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06_Subject Object Verb

Definition
The property Subject Object Verb has the value "yes" when the order Subject Object Verb can be used in a neutral context. The clause in this property is an active (non-passive) declarative (non-interrogative) clause. In this property, the subject and object are not pronouns. As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

Definition of Subject
Definition of Object

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Subject Object Verb does not exclude a "yes" value for any other order of these categories.

NA (Not Applicable): All known languages have subjects and objects in the defined sense, so this property is always defined and never has the value NA.

Examples:

1.
Japanese is "yes" for the property Subject Object Verb:

dareka-ga koppu-o otosi-ta.
someone-Nom cup-Acc drop-Past
"Someone dropped a cup."

2.
English is "no" for the property Subject Object Verb since this order is always ungrammatical:

*John the ball sees
(* means ungrammatical)

3.
The following English example has an archaic flavor that excludes it from consideration:

One term paper does not a graduate student make.

In other words, even though the word order in this example is Subject Object Verb, we assume that this word order does not characterize modern English.
Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Abaza Yes Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: dat hy die huis gekoop het
  Gloss: that he the house buy.PSTPRT has
  Translation: that he has bought the house
  Comment: This is the standardly required order in embedded clause. It is possible to diverge from this order in colloquial Afrikaans, but these divergences are subject to strict restrictions (e.g. the finite verb must be an auxiliary).
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
   Agni indénié No Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
+ Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: ∗ Kofi ballo bɔ - ɔ.
  Gloss: Kofi ball play -PST
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
  Words: #Eva akullore bleu.
  Gloss: Eva ice-cream bought
  Translation: Eva bought (an) ice-cream.
  Comment: this is bad in a ‘neutral’ (e.g. out-of-the-blue) context but fine in a context such as ‘What did Eva buy?’
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner With certain verbs & verbal inflections: JOHN MARY MEET, JOHN BOOK READ+durative
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: saba bet gäzza-čč
  Gloss: S. house buy.PRV-3fss
  Translation: 'Saba bought a house'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: ho zōgráfos klínēn poieî
  Gloss: ART-NOM.M.SG painter-NOM.SG bed-ACC.SG make-IND.PRS.3SG
  Translation: ‘the painter makes a couch’
  Comment: Pl. Republic 596e
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: * Ahmed al-ketaab qaraa
  Gloss: Ahmed DET-book read.PST
  Translation: Ahmed read the book
  Contributor: Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
  Words: Ani-n salor kerav
  Gloss: Ani-DET plum eat.3SG.PST
  Translation: Ani ate plum
  Contributor: Sona Haroutyunian
   Atayal (Squliq) No Sihwei Chen
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: kàá lə́ŋə́ ghû ká wá’á mbú yá tâ
  Gloss: Neg horse this FUT Neg dog the kick
  Translation: This horse will not kick the dog
  Comment: As mentioned above, this order (SOV) is only possible with negative sentences
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
+ Bambara Yes Bryan Villa
  Words: a bè nyò san
  Gloss: He BE grain buy
  Translation: He buys grain
  Comment: from TNBG pg 43
  Contributor: Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
+ baoulé - faafouê de kokumbo Yes kouakou koffi salomon
  Words: kofi duo fa
  Gloss: koffi igname prendre
  Translation: koffi, l'igname, prends
  Comment: on interpelle koffi. on lui indique l'igname en lui demandant de la prendre
  Contributor: kouakou koffi salomon
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
+ Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: * Al Mario la turta u=mangia
  Gloss: the Mario the cake he=eat.PRS.3SG
  Translation: Mario eats the cake.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng Yes Denis Paperno
+ Bengali Yes Satarupa Das
  Words: ami am-ta kheye-ch-i
  Gloss: 1.SG.NOM mango-CLF eat.PRF-PRS-1
  Translation: I have eaten the mango
  Contributor: Satarupa Das
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
   Breton No Steve Hewitt
+ Bulgarian Yes Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: Todor ja vid-ja
  Gloss: Todor 3.SG.ACC.F see-3.SG.AOR
