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18_Noun Demonstrative

Definition
The property Noun Demonstrative has the value "yes" when a demonstrative can follow the noun that it modifies in a neutral context.

Definition of Demonstrative

Examples:

1.
English is "no" for Noun Demonstrative since this order is always ungrammatical:

*man this

2.
Ewe is "yes" for the property Noun Demonstrative:

agbale sia
book this
"this book"

3.
Japanese is "no" for the property Noun Demonstrative, since this order is always ungrammatical:

*tukue kono
desk this
"this desk"
Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
  Words: ǁnȁõ-qà ha kı̀ kı́-šù -n|ne
  Gloss: shoe-PL this EMPH PL-nice -PL
  Translation: “These shoes are nice” (Collins and Gruber: 128)
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Acehnese Yes Julie Legate
   Adyghe No Yury Lander
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO En tant que déterminant, il se subdivise en démonstratif de proximité et en démonstratif d’éloignement dans l’espace. Le morphème grammatical désignant le démonstratif de proximité est [kà] « ce…ci ». Son utilisation dans la désignation d’un objet prouve que cet objet est proche (visible et souvent touchable) de la personne qui désigne. Le démonstratif s’associe au défini pour assumer le rôle de déterminant. Le morphème du démonstratif d'éloignement est [sɔ́nὲ] « ce…là ».
  Words: [cὺwá kà] [cὺwá sɔ́nɛ̰̀]
  Gloss: //chien dém// //chien dém//
  Translation: "Ce chien ci"(démonstratif de proximité)// "Ce chien là" (démonstratif d'éloignement)
  Comment: En tant que déterminant, il se subdivise en démonstratif de proximité et en démonstratif d’éloignement dans l’espace
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: cὺwá kà
  Gloss: chien dém
  Translation: Ce chien ci"(démonstratif de proximité)
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: cὺwá sɔ́nɛ̰̀
  Gloss: chien dém
  Translation: Ce chien là (démonstratif d'éloignement)
  Comment: En tant que déterminant, il se subdivise en démonstratif de proximité et en démonstratif d’éloignement dans l’espace.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
   Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
  Words:  *vajzë kjo
  Gloss: girl this
  Translation: this girl
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Eric Besson
  Words: Ho dè Té:re:s hoûtos ho toû Sitálkou patè:r prô:tos Odrúsais tè:n megále:n basileían epí pleon tê:s álle:s Thráike:s epoíe:sen.
  Gloss: the-NOM C Teres-NOM this-NOM the-NOM the-GEN Sitalces-GEN father-NOM first-ADV Odrysians-DAT the-ACC great-ACC kingdom-ACC upon more the-GEN other-GEN Thrace-GEN made
  Translation: This Teres, father of Sitalces, was the first to make the kingdom for the Odryssians greater than the rest of Thrace.
  Comment: Greek Text: ὁ δὲ Τήρης οὗτος ὁ τοῦ Σιτάλκου πατὴρ πρῶτος Ὀδρύσαις τὴν μεγάλην βασιλείαν ἐπὶ πλέον τῆς ἄλλης Θρᾴκης ἐποίησεν (Thucydides 2.29.2)
  Contributor: Eric Besson
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: Ahmed eshtera al-ketab hathak
  Gloss: Ahmed buy.PST DET-book that
  Translation: Ahmed bought that book
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Aymara No Matt Coler
   Babanki Yes Pius Akumbu
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: nɨ̀ŋgɔ̀ɔ̀ níì
  Gloss: plantain that
  Translation: That plantain
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
+ Bambara Yes Bryan Villa
  Words: mobili belebele ninw
  Gloss: car big this.PL
  Translation: these big cars
  Comment: from BB 136
  Contributor: Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   baoulé - faafouê de kokumbo Yes kouakou koffi salomon
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: í malaŋ máná // málaŋ máná
  Gloss:  DEF 6onions AGR.DEM.PROX //H(tone).6onions AGR.DEM.PROX
  Translation:  ‘These onions (here)’
  Comment: Note that in the absence of DEF there is high tone spreading of (DEF) to the first syllable of the noun:
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
   baule-kôdeh Yes Andréa ALLA
+ Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: * Ò töi libru chesctu
  Gloss: have.AUX.PRS.1 buy.PTCP book this yesterday
  Translation: I bought this book yesterday.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng Yes Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Priyanka Biswas
+ Bole Yes Alhaji Gimba
  Words: (1) memu ama (2) mondu osha
  Gloss: (1) man that (2) woman that
  Translation: (1) that man (2) that woman
  Comment: Bole has masculine feminine demonstrative pronoun distinctions.
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
+ Breton Yes Steve Hewitt
  Words: an nor-se
  Gloss: det door-here
  Translation: this door
  Contributor: Mélanie Jouitteau
   Bulgarian No Ljuba Veselinova
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Txuss Martin
+ Chalcatongo Mixtec Yes Jess Combs
  Words: Ñážiu wãã ni-ka -xáʔa ñuù
  Gloss: People that went-pass town
  Translation: ‘Those people went to the town’
  Contributor: Jess Combs
   Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
   Chol No Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: To aftokiniton tuton (en tu Kosta).
  Gloss: the car this (is of Kostas)
  Translation: This car belongs to Kostas.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech No Pavel Caha
  Words: *chlap ten-hle
  Gloss: guy dem-reinforcer
  Translation: this guy here
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby ALS4 workshop 2016
  Words: jú lj́ɔ̄
  Gloss: child this
  Translation: this child
