).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ Abaza Yes Brian O'Herin
  Words: qac'a-bzi-kʷa
  Gloss: man-good-PL
  Translation: good men
  Comment: nominal morphology occurs after the adjective
  Contributor: Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese Yes Julie Legate
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: [kòfí ká̰] [kòfí tɛ́] [kòfí blé]
  Gloss: Koffi petit// Koffi laid // Koffi noir
  Translation: « Petit Koffi », « Vilain Koffi », « Koffi le noir »
  Comment: Dans l'ordre N+Adjectif, les constituants susceptibles d'occuper la position d'adjectif sont généralement de trois ordres: [+taille], [+couleur] ou [+beauté]. En revanche, l'ordre Adj+N reste quasiment impossible.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: tràlίɛ̀ ngɔ̀kʋ̀lɛ́
  Gloss: Habits rouges
  Translation: Habits rouges
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: màtrá̰ ngà̰gà̰
  Gloss: Enfants petits
  Translation: Petits enfants
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: sʋrà̰ klàmǎ
  Gloss: Homme beauté
  Translation: Bel homme.
  Comment: Dans l'ordre N+Adjectif, les constituants susceptibles d'occuper la position d'adjectif sont généralement de trois ordres: [+couleur], [+taille] ou [+beauté].
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: makina e shpejtë
  Gloss: car-the agr fast
  Translation: the fast car
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: memnḗsthō anḕr agathòs eînai
  Gloss: remember-IMP.2SG man-NOM.M good-NOM.M.SG be-INF.PRS
  Translation: ‘Let him remember to show himself a brave man’
  Comment: Xenophon Anabasis, 3.2.39. NB: this is only possible with an indefinite NP or a predicative NP
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: Ahmed shaaf al-bent al-helw-ah
  Gloss: Ahmed see.PST DET-girl DET-beautiful-3SGF
  Translation: Ahmed saw the beautiful girl
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Aymara No Matt Coler
   Babanki Yes Pius Akumbu
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: ndâ yìŋwì
  Gloss: Big house
  Translation: Big house
  Comment: All postnominal attributive adjectives agree with the noun in class and number. See Tamanji (2009) for detailed description of adjectives.
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
+ Bambara Yes Bryan Villa
  Words: fula muso bè nònò kumu feere dògò la.
  Gloss: fula woman is milk sour sell market in
  Translation: A fulani woman is selling sour milk in the market
  Comment: from TNBG 107. If fula is a general nationaility A A N should be changed to yes.
  Contributor: Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   baoulé - faafouê de kokumbo Yes kouakou koffi salomon
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Ewas a- ǹ- núŋúl lítówa lilâm
  Gloss: 1Ewas 1SM- PST1- sell 5car 5nice
  Translation:  Ewas has sold a/the new car
  Comment: depends on the adjective
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
   baule-kôdeh Yes Andréa ALLA
+ Bellinzonese Yes Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: Ò töi un libru ross ier
  Gloss: have.AUX.PRS.1 buy.PTCP a book red yesterday
  Translation: I bought a red book yesterday.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng Yes Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Bole Yes Alhaji Gimba
  Words: ada-n siri
  Gloss: dog-GEN linker big
  Translation: a big dog
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
+ Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
  Words: Flor vermelha
  Gloss: Flower.F.SG red.F.SG
  Translation: Red flower
  Contributor: Bruna Moreira
   Breton Yes Steve Hewitt
   Bulgarian No Ljuba Veselinova
   Burgenland-Romani No Michelle McComb
   Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
+ Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
  Words: u/nu kwanə nwivərə
  Gloss: the/a dog black
  Translation: the/a black dog
  Contributor: Giuseppina Silvestri
  Words: a/na kwatrara sperta
  Gloss: the/a girl smart
  Translation: the/a smart girl
  Contributor: Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
+ Chalcatongo Mixtec Yes Jess Combs
  Words: Ni-žoʔo káni
  Gloss: Was-rope long
  Translation: ‘It was a long rope’
  Contributor: Jess Combs
   Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw NA Pam Munro Chickasaw does not have adjectives, per se, only stative verbs. However, when these are used as modifiers they do follow the noun.
   Chol No Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: O pinakas o oreos.
  Gloss: the painting the beautiful
  Translation: The beautiful painting.
