Login

05_Subject Verb Object

Definition
The property Subject Verb Object has the value "yes" when the order Subject Verb Object can be used in a neutral context. The clause in this property is an active (non-passive) declarative (non-interrogative) clause. In this property, the subject and object are not pronouns. As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

Definition of Subject
Definition of Object

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Subject Verb Object does not exclude a "yes" value for any other order of these categories.

NA (Not Applicable): All known languages have subjects and objects in the defined sense, so this property is always defined and never has the value NA.

Examples:

1.
English is "yes" for Subject Verb Object;

John saw the airplane

2.
Japanese is "no" for Subject Verb Object, since this order is always ungrammatical:

*dareka-ga otosi-ta koppu-o.
someone-NOM drop-PST cup-ACC
"Someone dropped a cup."
Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Titi ʼa ʼám ǁkà“e
  Gloss: Titi PROG eat meat
  Translation: ‘Titi is eating meat’ (Collins and Gruber: 17).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Acehnese Yes Julie Legate
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: Die studente lees baie boeke
  Gloss: the student.PL read many book.PL
  Translation: The students read a lot of books
  Comment: This is the unmarked order in main clauses, which are necessarily V2.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: kòfí́ klò ámá
  Gloss: Koffi aimer Ama
  Translation: Koffi aime Ama.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
+ Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Kofi di -i aduane
  Gloss: Kofi eat -PST food
  Translation: Kofi ate food
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words:  Eva bleu akullore
  Gloss: Eva bought ice-cream
  Translation: Eva bought (an) ice-cream.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner JOHN LIKE MARY
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: e: hûs esthíei toùs ófeis
  Gloss: ART-NOM.F.SG sow-NOM.SG eat-PRS.3SG ART-ACC.M.PL snake-ACC.PL
  Translation: Sows eats snakes
  Comment: Aristoteles, Historia animalium, Bekker page 609b line 30
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: Ahmed qara al-ketaab
  Gloss: Ahmed read.PST DET- book
  Translation: Ahmed read the book
  Contributor: Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
  Words: Ani-n kerav salor
  Gloss: Ani-DET eat.3SG.PST plum
  Translation: Ani ate plum
  Contributor: Sona Haroutyunian
   Atayal (Squliq) No Sihwei Chen
   Babanki Yes Pius Akumbu
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: lə́ŋə́ wíì ká tá mbú yâ
  Gloss: Horse that FUT kick dog the
  Translation: That horse will kick the dog
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
+ Bambara Yes Bryan Villa Yes: Only if we consider Aux (S "ÄUX" O V) to have verbal properties. This is tricky.
  Words: a bè nyò san
  Gloss: He BE grain buy
  Translation: He buys grain
  Comment: from TNBG pg 43
  Contributor: Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
+ baoulé - faafouê de kokumbo Yes kouakou koffi salomon
  Words: kofi di duo
  Gloss: koffi manger igname
  Translation: koffi mange de l'igname
  Contributor: kouakou koffi salomon
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
   Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque No Karlos Arregi
   baule-kôdeh Yes Andréa ALLA
+ Bellinzonese Yes Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: Al Gianni u=mangia la turta
  Gloss: the Gianni he=eat.PRS.3SG the cake
  Translation: Gianni eats the cake.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Priyanka Biswas OK under contrastive focus interpretation.
+ Bole Yes Alhaji Gimba
  Words: Bamoi inna dosho
  Gloss: Bamoi see (pfv) horse
  Translation: Bamoi saw a horse
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
+ Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
  Words: Maria ama essa canção
  Gloss: Maria love.PRS.3SG this.F.SG song.SG
  Translation: Maria loves this song
  Contributor: Bruna Moreira
+ Breton Yes Steve Hewitt
  Words: tout an dud noa gwelet ar c'harr-nij
  Gloss: all det people.PL had seen det car-fly
  Translation: everyone had seen the plane
  Contributor: Mélanie Jouitteau
+ Bulgarian Yes Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: Nikola do-vərsh-i proekt-a
  Gloss: Nikola PFV-do-3.SG:AOR projekt-3.SG.DEF.M
  Translation: Nikola finished the project
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burgenland-Romani Yes Michelle McComb
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: ngo zongji ni bun syu
  Gloss: I like this CLF book
  Translation:  I like this book.