  Translation: Todor saw her
  Comment: This order is possible only with pronominal subjects but other than that it is fully normal. AOR stands for aorist. It is not in the Leipzig glossing rules
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burgenland-Romani Yes Michelle McComb
   Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: keoi nidou sik ngo
  Gloss: (s)he here know me
  Translation: (S)He knows me here.
  Comment: In sencondary topicalization. also in constructions with dou (S O dou V) and in the zoeng-construction (S zoeng O V). Reference: Stephen,Matthews and Yip, Virginia. 1994. Cantonese: A comprehensive grammar. Routledge, 2013. chapter 4.1.1 & 4.2.3
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Txuss Martin
   Chalcatongo Mixtec No Jess Combs
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
   Chol No Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
  Words: *O Kostas pagoton eferen.
  Gloss: the Kostas ice-cream brought.
  Translation: Kostas brought ice-cream.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech No Pavel Caha
  Words: Petr {#dopis} píše {dopis}.
  Gloss: Petr.nom letter.acc write.3sg letter.acc
  Translation: Peter is writing a letter.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo However in a serial verb construction, one can have teh structure, SV1OV2, where we see that the shared object precedes V2.
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby ALS4 workshop 2016
  Words: ɟūkū ī ɔ̄ ju̍ ɓā
  Gloss: Djoukou FUT POSS child beat
  Translation: Djoukou will beat her child
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: ɟūkū ī ɔ̄ jú ɓá
  Gloss: Djoukou FUT POSS child beat
  Translation: Djoukou will beat her child
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: yuya bwana hura wari ka-ya-u-rya
  Gloss: CL1.DEM CL1a.gentleman CL14.DEM CL14.rice 3SG.NEG-PST-CL14.OBJ-eat
  Translation: that man, that food, he did not eat it
  Comment: Subject NP and object NP are both topics. This order is only possible with a verb complement marker (u‑ in this example) which agrees with the object (hura wari).
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic Yes David Erschler
  Words: nɐ=χɐstɐg-utɐ kinʣɐ χonuncɐ
  Gloss: POSS.1PL=relative-PL.NOM daughter.in.law.NOM call.PRS.3PL
  Translation: There is a wedding in our relatives' family. (Lit. Our relatives are calling a daughter-in-law.)
  Comment: Iræf 2006(2)
  Contributor: David Erschler
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Marie heeft Jan hard geduwd
  Gloss: Mary has John hard ge.push.PRTC
  Translation: Mary pushed John hard
  Comment: If this sentence is embedded, the auxiliary 'heeft' can immediately precede or follow the participle; dat Marie Jan hard heeft geduwd/geduwd heeft.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
  Words: Mariam-a khndzor-a kerav
  Gloss: Mariam.DEF apple.DEF eat.3SG.PST
  Translation: Mariam ate the apple
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe Yes Chris Collins This word order is found in the progressive aspect.
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese No Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
+ Farsi Yes Natasha Schimka
  Words: Man ketâb xarid-am
  Gloss: I book buy-1SG.PST
  Translation: I bought a book / I bought books
  Contributor: Natasha Schimka
   Fijian No Zhenyu Sun
+ Finnish No Anders Holmberg Possible if the sentence has an initial focused constituent.
  Comment: Possible if the sentence has an initial focused constituent.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   French No Chris Collins
   French (Ivorian) No Akpoué Josué
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna No Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German Yes Martin Haspelmath
   Ghɔmáĺá' No Francine Moguo
+ Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Ik þus anabiuda
  Gloss: I you.DAT.SG command
  Translation: I command you
  Comment: Mar. 9:25
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Arhonto Terzi
  Words: *O Petros to vivlio dhiavase.
  Gloss: the Peter the book read
  Translation: Peter read the book.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: do fʃax do døʃeʝi=t tavrisen=do (Dawkins 1916: 370)
  Gloss: ART.DEF.SG.NOM boy.SG.NOM ART.DEF.SG.NOM bed.SG.ACC=3SG.GEN pull.PST.3SG=3.SG.ACC
  Translation: the boy pulled his bed
  Comment: This order is grammatical only if the direct object is clitic-doubled.
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
+ Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) Yes Stephen Mayeaux
  Words: Piniartu-p puisi pisar-aa
  Gloss: hunter-ERG seal catch-3s.3s.IND