  Comment: Without "determiner spreading", the adjective cannot follow the noun (i.e. *O pinakas oreos, is ungrammatical).
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech No Pavel Caha
  Words: *pes nebezpečný
  Gloss: dog dangerous
  Translation: a dangerous dog
  Comment: However, there are several contexts where adjectives are fine postnominally:
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: chlape bláznivej
  Gloss:  guy crazy
  Translation: you crazy guy
  Comment: In imperatives, non-restrictive adjectives follow the noun.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: pes domácí
  Gloss: dog domestic
  Translation: `the domestic dog'
  Comment: names of species always juxtapose noun and adjective in that order. So in this special niche, there are tons of examples like that.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby ALS4 workshop 2016
  Words: ŋɔ̰́ kɔ́du̍
  Gloss: woman tall
  Translation: tall woman
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: ŋɔ̰́ kɔ́du̍
  Gloss: woman tall
  Translation:  Tall woman
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: ŋɔ̰́ kɔ́du̍
  Gloss: woman tall
  Translation:  Tall woman
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: chitabu chi-ziho, meza n-ziho
  Gloss: CL7.book CL7-heavy, CL9.table CL9-heavy
  Translation: a heavy book, a heavy table
  Comment: Most adjectives agree with the noun class of the head noun, except a small number borrowed (via Swahili?) from Arabic.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
  Words: *tikis saw
  Gloss: cat black
  Translation: black cat (intended reading)
  Contributor: David Erschler
   Djambarrpuyŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
+ Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
  Words: * Armen-a mart khelatsi eh
  Gloss: Armen person smart be.3SG
  Translation: Armen is a smart person
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Egyptian Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: Professores reformados não recebem salários.
  Gloss: professor.M.PL retired.M.PL NEG receive.PRES.3PL salary.PL
  Translation: Retired professors don't get salaries.
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe Yes Chris Collins
+ Farefari Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: yire katɛ̃; yi-katɛ̃
  Gloss: house big; house-big
  Translation: big house
  Comment: the compounded form is more common
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen This is sometimes possible; cf. the place names: Fløtan fríða 'plain-pretty'; Hellan hála 'rock-the slippery'; Dalurin langi 'valley-the long'
+ Farsi Yes Natasha Schimka
  Words: Ketâb-e xub ast
  Gloss: Book-ez good be.3SG.PRS
  Translation: It's a good book.
  Contributor: Natasha Schimka
+ Fijian Yes Claire Bowern
  Words: tamata dina
  Gloss: person true
  Translation: ‘true person’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Chris Collins
  Words: la robe noire
  Gloss: DEF-DET-F dress black-F
  Translation: the black dress
  Comment: Many adjectives take on a different meaning depending on their placement. See Cinque's The Syntax of Adjectives(2010) for recent synthesis, and analyses (comparative romance/ germanic).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: tsu-i agbo-i
  Gloss: house-PL big-PL
  Translation: big houses
  Comment: Agreement is in plural number only. There is no singular or singulative marker.
