17_Demonstrative Noun

The property Demonstrative Noun has the value "yes" when a demonstrative can precede the noun that it modifies in a neutral context.

Definition of Demonstrative


English is "yes" for Demonstrative Noun:

this man

Ewe is "no" for the property Demonstrative Noun, since this order is always ungrammatical:

*sia agbale
this dog
(* means ungrammatical)

French is "yes" for the property Demonstrative Noun:

cette table
this.FEM table
"this table"

In French (and other Romance languages), it is often the case that demonstratives appear with reinforcers:

Cette table ci
This.FEM table CI
"this table"

The presence of the reinforcer ci in this example is ignored for the purposes of the properties Demonstrative Noun and Noun Demonstrative.

Japanese is "yes" for the property Demonstrative Noun.

kono tukue
this desk
"this desk"

Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: hierdie huis
  Gloss: this house
  Translation: this house
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
  Words: daardie mense
  Gloss: there.the people
  Translation: those people
  Comment: Afrikaans has composite demonstratives composed of a deictic locative (distal daar - "there" - and proximal hier - "here) plus the definite article (die - "the"). This make-up means that there is no singular vs plural distinction ("that" vs "those", etc.).
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
  Words: hierdie antwoord
  Gloss: here.the answer
  Translation: this answer
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
   Agni indénié No Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO Le démonstratif est situé à périphérie droite du syntagme nominal.
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: kjo vajzë
  Gloss: this girl
  Translation: this girl
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner THAT BOOK
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: ya bet
  Gloss: that house
  Translation: 'that house'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Eric Besson
  Words: kaì hoûtos ho nómos eklé:the: seisáchtheia
  Gloss: and this-NOM the-NOM law-NOM was-called shaking-off-of-burdens-NOM
  Translation: and this law was called "shaking-off burdens"
  Comment: Greek Text: καὶ οὗτος ὁ νόμος ἐκλήθη σεισάχθεια: (Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers, 1.45.6)
  Contributor: Eric Besson
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: Ahmed qaraa hatha al-ketab
  Gloss: Ahmed read.PST this DET-book
  Translation: Ahmed read this book
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Aymara Yes Matt Coler
   Babanki Yes Pius Akumbu
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: níì nɨ̀ŋgɔ̀ɔ̀
  Gloss: that plantain
  Translation: That particular plantain
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
+ Bambara Yes Bryan Villa
  Words: o cè ka jan
  Gloss: That man is tall
  Translation: That man is tall
  Comment: frmo TNBG 107
  Contributor: Bryan Villa
   Bandial No Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: bíní bikaat
  Gloss: AGR.DEM.PROX 8books
  Translation: These books (here)
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
+ Bellinzonese Yes Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: Ò töi chesctu libru ier
  Gloss: have.AUX.PRS.1 buy.PTCP this book yesterday
  Translation: I bought this book yesterday.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
+ Bengali Yes Satarupa Das
  Words: oi meye-ta
  Gloss: that girl-CLF
  Translation: that girl
  Contributor: Satarupa Das
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
+ Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
  Words: Essa cadeira
  Gloss: This.F.SG chair.F.SG
  Translation: This chair
  Contributor: Bruna Moreira
   Breton No Steve Hewitt
+ Bulgarian Yes Iliana Krapova
  Words: tova dete
  Gloss: DEM.N.SG child.N
  Translation: this child
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burgenland-Romani Yes Michelle McComb
+ Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
  Words: di hsei:
  Gloss: this medicine
  Translation: this medicine
  Contributor: Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: ni go naamjan
  Gloss: this CLF man
  Translation: this man
  Comment: The demonstrative ni ‘this’ can also be pronounced as li, lei, nei.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Chol Yes Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: Tuton to aftokiniton.
  Gloss: this the car
  Translation: This car.
  Comment: Without the determiner this structure is ungrammatical (i.e. *Tuton aftokiniton.).
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Peter Kosta
  Words: ten-hle chap
  Gloss: dem-reinforcer guy
  Translation: this guy here
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: ten chlap
  Gloss: dem guy
  Translation: the guy
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
+ Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Denne bog
  Translation: This book.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: Yuya mutu; yuno mkpwazangu
  Gloss: CL1.DEM CL1.person; CL1.DEM CL1.my_wife
  Translation: That person; that wife of mine (lit. that my wife)
  Comment: Digo has 4 demonstrative 'series' with variant forms of three of these, giving up to 9 demonstratives per noun class.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic Yes David Erschler
  Words: ači χɐʣarɐ
  Gloss: this house
  Translation: this house
  Contributor: David Erschler
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Dit huis is mooier dan die twee huizen