  Translation: ‘The hunter caught the seal’
  Contributor: Stephen Mayeaux
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
+ Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: àsíbá jε sìn nù jí
  Gloss: Asiba start water drink top
  Translation: Asiba started drinking water
  Comment: OV structures usually require a sentence-final particle as the particle ‘top’ here.
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hanga No Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa No Russell Schuh
   Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo the natural order is: Verb—Subject—Object; a variation of the usual order of words frequently occurs when any member of the sentence is to be specially emphasized (Gesenius). E.g. we have S-O-V in Ps 6,10
  Comment: the natural order is: Verb—Subject—Object; a variation of the usual order of words frequently occurs when any member of the sentence is to be specially emphasized (Gesenius). E.g. we have S-O-V in Ps 6,10
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi Yes Anoop Mahajan
   Hittite Yes Mattyas Huggard
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Kati leves-t ev-ett.
  Gloss: Kati[NOM] soup-ACC eat-PST.3SG.IND
  Translation: `Kati ate soup'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha Yes Mark Donohue
   Ijo (Kaiama) Yes Hilda Koopman
   Ilokano No Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Irish No Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic Yes David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun No Iris Wu
   Italian No Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Tonjes Veenstra
+ Japanese Yes Ken Hiraiwa
  Words: dareka-ga koppu-o otosi-ta.
  Gloss: someone-NOM cup-ACC drop-PST
  Translation: Someone dropped a/the cup
  Contributor: Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara Yes Alan Vogel
   Jingulu Yes Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
+ Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) Yes Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: Raama chappati tin-d-anu
  Gloss: Rama chappati-bread eat-past-3sg.m.
  Translation: Rama ate chappati-bread.’
  Comment: Object not case-marked accusative if inanimate and non-specific indefinite
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: Raama haav-annu kond-anu
  Gloss: Rama snake-acc. kill.past-3sg.m.
  Translation: ‘Rama killed the snake.’
  Comment: The object is definite (zero article), and case marked. Object not case-marked accusative if inanimate and non-specific indefinite
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   Karachay Yes Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi No Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
+ Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
  Words: mbwá kopha búdídídyá
  Gloss: 1.dog cup broke.PST.3O
  Translation: The dog broke the cup
  Comment: Fine in 'what happened 'what's new" neutral context. (verbal morphology: bul.ili.dya.) All 6 orders are possible for this sentence.
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Konni No Michael Cahill
+ Korean Yes Chung-hye Han
  Words: Toli-ka mantwu-lul mek-ess-ta.
  Gloss: Toli-NOM dumpling-ACC eat-PST-DECL
  Translation: Toli ate a/the dumpling.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Koyo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Kuot No Eva Lindström Subject or object (or an adverbial) can be fronted but not both
+ Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
  Words: Hana sew a-xuw-at
  Gloss: Hana apple IPFV-eat-3SG
  Translation: Hana sew a-xuw-at
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: *pυa la laad la da’
  Gloss: woman Def item Def buy.perf
  Translation: ‘the woman bought the items’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lani Yes Mark Donohue
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
+ Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Caesar exercitum reduxit
  Gloss: C. army.ACC lead.back.3SG.PRF
  Translation: Caesar led back the army
  Comment: Caesar (BG 3.29)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Giovanni Pairotti a value 'yes' was assigned since the statistical distribution is beyond 30%
  Words: omnis populus episcopum…ducet
  Gloss: all: NOM the people: NOM the bishop: ACC accompany: PRS: 3SG
  Translation: ‘all the people accompany the bishop’
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 39.4). The pattern is considered to be the unmarked one in previous stages of Latin. See Bauer 2009: 268. It is still well attested in the 4th cent. CE: 32,3% (my own data) of the main active declarative clause in the sample show it. See Spevak 2005: 240-249 – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