  Comment: The demonstrative ni ‘this’ can also be pronounced as li, lei, nei.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
   Chalcatongo Mixtec No Jess Combs
+ Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
  Words: alenje a-na-thámángitsá mikángo
  Gloss: hunters 2SM-past-chase lions
  Translation: (the) hunters chased (the) lions
  Comment: 2 is class marker for alenje; parentheses indicate optionality
  Contributor: Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
   Chol No Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: O Kostas eferen pagoton.
  Gloss: the Kostas brought ice-cream
  Translation: Kostas brought ice-cream.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Pavel Caha
  Words: Petr jí polívku.
  Gloss: Petr eat.3sg soup.acc
  Translation: Petr is eating soup.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
+ Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Niels spiser en kage
  Gloss: Niels eat.PRS a cake
  Translation: Niels eats/is eating a cake
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby ALS4 workshop 2016
  Words:  ɟūkū mlɛ̰̄ dúkú
  Gloss: Djoukou go.IMPF village
  Translation: Djoukou goes to the village
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: Yuya bwana wa-rima munda.
  Gloss: CL1.DEM CL1a.gentleman 3SG.PST-farm CL3.field
  Translation: That man farmed a field.
  Comment: Canonical order; the man is a switch topic.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic Yes David Erschler
  Words: mɐ=madɐ=ba ʁɐdin k’os-ɐj ɐvgɐd-ta nantiχʷar-i ɐʁzald
  Gloss: POSS.1SG=mother=CTR wooden bowl-ABL pour.PST-PST.3SG corn-OBL cleaned.grain
  Translation: 'And my mother poured cleaned grains of corn from a wooden bowl.'
  Comment: CTR contrastive topic
  Contributor: David Erschler
  Words: mɐ=madɐ ba-jgon kod-ta dwar
  Gloss: POSS.1SG=mother=CTR PRV-open do.PST-PST.3SG door
  Translation: 'My mother opened the door.'
  Contributor: David Erschler
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Marie belt vandaag haar twee broers op
  Gloss: Mary calls today her two brothers up
  Translation: Mary is calling her two brothers today
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
  Words: Mariam-a kerav khndzor-a
  Gloss: Mariam.DEF eat.3SG.PST apple.DEF
  Translation: Mariam ate the apple
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Egyptian Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: Este professor tem vários alunos.
  Gloss: this.M professor have.PRES.3SG several.M.PL student.PL
  Translation: This professor has several students.
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe Yes Chris Collins
   Farefari Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese Yes Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Farsi No Natasha Schimka
+ Fijian Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: e lako-v-a na i-sele
  Gloss: 3S fetch-it DEF knife
  Translation: ‘he fetches the knife’
  Comment: pronominal subject only
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: Anna juo kahvi-a.
  Gloss: Anna drink.PRS.3SG coffee-PART
  Translation: Anna drinks/is drinking coffee.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Les oiseaux mangent des vers.
  Gloss: DEF-DET-PL bird-PL eat-PRS INDF-DET-PL worm-PL
  Translation: The birds eat worms.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   French (Ivorian) Yes Akpoué Josué
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: nuu ko e-na bo
  Gloss: man certain PRF-see 2SING
  Translation: a certain man has seen you
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna No Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German Yes Chris Collins
+ Ghɔmáĺá' Yes Francine Moguo
  Words: pə̀kxə̌ tʃə́ ŋglâsì
  Gloss: SBJ VERB OBJ
  Translation: The children break the glass
  Contributor: Francine Moguo
+ Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Ik urrasja ina in þamma spedistin daga
  Gloss: I raise.PRS him.ACC in the.M.DAT.SG last.DAT.SG day.DAT.SG
  Translation: I will raise him on the last day
  Comment: John 6:54
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: O Petros espase to kipelo.