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: tsu agbo
  Gloss: house big
  Translation: big house
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
+ Garifuna Yes Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
  Words: ariha-tina muna funatu
  Gloss: see-1SG house red
  Translation: I see a red house
  Contributor: Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Martin Haspelmath
+ Ghɔmáĺá' Yes Francine Moguo
  Words: tʃò' pə̀pɛ̀
  Gloss: cap red
  Translation: red cao
  Contributor: Francine Moguo
+ Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Ik im hairdeis gods
  Gloss: I am shepherd good
  Translation: I am a/the good shepherd (Joh 10,11)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: to vivlio to kokino
  Gloss: the book the red
  Translation: the red book
  Comment: The adjective can follow the (definite) noun only when preceded by the definite determiner. This is a structure known as 'Determiner Spreading' or 'Polydefinite' in the literature and is grammatical under a certain (non-neutral) interpretation.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greek (Pontic) No Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
+ Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) Yes Stephen Mayeaux
  Words: illirviusaq qisuk
  Gloss: box wood
  Translation: ‘a wooden box’
  Contributor: Stephen Mayeaux
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
+ Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: àwù yù
  Gloss: shirt black
  Translation: the/a black shirt
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene Yes Samuel Atintono
   Haitian Yes Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
+ Hanga Yes Geoffrey Hunt
  Words: bibila
  Gloss: child-small
  Translation: small child
  Comment: Adjectives follow a noun root to form a word - indicated by tonal constraints and often a shortened vowel to mark the noun root. The division is bi-bila
  Contributor: Geoffrey Hunt
+ Hausa Yes Russell Schuh
  Words: yārṑ ƙàramī
  Gloss: boy small
  Translation: 'a small boy'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: degel adom
  Gloss: flag red
  Translation: red flag
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: hattaninim haggedolim (Gen 1,21)
  Gloss: ha.ART taninim (whales).SUBST gedolim (great).ADJ
  Translation: the great whales
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Gurprit Bains
+ Hittite Yes Mattyas Huggard
  Words: KUR-e sallis e:sta
  Gloss: land-NOM great-NOM be-3PST
  Translation: the land was great
  Comment: predicate adjectives normally follow the head noun, as do attributive participles
  Contributor: Mattyas Huggard
+ Hixkaryana Yes Laura Kalin
  Words: Utxun heno
  Gloss: Utxunu now.dead
  Translation: the late/now dead Utxunu
  Comment: (Derbyshire 1985:p. 26)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
+ Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
  Words: Gunnar átti hest gráan
  Gloss: Gunnar have.PST.3SG horse.ACC.M.SG grey.INDF.ACC.M.SG
  Translation: Gunnar had a grey horse.
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:88). Noun Adjective is sometimes used in "relatively formal and bookish" Icelandic (Thráinsson 2007:88).
  Contributor: Jim Wood
   Igala Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Igbo Yes Mary Amaechi
  Words: nwoke ojoo
  Gloss: man bad
  Translation: 'a bad man'
  Contributor: Mary Amaechi
  Words: nwaanyi oma
  Gloss: woman good
  Translation: 'good woman'
  Contributor: Mary Amaechi
   Iha Yes Mark Donohue
   Ilokano Yes Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian Yes Mark Donohue
+ Irish Yes Bridget Nixdorf
  Words: Tá Máire leiscúil anseo.
  Gloss: Is Máire lazy here
  Translation: 'Lazy Máire is here.'
  Contributor: Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun No Iris Wu
   Italian Yes Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara Yes Alan Vogel Dixon 2004:335f
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
+ Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) No Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: naayi doDDa-du (ondu beeku)
  Gloss: dog big- 3n.sg. (a (lit.one) want)
  Translation: ‘(pro want a) BIG dog’ / ‘The dog is big’
  Comment: somewhat tricky setting. ok with focus on the adjective. The agreement on the adj. (NG, fixed 3P) appears also in predicative contexts. A two word utterance is thus ambiguous as shown; the occurrence of a separate predicate disambiguates it. A DP interpretation is not natural in the absence of a numeral, and focus on adj.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: makkaLu doDD-avaru (barlilla)
  Gloss: children big- 3pl. (Neg come)
  Translation: ‘the older children/ the children who are older (did not come)’ ‘The children are old’
  Comment: This is a tricky setting; it could perhaps be yes. A relative clause interpretation may be available in this structure.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   Karachay No Steve Seegmiller
+ Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
  Words: šahku sʼíʔku
  Gloss: leg skinny
  Translation: skinny leg
  Contributor: John Gluckman
   Kayan Yes Ken Manson
   Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
+ KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
  Words: kisúmbí ki-sóga
  Gloss: 7stool 7.beautiful
  Translation: ‘a beautiful stool’
  Contributor: Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande Yes Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kindendeule Yes Deo Ngonyani
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
+ Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
  Words: hátá dyá mbútà
  Gloss: village AGR.A big
  Translation: a big village
  Comment: 'house of big(ness)' a is the associate marker. See next example for the use of ya mbuta as predicate.
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
  Words: hatá dyà mbútà
  Gloss: village (BE) AGR.A big
  Translation: the village is big.
  Comment: Extra example for predicate use. Different tones from attributive As. (lit: the house is of big(ness)
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
+ Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
  Words: afó a jófI-nÍ á
  Gloss: 7.thing agr.7 (be)good.A agr.7
  Translation: a good thing
  Comment: A verbal adjective (ni turns the verb into an Adjective). To check: is this agreement pattern typical of postnominal relative clauses?