  Gloss: This house is beautiful.er than those two houses
  Translation: This house is more beautiful than those two houses
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Dit huis is mooier dan die twee huizen
  Gloss: This house is beautiful.er than those two houses
  Translation: This house is more beautiful than those two houses
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
  Words: es girk-a
  Gloss: this book.DEF
  Translation: this book
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
   Estonian Yes Mark Norris
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: Cumprimentei o professor.
  Gloss: greet.PST.1SG the.M professor
  Translation: I greeted the professor.
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
+ Farefari Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: kana bã’a
  Gloss: this disease
  Translation: this disease
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: nɛreba sɛba
  Gloss: people those
  Translation: those people
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese Yes Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
+ Farsi Yes Natasha Schimka
  Words: In ketâb
  Gloss: This book
  Translation: This book
  Contributor: Natasha Schimka
   Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Chris Collins
  Words: cette table
  Gloss: DEM-F table
  Translation: this table
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: nɛkɛ be-aŋ lɛ
  Gloss: this time-LOC DEF
  Translation: during this time
  Comment: this demonstrative rarely if ever occurs without another demonstrative or a definite marker following the noun
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna No Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German Yes Martin Haspelmath
   Ghɔmáĺá' No Francine Moguo
+ Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: þus gib þata waldufni
  Gloss: youDAT.SG give.1.SG.PRS thisACC.SG powerACC.SG
  Translation: I will give you this power
  Comment: Luke 4:6
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: afto to koritsi
  Gloss: this the girl
  Translation: this girl
  Comment: Demonstratives require the presence of the definite determiner.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: eto to pusla (Dawkins 1916: 306)
  Translation: this letter
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greek (Pontic) Yes Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
+ Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) Yes Stephen Mayeaux
  Words: una arnaq
  Gloss: that woman
  Translation: ‘that female person’
  Contributor: Stephen Mayeaux
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka Yes Iris Wu
   Hanga No Geoffrey Hunt
+ Hausa Yes Russell Schuh
  Words: wannán kwālī
  Gloss: this.M (speaker proximal) carton.M
  Translation: this carton
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: *hu henif ze degel
  Gloss: he hoist-PST this flag
  Translation: He hoisted this flag
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: zo't qomatek (Song 7,8)
  Gloss: this.DEM your stature.NOUN-POSS SUFF
  Translation: this your stature
  Comment: There are very rare cases where the demonstrative is used as an adjective before the noun
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Hittite Yes Mattyas Huggard
+ Hixkaryana NA Laura Kalin
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Ez-ek a kalap-ok rondá-k.
  Gloss: this-PL[NOM] the hat-PL[NOM] ugly-PL
  Translation: `These hats are ugly'
  Comment: An alternative (archaic?) version is "Ez-en kalap-ok rondá-k", which has a different demonstrative and no article.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
+ Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
  Words: Þessi bók
  Gloss: This.NOM.SG.F book.NOM.SG.F
  Translation: This book
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:11)
  Contributor: Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   Ijo (Kaiama) Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Ilokano Yes Jeremy Rafal
  Words: daytoy kotse
  Gloss: this car
  Translation: this car
  Contributor: Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Irish No Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic Yes David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun Yes Iris Wu
   Italian Yes Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Jamaican Creole English Yes Stephanie Durrleman
+ Japanese Yes Ken Hiraiwa
  Words: kono booru
  Gloss: this ball
  Translation: this ball
  Contributor: Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara Yes Alan Vogel
   Jingulu Yes Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
+ Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) Yes Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: ii/ aa naayi
  Gloss: prox./ distal dog
  Translation: this dog/ that dog
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   Karachay Yes Steve Seegmiller
+ Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
  Words: haʔu híʔbaya
  Gloss: that man
  Translation: that man
  Contributor: John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
+ Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
  Words: huyu m-toto
  Gloss: child cls2-child
  Translation: this child
  Contributor: Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Konni No Michael Cahill
+ Korean Yes Chung-hye Han
  Words: i chayk
  Gloss: this book
  Translation: this book
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lani No Mark Donohue
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
+ Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Hic locus tam inauditus
  Gloss: this.M.NOM place very unusual
  Translation: This very unusual place
  Comment: Cic. de orat. 2, 125
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Words: ad illud caput vallis
  Gloss: to that:ACC head:ACC valley:GEN
  Translation: 'to that head (initial part) of the valley'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 2.3) - This is still the statistically dominant order, as in Classical Latin, although postposition of the demonstrative becomes more frequent - cf. Iovino (2012: 119, 130) for texts from the 3-4 cent. CE: HIC > N : 87%; ILLE > N: 55%; ISTE > N: 66% - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
+ Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: ena alem// enda alem// ele ayioni //ene wueji// ku-lo ayiok
  Gloss: this knife//that knife// this boy.sg//this place//these boys
  Translation: this knife//this boy.sg//this place//these boys
  Comment: demonstratives seem to be composed of an article like element (sg/plural), encoding gender (n(fem, l ms), followed by Demonstrative root (n)a, (n)da, (n)e.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
+ Malagasy Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: io trano io
  Gloss: DEM house DEM
  Translation: that house
  Comment: Each of the seven demonstratives in Malagasy must frame the noun phrase it is qualifying. As seen here, the demonstrative 'ity' appears both before the noun phrase and after. Very occasionally, the second demonstrative is absent.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
   Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
+ Maori Yes Ray Harlow
  Words: teenei tangata
  Gloss: this man
  Translation: ‘this man’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: *ļeo e=ar jek kaņ wa.
  Gloss: the.man 3SG.AGR=PST make those boat
  Translation: The man made those boats.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
   Masarak No Jessica Chen
   Mbuko No Richard Gravina
  Words: jʉ̄n mɛ́n lī
  Gloss: this child lī
  Translation: this child
  Comment: In this case we will have a contrastive reading which is no longer a neutral context
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: uut desen prisoen
  Gloss: out of this.ACC.M prison
  Translation: out of this prison
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
  Words: nákǝn mbǝrgu
  Gloss: this.M.SG ram.M.SG
  Translation: 'this ram'
  Comment: In their attributive use, demonstratives precede the noun they modify and agree in gender, number and distance. The reference grammar used lists that there are instances in which the dem follows the head noun, these instances most often being in temporal expressions. It also lists that there are cases where the dem follows the noun for rhetorical purposes.
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
  Words: táka wún
  Gloss: that.F.SG girl.F.SG
  Translation: 'that girl'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: had el.rajel
  Gloss: this DEF.man
  Translation: this man
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: hadaa rajel
  Gloss: this man
  Translation: This is a man.
  Comment: this is a clause; the copula in present tense is unpronounced
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   N|u Yes Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Naki No Jeff Good
   Navajo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: làʔà bí.gàː
  Gloss: that child+cm(ga)+spec
  Translation: 'that child (over there)' (9).
  Comment: All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Ndut No Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: *Dzuru eci
  Gloss: red yam
  Translation: red yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: *Ga eci
  Gloss: DEM yam
  Translation: that yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Occitan Yes Patrick Sauzet
   Okinawan Yes Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English Yes Steve Seegmiller
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: oƀar al thit landskepi
  Gloss: over all this country
  Translation: over this whole country
  Comment: (Heliand 2441)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   Palue No Mark Donohue
   panjabi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay Yes Mark Donohue
+ Pashto Yes Taylor Roberts
  Words: daa peeghla kitaab-úna khe lwal-i
  Gloss: DEM.F.DIR.SG girl.F.DIR.SG book.M-DIR.PL good.M.DIR.PL read-3SG
  Translation: That girl reads books well.
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 88.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: ta kobieta
  Gloss: dem-nom.s.f woman-nom.s.f
  Translation: this woman
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: tamta kobieta
  Gloss: distal.dem-nom.s.f woman-nom.s.f
  Translation: that woman (over there)
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Conheciam este prédio
  Gloss: know.3SG.PST this.M.SG building
  Translation: They knew this building
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: acest copac
  Gloss: this.M.SG tree.M.SG
  Translation: this tree
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
+ Russian Yes Stephanie Harves
  Words: ètot restoran
  Gloss: this.NOM.M.SG restaurant.NOM.M.SG
  Translation: this restaurant
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua Yes Pieter Muysken
   Samoan Yes Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Saweru No Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Senaya Yes Laura McPherson
   Serbian Yes Miloje Despic