  Gloss: the Peter broke the mug
  Translation: Peter broke the mug
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: ekutʃis skoton to neka (Dawkins 1916: 424)
  Gloss: ox.driver.SG.NOM kill.PRS.3SG ART.DEF.SG.ACC woman.SG.ACC
  Translation: the ox driver kills the woman
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
+ Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) No Stephen Mayeaux # by the example indicates grammatical but not in a neutral context (object focus only)
  Words: #piniartu-p pisar-aa puisi
  Gloss: hunter-ERG catch-3s.3s.IND seal
  Translation: ‘The hunter caught the seal’
  Contributor: Stephen Mayeaux
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
+ Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: àsíbá nù sìn
  Gloss: Asiba drink water
  Translation:  Asiba drank some water
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene Yes Samuel Atintono
   Haitian Yes Michel DeGraff
   Hakka Yes Iris Wu
+ Hanga Yes Geoffrey Hunt
  Words: bii maa naa daa maa lobi
  Gloss: child the take stick the throw
  Translation: the child threw the stick
  Comment: Serial verbs are common in Hanga
  Contributor: Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa Yes Russell Schuh
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: Gabi 'oxel tapu'ax
  Gloss: Gabi eat.M.S.PRS apple
  Translation: Gabi is eating an apple
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: werachel laqchah 'et-hatterafim (Gen 31,34)
  Gloss: Rachel.SBJ had taken. PRF3SGF images.OBJ
  Translation: And Rachel had thaken the images
  Comment: Usual order is Verb Subject Object. Here the subject is before the verb because "and" is seprated from the verb. 'et is a particle introducing the definite object
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Anoop Mahajan
   Hittite No Mattyas Huggard
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: A fekete kutya ugat-ja a hold-at.
  Gloss: the black dog[NOM.SG] bark-3SG.SUBJ.DEF.OBJ.PRS.IND the moon-ACC
  Translation: `The black dog is barking at the moon'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
   Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
   Igala Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Igbo Yes Mary Amaechi
  Words: Obi hu-ru Ada
  Gloss: Obi see-PST Ada
  Translation: 'Obi saw Ada.'
  Contributor: Mary Amaechi
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   Ilokano No Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian Yes Mark Donohue
   Irish No Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic Yes David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun No Iris Wu
+ Italian Yes Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: Io parlo italiano.
  Gloss: 1S speak Italian
  Translation: I speak Italian.
  Contributor: Timothy Ho
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English Yes Tonjes Veenstra
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   Jingulu Yes Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
+ Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) No Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: Raama nooD-id-anu (,) Siite-yannu
  Gloss: Rama see-PAST-3sg.m. Sita-ACC
  Comment: No because no postverbal objects in neutral contexts. This order does occur: the post verbal NP is a topic. This order is more natural in perfect contexts (see next example)
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: Raama nooD-idd-aane (,) Siite-yannu
  Gloss: Rama see- be.NONPAST-3sg.m. Sita-ACC
  Translation: ‘Rama has (indeed) seen (Sita).’ ‘Rama has seen Sita, before this.’
  Comment: The postvrela NP is a topic. This order is more natural in perfect contexts (see also preceding example)
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   Karachay Yes Steve Seegmiller
+ Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
  Words: Gene nisad-hqa-w-e· ké·su
  Gloss: G hate-caus-vb-nfv cheese
  Translation: Gene hates cheese
  Contributor: John Gluckman
   Kayan Yes Ken Manson
   Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande Yes Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
+ Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
  Words: Baba lèng wáyn
  Gloss: Baba beat child
  Translation: Baba has beaten the child
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
  Words: wáyndà b'`I chuf no^ ncha?