   Lebanese Arabic No Lina Choueiri
+ Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
  Words: Pirmi gaidai velnią baido.
  Gloss: First.NOM.PL.M. rooster.NOM.PL. devil.ACC.SG scare.PRS.3
  Translation: The early roosters scare the devil.
  Comment: SOV sequence is common in proverbs.
  Contributor: Felix Thies
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
+ Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang In the ba- construction. (S ba O V)
  Comment: In sencondary topicalization. also in constructions with dou (S O dou V) and in the ba-construction (S ba O V)
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Mankanya No Tim Gaved
   Maori Yes Ray Harlow
+ Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: *Leddik eo kuuj eo e=j dāpij.
  Gloss: girl the.SG cat the.SG 3SG.AGR=PRS hold.TR
  Translation: The girl is holding the cat.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
+ Masarak Yes Jessica Chen
  Words: daʊd ɲuɡu t-iɲɑn-ɑ
  Gloss: Daowd meat.SG 3SG-ate-PST
  Translation: 'Daowd ate the meat'
  Contributor: Jessica Chen
   Mbuko No Richard Gravina
   Medumba No KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: Want hi heuet v ghehuet van allen ocsune
  Gloss: For he has you saved from all sins
  Translation: For he has saved you from all sins
  Comment: in complex tenses and embedded clauses. SVO in main clauses is common as well.
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang No Bebey Théodore
  Words: ⃰ * Sati ɗaf é dí
  Gloss: Satai food 3sg cook
  Translation: intended: *SOV
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words:  * Sati é ɗaf dí
  Gloss: Sati 3sg food cook
  Translation: intended SOV -- Sati cooks food
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N|u Yes Chris Collins
+ Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
  Words: Juan xochi-chihua
  Gloss: Juan flower-make
  Translation: "Juan arranges flowers"
  Comment: OK with noun incorporation. It's less clear what happens with definite objects. When pressed, I was told this was not frequent, but could be used in a "whats going on" context. Needs to be independently confirmed.
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Not Yet Set John Garcia I've yet to find examples of this one, but I would not be surprised if one came up.
   Naki Yes Jeff Good
   Navajo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Nawdm No Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' No Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
   Ndut No Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Niuean No Diane Massam
   Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa a nakan ba.
  Gloss: Musa PRV meat cut
  Translation: Musa has cut the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Odia (Oriya) Yes Rajat Mohanty
   Okinawan Yes Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English Yes Steve Seegmiller
+ Old French Yes Heather Burnett
  Words: Li quens Rollant Gualter de l’Hum apelet.
  Gloss: the count Roland Walter de l’Hum calls
  Translation: Count Roland calls over Walter de l'Hum
  Comment: (Roland 803; M-N, 75)
  Contributor: Heather Burnett
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden Rare in main clauses, but common in subordinate clauses. See section 3.4 of Walkden, George (2014). Syntactic Reconstruction and Proto-Germanic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  Words: Sum mann thann midfiri mên farlâtid
  Gloss: some men.NOM then middle-aged crime.ACC abandon
  Translation: Some men give up crime when they are middle-aged
  Comment: (Heliand 3476)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One No Mark Donohue
   Palue No Mark Donohue
   panjabi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
+ Pashto Yes Taylor Roberts
  Words: spi pisho khog krr-a
  Gloss: dog(OBL M) cat(DIR F) hurt do(PST PFV)-F3SG
  Translation: the dog hurt the cat
  Comment: Roberts 2000:12. Scrambling (OSV) is possible but not considered the basic order.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Piotr {#list} pisze {list}.
  Gloss: Piotr.nom letter.acc write.3sg letter.acc
  Translation: Peter is writing a letter.
  Comment: Felicitous with contrastive focus on 'letter'.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Oana Savescu
+ Russian No Stephanie Harves
  Words: #Ivan knigu kupil.
  Gloss: Ivan.NOM book.ACC bought
  Translation: Ivan bought a book.