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Konni Yes Michael Cahill
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Koyo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström Adjectives are primarily predicates; for attributive use an attributive construction is used which can also contain other material
+ Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
  Words: kteb-ek-i sawz
  Gloss: book-INDF-EZ green
  Translation: A green book
  Comment: EZ stands for Ezafe, a morpheme serving the function of linking an N(P) to its dependen(s)
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: bi.fiin la
  Gloss: child.small.NC Def
  Translation: ‘the little child’
  Comment: "Some nouns lose their endings when they come into contact with adjectives. bυυg ‘goat’ bυwᴐk ‘tall goat’, bυtita’ar ‘big goat’. Others such as yir ‘house’ occurs in full with the adjective yir tita’ar la house big Def ‘the big house’ "
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal NA Florian Lionnet
+ Lango Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: gwôkk à bɛ̀r
  Gloss: dog ATT good.SG
  Translation: the good dog (Noonan 1992: 155 ex 1a.)
  Comment: the attributive particle “à” is used with attributive adjectives
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Lani Yes Mark Donohue
+ Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
  Words: mii puem hua nyai song hua
  Gloss: have book CLF big two CLF
  Translation: There are two big books
  Contributor: Alif Silpachai
+ Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: pax stabilis
  Gloss: peace.NOM stable/long.lasting.NOM
  Translation: long lasting peace
  Comment: Cic. (Phil. 13,2)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Words: fluvius ingens argenteus
  Gloss: river:NOM big:NOM silver:NOM
  Translation: 'a big silver river'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 19.7) General distribution in the Itin. Eg: NA orders: 283 / 567 = 50% (Gianollo 2005: 176). Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
+ Lubukusu Yes Aggrey Wasike
  Words: omukhaana omwiimbi
  Gloss: girl short
  Translation: the/a short girl
  Contributor: Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman two kinds of adjectives; 1. carry nominal inflectional morphology, 2. verbal morphology
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
+ Malagasy Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: ny zaza marary
  Gloss: DET child sick
  Translation: the sick child
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam No Mythili Menon
   Mandarin No Arthur Wang
+ Maori Yes Ray Harlow
  Words: te tamaiti paki
  Gloss: the child small
  Translation: ‘the little child’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: kuj kileplep
  Gloss: cat fat
  Translation: fat cat
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
+ Masarak Yes Jessica Chen
  Words: ɪndʒe kədu ɡɪ ɲuɡuɾu t-iɲɑn-ɑ
  Gloss: dog.SG big/wide DEM.SG food 3SG-ate-PST
  Translation: ‘This big dog ate food’
  Contributor: Jessica Chen
   Mbuko Yes Richard Gravina
  Words: zwə́ fɔ́ktɛ́p
  Gloss: cloth white
  Translation: white cloth
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: tekene vele groot
  Gloss: signs much great
  Translation: very great signs
  Comment: post-verbally, the attributive adjective (groot) remains uninflected
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
  Words: sǝm káràkarana
  Gloss: man.M.SG tall.M.SG
  Translation: 'tall man'
  Comment: "Adjectives constitute a distinct lexical category in two respects: (1) as nominal modifiers, they require gender/number-sensitive suffixes -na (m), -ya (f), -niy (pI); (2) within a noun phrase, they directly follow the head noun with no intervening grammatical morpheme. Noun Adjective is the normal position for adjectives."
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: waHed es.sinima kbir.a
  Gloss: a DEF.cinema big.F
  Translation: a big cinema
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: el.qitta es.sauda’
  Gloss: DEF.cat DEF.black.F
  Translation: the black cat
  Comment: the adjective must also be definite for the entire phrase to be considered definite
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
  Words: Wal maBlani
  Gloss: Woman beautiful
  Translation: A beautiful woman
  Comment: B= implosive b.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N|u Yes Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Naki Yes Jeff Good
   Navajo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: bà bí-gá
  Gloss: dog small-cm(ga)
  Translation: "small dog" (25).
  Comment: Adjectives in Nawdm follow the noun stem, but precede the noun class marker, as seen by the class marker "gá" which follows 'dog' "bí". All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
  Words: dʒɛ́d bóbɔ̀k hɔ̂ːn dé
  Gloss: chair tall black de
  Translation: 'a tall black chair' (3 CN527).