  Gloss: child not pick even straw
  Translation: A child has not eaten anyhting
  Comment: to verify: scope of negation w.r.t. the subject
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Konni Yes Michael Cahill
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Koyo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Kuot No Eva Lindström Subject (or object or an adverbial) can be fronted, but the unmarked order is VSO
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: pυa la da’ laad la
  Gloss: woman Def buy.perf items Def
  Translation: ‘the woman bought the items’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal Yes Florian Lionnet
+ Lango Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: án àcámò dɛ̀k
  Gloss: I 1SG.eat.PRF stew
  Translation: I ate stew (Noonan 1992: 119 ex 1a.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Lani No Mark Donohue
+ Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
  Words: laaw khian cot-maai hai saeng thuk mue
  Gloss: 3SG write letter give Saeng each day
  Translation: He writes a letters for Saeng every day
  Contributor: Alif Silpachai
+ Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: At ego amo hanc
  Gloss: and I.NOM love.PRS.1SG this.F.ACC.SG
  Translation: And I love this one
  Comment:  Plautus (Poen.313)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Giovanni Pairotti a value 'yes' was assigned since the statistical distribution is beyond 30%
  Words: populus deducet episcopum
  Gloss: the people: NOM accompany: PRS: 3SG the bishop: ACC
  Translation: ‘the people accompany the bishop’
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 27.6). The pattern is found in 35,5 % (my own data) of main active declarative clauses in the sample. See Spevak 2005: 240-249. SVO patterns can already be found in Plautus (3rd – 2nd cent. BCE) but they become dominant only in Late Latin. See Bauer 2009: 268-271 – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
   Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
+ Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
  Words: Petras rašo laišką.
  Gloss: Peter.NOM.SG write.PRS.3 letter.ACC.SG
  Translation: Peter writes a letter.
  Contributor: Felix Thies
   Lubukusu Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam No Mythili Menon
   Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
+ Maori Yes Ray Harlow
  Words: Mehemea koe ki te whakawera i te wai,
  Gloss: If IIsg to the heat Do the water
  Translation: ka puta te korohuu
  Comment: K/A appear the steam
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: Leddik eo e=j dāpij kuuj eo.
  Gloss: girl the.SG 3SG.AGR=PRS hold.TR cat the.SG
  Translation: The girl is holding the cat.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
+ Masarak Yes Jessica Chen
  Words: daʊd t-iɲɑn-ɑ ɲuɡu
  Gloss: Daowd 3SG-ate-PST meat.SG
  Translation: ‘Daowd ate the meat’
  Contributor: Jessica Chen
   Mbuko Yes Richard Gravina
   Medumba Yes KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Comment: example under 03
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
  Words: Ndùwya a tənzə márdə
  Gloss: Nduya Pf plant millet
  Translation: 'Nyuda planted millet'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: ana kan.bghii khu.ya
  Gloss: I want.1SG.PRES brother.1SPOSS
  Translation: I like my brother.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
  Words: Lawan ó zum-ába ɗaf-á
  Gloss: Lawan 3sg eat-P2 food-Asp
  Translation: Lawan has eaten food.
  Comment: When the action is accomplished, the language places the aspect indicator clause finally in neutral contexts.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Lawan á ví ɗaf ana Satay
  Gloss: Lawan 3sg give food to Satay
  Translation: Lawan gives food to Satay.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N|u Yes Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Naki Yes Jeff Good
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: kpɛleː bɛːn naŋkpaʔe ʔɛnaːʔe
  Gloss: table+cm(de)+spec be+with leg+cm(ga)-pl cm(ga)-pl+four+cm(ga)-pl
  Translation: “The table has four legs" (16).
  Comment: All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
   Ndut Yes Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Niuean No Diane Massam
   Nkore-Kiga Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Northern Thai Yes Alif Silpachai
  Words: xaa sue xaung-kin hue mae
  Gloss: 1SG buy food for mother
  Translation: I bought some food for my mother
  Contributor: Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa e ba nakan.