  Comment: This example is felicitous only in non-neutral contexts, e.g. when the object is focused.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua Yes Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Saramaccan No Tonjes Veenstra
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
+ Saweru Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: Ruama mo=arian a-en-i
  Gloss: woman 3SG.F.NOM=child 3SG.M.ACC-see-TNS
  Translation: 'A woman saw a child.'
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Senaya Yes Laura McPherson
   Shan No Alif Silpachai
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: Gjovànni na kàsa vìtti
  Gloss: John a house saw
  Translation: John saw a house
  Comment: Marked order. Preferred, in certain contexts (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: i polizzjòtti a n'wòmminu ammazzàrru
  Gloss: the policemen to a man killed
  Translation: the policemen killed a man
  Comment: Marked order. Preferred, in certain contexts (cf. Cruschina 2008, Zanini & Damonte 2010)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Slovenian No Franc Marušič
+ Spanish No Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: *Juan el espejo limpió
  Gloss: J. the.M mirror clean.PST.3SG
  Translation: Intended: Juan cleaned the mirror
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
   St'át'imcets No Lisa Matthewson
+ Swedish No fredrik heinat
  Comment: This word order is not possible.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: Mariə maɲó na bananə
  Gloss: Mary ate a banana
  Translation: Mary ate a banana
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: lu puliziottə lu ladrə kulpó
  Gloss: the policeman the thief hit
  Translation: the policeman hit the thief
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
+ Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: həta 'abb-āy s̩ewabet ba
  Gloss: she large-MS family has
  Translation: ‘She has a large family.’
  Comment: Tigre grammar and texts / by Shlomo Raz. P50 this property is for non pronominal subjects and objects
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tiwa Yes Virginia Dawson
+ Tlingit Yes James Crippen
  Words: wé shaawát-ch xóots a-w-0-siteen
  Gloss: DEM.MDIST woman-ERG brown.bear 3P-PFV-3A-CLF[−D,s,+I]-see
  Translation: that woman saw a brown bear
  Comment: SOV is one of the two most common word orders in Tlingit, although all are possible and syntactically unmarked. (Examples from Cable 2008.)
  Contributor: James Crippen
   Tocharian A Yes Bernhard Koller
   Tocharian B Yes Bernhard Koller
+ Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
  Words: Ìyǎy=gɛ àn-ná=ɲ̀ ɔ̀mɔ́ kán-aa=be.
  Gloss: girl=DEF male-HUM.SG=OBJ present do-PFV=be.PST
  Translation: ‘The girl gave the man a present’ (463: 876a).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: A-î-pysyk
  Gloss: 1SG-3SG.OBJ-catch.IND
  Translation: I catch/caught him
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Pindobusu so’o o-îuká
  Gloss: P. animal.PL (3.SG) kill.PRS/PST.IND
  Translation: Pindobusu kills/killed (the) animals
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Turkish Yes Ryan Caro
  Words: Anne-m yemeğ-i piş-ir-iyor
  Gloss: mother-1SG food-ACC cook-CAUS-PROG
  Translation: My mother is cooking the food.
  Contributor: Ryan Caro
+ Tuvan Yes Brian Hsu
  Words: Šang xaan üš möörej čarla-an
  Gloss: Shang Khan three competition announce-PAST
  Translation: Shang Khan announced three competitions
  Contributor: Brian Hsu
   Twi No Chris Collins
   Udmurt Yes Orsolya Tanczos
+ Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk possible in certain non neutral contexts
  Comment: possible in certain non neutral contexts
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian No Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan Yes Tatiana Nikitina
+ Warlpiri Yes Margit Bowler
  Words: Wati-ngki yuwarli purra-ja.
  Gloss: man-ERG house burn-PST
  Translation: The man burned the house down.
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
  Words: Payi-ngki ka watiya kiji-rni.
  Gloss: wind-ERG AUX tree throw-NPST
  Translation: The wind is blowing the tree down.
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
   Welsh No David Willis
   West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
+ Wolane Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: rāwdɛ qāwɛ wɛhɛb-t
  Gloss: Rawda coffee buy:PV-3sf
  Translation: ‘Rawda bought coffee’ (252).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen 'ba' construction
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa Yes Mark Donohue
   Yiddish Yes Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zamboageño Chabacano No Grace Gaspardo
   Zulu No Claire Halpert