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: jú lj́ɔ̄
  Gloss: child this
  Translation: This child
  Comment: 
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: A-jeni hinya a-iri
  Gloss: CL2-guests CL2.DEM CL2-two
  Translation: These two visitors
  Comment: Digo has 4 demonstrative 'series' with variant forms of three of these, giving up to 9 demonstratives per noun class.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
  Words: *χɐʣarɐ ači
  Gloss: house this
  Contributor: David Erschler
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
+ Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
  Words: girk-a es
  Gloss: book.DEF this
  Translation: this book
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Egyptian Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   Estonian No Mark Norris
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe Yes Chris Collins
   Farefari Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
+ Fijian Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: na bāvelo oyā
  Gloss: DEF dugout-canoe DEM:3
  Translation: 'that dugout canoe'
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
   French No Chris Collins
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: shikpɔŋ nɛkɛ lɛ
  Gloss: land this DEF
  Translation: a plot (of land) of this kind
  Comment: the demonstrative normally occurs followed by the Definite marker. The consonant of the Definite marker is not pronounced in modern Ga, so that it is heard as a falling tone on a slight prolongation of the vowel occurring before it, in this case thus nɛkɛ́ !ɛ́ (where ! means downstep of high tone).
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna Yes Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Martin Haspelmath
+ Ghɔmáĺá' Yes Francine Moguo
  Words: tʃò' jèŋ
  Gloss: cap this
  Translation: this cap
  Comment: This is the neutral position of the demonstrative
  Contributor: Francine Moguo
+ Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words:  in stada þamma
  Gloss: in place that.M.DAT.S
  Translation: in that place (Lk 2,7)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: to pedhi afto
  Gloss: the kid this
  Translation: this kid
  Comment: The expression cannot introduce a new topic. It is grammatical when referring to a previously mentioned entity in the discourse.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greek (Pontic) No Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
+ Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) Yes Stephen Mayeaux
  Words: arnaq una
  Gloss: woman that
  Translation: ‘that woman’
  Contributor: Stephen Mayeaux
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
+ Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: àwù éhè
  Gloss: shirt this
  Translation: this shirt
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene Yes Samuel Atintono
   Haitian Yes Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
+ Hanga Yes Geoffrey Hunt
  Words: yela ŋa zaa
  Gloss: matters this/these all
  Translation: all these things
  Contributor: Geoffrey Hunt
+ Hausa Yes Russell Schuh
  Words: dōkìn nân
  Gloss: horse.M this
  Translation: 'this horse'
  Comment: When the demonstrative functions as a determiner, the demonstrative (determiner) does not have gender/number sensitivity. (page 149)
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: hu henif degel ze
  Gloss: he hoist-PST flag this
  Translation: He hoisted this flag
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: dor hazzeh (Gen 7,1)
  Gloss: generation.NOUN hazzeh.ART-DEM
  Translation: this generation
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Gurprit Bains
   Hittite No Mattyas Huggard
+ Hixkaryana NA Laura Kalin
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
+ Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
  Words: Í ritgerð þessari ætla ég að ...
  Gloss: In paper this intend I to ...
  Translation: In this paper, I intend to ...
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:88). Noun Demonstrative is sometimes used in "relatively formal and bookish" Icelandic (Thráinsson 2007:88).
  Contributor: Jim Wood
   Igala Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Igbo Yes Mary Amaechi
  Words: nwoke a
  Gloss: man DEM
  Translation: 'this man'
  Contributor: Mary Amaechi
   Iha Yes Mark Donohue
   Ilokano No Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian Yes Mark Donohue
+ Irish Yes Bridget Nixdorf
  Words: Tá an fear seo sásta.
  Gloss: Is the man this satisfied
  Translation: 'This man is satisfied.'
  Contributor: Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun Yes Iris Wu
   Italian No Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara Yes Alan Vogel
   Jingulu No Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
+ Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) No Amrit Amritavalli
  Comment: simply not a possible order
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   Karachay No Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Kayan Yes Ken Manson
   Khasi No Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande Yes Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kindendeule Yes Deo Ngonyani
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
   Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
   Konni Yes Michael Cahill
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Koyo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: i. dau nwa ii. dap bama iii. dau kanna iv. dap banna