  Gloss: Musa PRS cut meat
  Translation: Musa is cutting the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Occitan Yes Patrick Sauzet
   Odia (Oriya) Yes Rajat Mohanty
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English Yes Steve Seegmiller
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: that ênig liudeo ni scal farfolgan is friunde
  Gloss: that any people.GEN NEG should follow.INF his friend.DAT
  Translation: that any of the people should follow his friend
  Comment: (Heliand 1492-1493)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Naliaka y-a-rera a-ma-tsi
  Gloss: Naliaka 3sg-PST- bring AUG-C6-water
  Translation: Naliaka brought water
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Maria y-a-lola i-ndege
  Gloss:  Maria 3sg.SA-PST-see C9-airplane
  Translation: Maria saw the airplane
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ One Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: I u au oi
  Gloss: 1SG eat sago bench
  Translation: I ate sago on the bench
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
   Palue Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay Yes Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Piotr je zupę.
  Gloss: Piotr.nom eat.3sg soup.acc
  Translation: Piotr is eating soup.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Maria abriu a gaveta
  Gloss: M. open.PST.3SG the.F drawer
  Translation: Maria opened the drawer
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: Ion mănȃncă prăjituri.
  Gloss: John eat.PRS.SG.3 cake-PL
  Translation: John is eating cakes/John eats cakes.
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
+ Russian Yes Stephanie Harves
  Words: Ivan kupil knigu.
  Gloss: Ivan.NOM bought book.ACC
  Translation: Ivan bought a book.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua Yes Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Saramaccan Yes Tonjes Veenstra
+ Sasak Yes Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
  Words: Awan n-tulis surat=no
  Gloss: Awan AV-write letter=DEF
  Translation: 'Awan wrote the letter'
  Comment: Sukadana, Northern Sasak
  Contributor:  Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
+ Saweru Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: Ruama mo=komi arian=ai
  Gloss: Woman 3SG.F.NOM=search.for child=3SG.M.DAT
  Translation: A woman looked for a child
  Comment: Dative objects must follow the verb
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Senaya Yes Laura McPherson
   Serbian Yes Miloje Despic
+ Shan Yes Alif Silpachai
  Words: kha-haw han khoe laat kwaam tai
  Gloss: 1SG see 2DU speak language shan
  Translation: I saw you two speaking Shan
  Contributor: Alif Silpachai
+ Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: Ndàm yùn màtwá
  Gloss: Ndam buy.PST car.SG
  Translation: Ndam bought a car
  Comment: Recent past
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: pon su tasa
  Gloss: children wash-PAST dishes
  Translation: the children washed the dishes
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: Gjovànni vìtti na kàsa
  Gloss: John saw a house
  Translation: John saw a house
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: i polizzjòtti ammazzàrru a n'wòmminu
  Gloss: the policemen killed a man
  Translation: the policemen killed a man
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
+ Spanish Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Juan limpió el espejo
  Gloss: J. clean.PST.3SG the.M mirror
  Translation: Juan cleaned the mirror
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
  Words: Flickan äter en glass.
  Gloss: girl.DEF eats an ice-cream
  Translation: The girl is eating an ice-cream.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
+ Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: i ai chit ki pit
  Gloss: he love DEM CLF pen
  Translation: He loves this pen.
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
   Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: Mariə vidó na kasə
  Gloss: Mary saw a house
  Translation: Mary saw a house
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: li ʃtudintə annə skrittə li latterə
  Gloss: the students have written the letters
  Translation: the students wrote the letters
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: lu puliziottə kulpó lu ladrə
  Gloss: the policeman hit the thief
  Translation: the policeman hit the thief
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
+ Tigre No Zhenyu Sun
  Comment: “As a SOV language the verb in Tigre is at the end of the sentence.” The Semitic Languages, Weninger, Stefan P1146
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern
   Tiwa No Virginia Dawson
+ Tlingit Yes James Crippen
  Words: wé shaawát-ch 0-wu-0-si-teen xóots
  Gloss: DEM.MDIST woman-ERG 3P-PFV-3A-CLF[−D,s,+I]-see brown.bear
  Translation: that woman saw a brown bear
  Comment: SVO is one of the two most common word orders in Tlingit, although all are possible and syntactically unmarked.