  Comment: Strings of more than two adjectives seem to be disallowed, the reason for which is not clear. When more than one adjective modifies a noun, the adjectives occur in the English order, rather than reversed. All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
  Words: ŋgə hə pusi jə khɔ́Ɂɔ́
  Gloss: 1SG have cat jə small
  Translation: ‘I have a small cat.’
  Contributor: Bertille Baron
   Ndut Yes Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
+ Nkore-Kiga Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: omushaija omu-rungi/ omushaija mu-rungi
  Gloss: o.mu.man o.mu kind / o.mu.man a-kind (Taylor's gloss)
  Translation: the kind person/ a kind person (359a/359b))
  Comment: "the verbless adjective phrase is rare and confined to type (a), the 'pure adjective' of which there are twenty or so. These are definable as lexical items with nominal stems and prefixes, the prefixes being multiply variable to agree with nouns they modify. A definite indefinite contrast dpends on the form of the agreement preceding the A. " (Taylor p. ). [HK: This agreement pattern suggests polydefinitenes/ determiner spreading (the man the kind).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai Yes Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: eci dzuru
  Gloss: yam red
  Translation: red yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Occitan Yes Patrick Sauzet
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English Yes Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
+ Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Úlfr var búsýslumaðr mikill
  Gloss: Ulf. was farmer. great
  Translation: Ulf was a great farmer (Eg 4.8)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: uuallos hôha
  Gloss: walls high
  Translation: high walls
  Comment: (Heliand 3699)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: O-mu-ana o-mu-layi
  Gloss: AUG-C1.SA-child AUG-SA-good
  Translation: a good child
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   Palue Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay Yes Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: aktor komiczny
  Gloss: actor-nom.s.m. comic-nom.s.m
  Translation: a comedy actor
  Comment: postonominal adjectives have a "classificatory" or "taxonomic" ("kind") reading - the same adjective in a prenominal position may not have the same reading
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: komiczny actor
  Gloss: comic-nom.s.m actor-nom.s.m.
  Translation: a funny actor
  Comment: pre-nominal adjectives are typically "qualifying"
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: pies domowy
  Gloss: dog-nom.s.m domestic-nom.s.m
  Translation: the domestic dog (species)
  Comment: postonominal adjectives are common (but not exclusive) in the taxonomic names of species
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: profesor zwyczajny
  Gloss: professor-nom.s.m ordinary-nom.s.m
  Translation: a professor of the highest rank in Poland
  Comment: (Latin: professor ordinarius) postonominal adjectives have a "classificatory" or "taxonomic" ("kind") reading - the same adjective in a prenominal position may not have the same reading
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Menino bonito
  Gloss: boy beautiful.M
  Translation: Beautiful boy
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: Am cumpărat o rochie roşie ieri.
  Gloss: have.AUX. PRS.1 bought a.F.SG dress.F.SG red.F.SG yesterday
  Translation: I bought a red dress yesterday.
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
   Russian Yes Nina Radkevich
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
+ Samoan Yes Vincent Homer
  Words: 'o le mea lelei
  Gloss: PRES ART thing good
  Translation: the good thing
  Contributor: Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec Yes George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
+ Sasak Yes Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
  Words: guru-ng-ku pinter
  Gloss: teacher.LNK-1POSS smart
  Translation: 'My teacher is smart'
  Comment: LNK=nasal linker; Sukadana, Northern Sasak
  Contributor:  Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Saweru Yes Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic Yes Andrew Carnie
   Senaya Yes Laura McPherson
   Shan Yes Alif Silpachai
+ Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: lapa'a sisi pa kamkeri
  Gloss: shoes black black copula rare
  Translation: Black shoes are rare.
  Comment: The order Adj Noun is impossible with [sisi] "black" (but not for other adjectives).