   Shan No Alif Silpachai
+ Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare The order demonstrative noun is possible when the demonstrative is focussed. For example, "this car" not "that car".
  Words: ji pam run
  Gloss: this bag be.full
  Translation: This bag is full.
  Comment: This order is possible when the demonstrative "ji" is focussed.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: ji pam pa kamkeri
  Gloss: this bag is rare
  Translation: This bag is rare.
  Comment: This order is possible when the demonstrative "ji" is focussed.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: mi ligghìi sti lìbbra
  Gloss: to.me I.read these books
  Translation: I read these books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
+ Spanish Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Visitamos esas ciudades
  Gloss: visit.PST.1PL that.F.PL city.PL
  Translation: We visited those cities
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
  Words: den här/denna grisen
  Gloss: this here/this pig.DEF
  Translation: this pig
  Comment: There is dialectal difference between the two demonstratives.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: de här/dessa grisarna
  Gloss: these here/these pigs.DEF
  Translation: these pigs
  Comment: There is dialectal difference between the two demonstratives.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: ito-ng babae
  Gloss: this-Lk woman
  Translation: this woman
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
+ Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: i ai chit ki pit
  Gloss: he love DEM CLF pen
  Translation: He loves this pen.
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: indé=ksï warhiiti-cha jarha-h-ti cosina
  Gloss: DEM=3PL.SUBJ woman-PL be-PFV-3 kitchen
  Translation: 'Those women are in the kitchen'
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so lettə ʃti latterə
  Gloss: I.am read these letters
  Translation:  I read these letters
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
+ Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: 'əllom h̩aməs nafar
  Gloss: these five ones
  Translation: these five ones
  Comment: P105
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Titan Yes Claire Bowern
  Words: tito poen-kekan-cako
  Gloss: this print-foot-hermit.crab
  Translation: this hermit crab's footprint
  Contributor: Claire Bowern
   Tiwa Yes Virginia Dawson
+ Tlingit Yes James Crippen
  Words: yaa lingít
  Gloss: DEM.PROX person
  Translation: this person
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ Tocharian A Yes Bernhard Koller
  Words: säs knāṃmune
  Gloss: this knowledge
  Translation: this knowledge
  Comment: source: A 10 b2
  Contributor: Bernhard Koller
   Tocharian B Yes Bernhard Koller
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa This ordering is only possible with contrastive focus.
  Words: a. ódzú mwana b. ává vana
  Gloss: a. this child b. these children
  Translation: a. THIS child b. THESE children
  Comment: Constrative focus (it means it is this child, and not any other child)
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: aye yĕndze
  Gloss: this house
  Translation: THIS house
  Comment: only with coontrastive focus
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: 'Ã kurumĩ
  Gloss: DEM boy
  Translation: This boy
  Comment: 'Ã means 'this' close to the speaker but not in his sight
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Turkish Yes Volkan Tümer
  Words: şu kapı
  Gloss: that door
  Translation: that door
  Contributor: Volkan Tümer
+ Tuvan Yes Brian Hsu
  Words: ol ulus
  Gloss: this people
  Translation: these people
  Contributor: Brian Hsu
+ Twi No Cansada Martin
  Words: *yi sikan
  Gloss: DEM knife
  Contributor: Cansada Martin
   Udmurt Yes Orsolya Tanczos
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: cej rik
  Gloss: this year
  Translation: this year
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
+ Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: mEnI kO
  Gloss: this.NI man
  Translation: This man
  Comment: Dem prenominally are followed by NI; nI also follows possessors (DP ni N); postnominal demonstratives [NP mE]
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
+ Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian Yes Zvjezdana Vrzic
  Words: sta jårna
  Translation: this winter
  Contributor: Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
+ Warlpiri Yes Margit Bowler
  Words: Nyampu watiya kirrirdi-mpayi.
  Gloss: this tree tall-AUG
  Translation: This tree is very tall.
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
   Welsh No David Willis
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
  Words: dien-en sjaal
  Gloss: that-masc-sg scarf
  Translation: 'that scarf'
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
+ Wolane Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: ʔənnɛ yɛgɛdɛrɛ gār-čɛ
  Gloss: This big house-PL
  Translation: ‘these big houses’ (230).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
+ Yiddish Yes Shannon Mooney
  Words: Oto di dozik-e froj
  Gloss: here the.F this-F woman
  Translation: "this woman"
  Contributor: Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Habla tu porcausa de aquel gato.
  Gloss: say you about of that cat
  Translation: Tell me about that cat.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
+ Zulu Yes Esther Park
  Words: Lo m-fana mu-de.
  Gloss: this.DEM.AGR 1-boy 1-tall
  Translation: 'This boy is tall.'
  Contributor: Esther Park