  Contributor: James Crippen
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
+ Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: Te mia to'oge no-'ita te anabou
  Gloss: CORE person big 3R-see CORE boy
  Translation: The large person saw a boy
  Comment: There is a slight pragmatic emphasis on 'the large person'
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) Yes Edmond Biloa
  Words: Putá a- kutu- namba kuru
  Gloss: Puta SM- PROG- cook rat
  Translation: Puta is cooking rat
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: a- dinga- ḿ Putá
  Gloss: SM- loves -Inc Puta
  Translation: “he/she loves Puta”
  Comment: In Tuki, null subjects are attested
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Although the above sentence is possible and grammatical, another order is more common: Pedro kunhã kuaba (Pedro knows the woman).
  Words: Pedro o-î-kuab kunhã
  Gloss: P. (3.SG)-3.SG.OBJ know.PRS/PST.IND woman
  Translation: Peter knows/knew the woman
  Comment: Although the above sentence is possible and grammatical, another order is possible and most common: Peter kunhã kuaba (Pedro woman knows/Pedro's knowledge (infinitive) of the woman). Every infinitive in Tupi is also a noun, so that all transitive verbs require a nominal complement (of the woman).
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Murat Kural Note that all the possible clausal orders in Turkish other than Subject-Object-Verb indicate some variation in topic/focus, old/new information or other discourse relevant variations. The best way to understand the effects of this using ENglish syntax is clefting. The element that appears immediately preverbal corresponds to a clefted phrase. Any element that appears aftrer the verb is backgrounded and/or has the "afterthought " flavor.
   Tuvan No Brian Hsu
+ Twi Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Kofi dii brodo no.
  Gloss: Kofi eat.PST bread DET
  Translation: Kofi ate the bread.
  Contributor: Cansada Martin
   Udmurt No Orsolya Tanczos
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: Ol'ha myje posud
  Gloss: Olga washes dishes
  Translation: Olga is washing dishes
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
+ Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: n le bI saka
  Gloss: n eat.IPFV now rice
  Translation: I am eating rice now
  Comment: In tensed clauses; VO alternates with I X V; in nonfinite clauses strictly OV; *in all examples: Vs with capital letters=ATR; tones omitted (4 tones)*
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese Yes Binh Ngo
  Words: Nam mua một cuốn sách.
  Gloss: Nam buy one CLF book
  Translation: "Nam bought a book."
  Contributor: Binh Ngo
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian Yes Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
   Warlpiri Yes Margit Bowler
   Welsh No David Willis
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
  Words: Valère kent dienen boek niet
  Gloss: Valère know-3sg that-masc-sg book not
  Translation: 'Valère doesn't know that book.'
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof Yes Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
+ Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
  Words: U-Thole u-thand-a u-Mary.
  Gloss: 1a-Thole SM1-love-FV 1a-Mary
  Translation: Thole loves Mary
  Contributor: Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa Yes Mark Donohue
+ Yiddish Yes Shannon Mooney
  Words: Der man lejent dos bux.
  Gloss: the.M.SG.NOM man read.3SG the.M.ACC book.SG
  Translation: "The man is reading the book."
  Contributor: Shannon Mooney
+ Yoruba Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
  Words: Ajá ọdẹ pa ọ̀kẹ́rẹ́ kan
  Gloss: Dog hunter kill squirrel one/certain
  Translation: 'The hunter's dog killed a (certain) squirrel.'
  Contributor: Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Si Jose ya compra el flores.
  Gloss: DET Jose PST buy the flowers.
  Translation: Jose bought the flowers.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
+ Zulu Yes Esther Park
  Words: U-Sipho u-fund-a isi-Zulu.
  Gloss: 1a-Sipho 1a-study-PRES 7-Zulu
  Translation: 'Sipho is studying Zulu.'
  Contributor: Esther Park