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: nda ngure
  Gloss: house big
  Translation: "A big house"
  Comment: May be interpretaed as "the big house" as well
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: mun kemshe
  Gloss: man short
  Translation: "a short man"
  Comment: Ma be interpreted as "The short man"
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: puhen kemshe kemshe
  Gloss: men short short
  Translation: "short men"
  Comment: May be interpreted as "The short men"
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: mi ligghìi nu llìbbru bbèllu
  Gloss: to.me I.read a book beautiful
  Translation: I read a beautiful book
  Comment: More examples in Guardiano & Stavrou (2012)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: na màkina rrùssa / * na rrùssa màkina
  Gloss: a car red / a red car
  Translation: a red car
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
+ Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
  Words: hiša velika kot hrib
  Gloss: house big as hill
  Translation: a house as big as a hill
  Comment: Adjective phrases can follow the noun if they are sufficiently heavy, so that bare adjectives never follow the noun.
  Contributor: Franc Marušič
+ Spanish Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: El café caliente está sobre la mesa
  Gloss: the.M coffee hot be.PRS.3SG on the.F table
  Translation: The hot coffee is on the table
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
   St'át'imcets No Lisa Matthewson
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: babae-ng maganda
  Gloss: woman-Lk beautiful
  Translation: beautiful woman
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
+ Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: indé tsíkata turhipiti thire-h-ti=ia
  Gloss: DEM hen black eat-PFV-3=ADV
  Translation: 'That black hen has already eaten'
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so maɲatə na bona paʃtə
  Gloss: I.am eaten a good pasta
  Translation:  I ate nice pasta
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so kompratə na maja verdə
  Gloss: I.am bought a shirt green
  Translation: I bought a green shirt
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *so kompratə na verdə maja
  Gloss: I.am bought a green shirt
  Translation: I bought a green shirt
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
+ Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: 'adəg fädab
  Gloss: monkey strong
  Translation: ‘strong monkey’
  Comment: P183 Leslau
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern
   Tiwa Yes Virginia Dawson
+ Tlingit Yes James Crippen
  Words: cháatl xookw
  Gloss: halibut dried
  Translation: dried halibut
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
  Words: yàà-nàL ɛ̀sú=gɛ
  Gloss: woman-HUM.SG pretty=DEF
  Translation: ‘the pretty woman’ (160: 240a).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Tongan Yes Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala Yes George Aaron Broadwell
+ Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: te mia to'oge
  Gloss: CORE person big
  Translation: the big person
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) Yes Edmond Biloa This ordering is only possible for color adjectives.
  Words: vatu va- dinga- ḿ mbwá f́íítiti
  Gloss: people SM- love- ASP dog black
  Translation: people like black dogs
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: Mbárá a- má- fowa akáná yĕndze púú
  Gloss: Mbara SM- PST2- build big house white
  Translation: Mbara built a big white house
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: * mbárá a-má fowa púú y`éndze
  Gloss: Mbara SM- P2 build big white house
  Translation: Mbara built a big white house”
  Comment: color adjectives must be postnominal
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Anhang- a’iba / Itá pyranga
  Gloss: devil evil / stone red
  Translation: The evil devil / red stone
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural
   Tuvan No Brian Hsu
   Twi Yes Cansada Martin
   Udmurt No Orsolya Tanczos
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese Yes Binh Ngo
  Words: chiê’c xe màu xanh
  Gloss: the car color green
  Translation: the green car
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian Yes Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan Yes Tatiana Nikitina
+ Warlpiri NA Margit Bowler Warlpiri lacks adjectives. Adjectives in the language pattern morphologically with nouns.
  Words: Jarntu-ngku wiri-jarlu-rlu yarlkurnu kurdu.
  Gloss: dog-ERG big-AUG-ERG bite.PST child
  Translation: The big dog bit the child.
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
   Welsh Yes David Willis
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof Yes Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
   Yan-nhaŋu No Claire Bowern
   Yawa Yes Mark Donohue
   Yiddish No Shannon Mooney
+ Yoruba Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
  Words: Àbẹ́là pupa/dúdú/funfun
  Gloss: candle red/black/white
  Translation: 'Red/black/white candle'
  Contributor: Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: el casa blanco
  Gloss: the house white
  Translation: the white house
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
  Words: casa de palo
  Gloss: house of wood
  Translation: wooden house
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Yo tiene un bisicleta colorao.
  Gloss: 1SG have a bicycle red
  Translation: I have a red bicycle.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
+ Zulu Yes Esther Park
  Words: Umu-ntu om-khulu u-fik-ile.
  Gloss: 1-person 1-big 1-arrive-PRF
  Translation: 'The big person has arrived.'
  Contributor: Esther Park