  Gloss: i. man.NC DEM ii. man.pl.NC DEM iii. man.NC DEM iv. man.pl.NC DEM
  Translation: i. 'this men' ii. 'these men' iii. 'that men' iv. 'those men'
  Comment: Looking at the singular and plural distal demonstrative: kanna ‘that’ and banna ‘those’, the difference is by the use of the prefixes /b-/ and /k-/ respectively.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal Yes Florian Lionnet
+ Lango Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: gwókkɪ̀
  Gloss: dog-this
  Translation: this dog (Noonan 1992: 155 ex 1.)
  Comment: demonstratives can be suffixed onto the last word of the NP
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: gwôkk à dwóŋŋɪ̀
  Gloss: dog ATT big.SG-this
  Translation: this big dog (Noonan 1992: 155 ex. 2.)
  Comment: demonstratives can be suffixed onto the last word of the NP
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: òkélò òkwànò búk mân
  Gloss: Okelo 3s-read-perf book this
  Translation: Okelo read this book (Noonan 1992: 166 ex 2b.)
  Comment: demonstrative pronouns can also be used
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Lani Yes Mark Donohue
+ Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
  Words: maa too nii kin nam juu
  Gloss: dog CLF DEM eat water PROG
  Translation: This dog is drinking water.
  Contributor: Alif Silpachai
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo a value 'yes' was assigned since the statistical distribution is beyond 30%
  Words: montes illi, inter quos ibamus
  Gloss: mountains:NOM those:NOM, between which:ACC were going:IPFV:1PL
  Translation: 'those mountains, which we were crossing'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 1.1) - Postposition of the demonstrative was possible in Classical Latin but becomes more frequent in Late Latin; in the Itin. Eg. N > Dem is found especially in cataphoric function, cf. Nocentini 1990 - cf. Iovino (2012: 119, 130) for texts from the 3-4 cent. CE: N > HIC: 13%; N > ILLE : 45%; N > ISTE : 34% - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
   Lubukusu Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
+ Malagasy Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: io trano io
  Gloss: DEM house DEM
  Translation: this house
  Comment: Each of the seven demonstratives in Malagasy must frame the noun phrase it is qualifying. As seen here, the demonstrative 'ity' appears both before the noun phrase and after. Very occasionally, the second demonstrative is absent.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam No Mythili Menon
   Mandarin No Arthur Wang
   Maori Yes Hilda Koopman te tangata ra (long a) the person that (Chung 1978, p.25)
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: ļeo e=ar jek wa kaņ.
  Gloss: the.man 3SG.AGR=PST make boat those
  Translation: The man made those boats.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
+ Masarak Yes Jessica Chen
  Words: kimɑː-ɡɪ t-ɑːr-ɑː
  Gloss: child.SG-DEM.SG 3SG-came-PST
  Translation: 'This child came'
  Contributor: Jessica Chen
   Mbuko Yes Richard Gravina
+ Medumba Yes KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
  Words: mɛ́n jʉ̄n lī
  Gloss: child this this
  Translation: this child
  Comment: The particle lī means that the noun is near the speaker
  Contributor: KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
   Middle Dutch No Gertjan Postma
   Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada Found only in temporal expressions.
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
  Words: Awák nday heni
  Gloss: Goats Pl this
  Translation: these goats
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N|u Yes Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
+ Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
  Words: Cochi in piltzintli in.
  Gloss: sleep the boy this
  Translation: this boy sleeps
  Comment: There appears to be a part that precedes and a part that follows the noun /piltzintli/ 'boy'. Thus, this case only appears when both particles work together.
  Contributor: John Garcia
+ Naki Yes Jeff Good
  Words: fyɛ̀p yə̀
  Gloss: 9.rat 9.DEF
  Translation: the rat
  Contributor: Jeff Good
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: bí.gàn kànáʔ
  Gloss: child+cm(ga)+n-dem cm(ga)+this
  Translation: 'this child' (9)
  Comment: All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
  Words: mə̀dʒʉì yɔ̀
  Gloss: woman DEM.PROXIMAL
  Translation: ‘This woman’
  Contributor: Bertille Baron
   Ndut Yes Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Nkore-Kiga Yes Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai Yes Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: eci nana
  Gloss: yam DEM
  Translation: this yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Occitan Yes Patrick Sauzet
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: a-ba-ana a-bo
  Gloss: AUG-C2-child SA-DEM
  Translation: Those children
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   Palue Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay Yes Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: kobieta ta
  Gloss: woman-nom.s.f dem-nom.s.f
  Translation: this woman
  Comment: commonly found with topics, e.g. There was a woman waiting at the bus stop. THE WOMAN was wearing a black coat.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: Cartea aceasta e interesantă
  Gloss: book-THE.F.SG this.F.SG is interesting.F.SG
  Translation: This book is interesting.
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
+ Russian No Stephanie Harves
  Words: *Ja pročital knigu ètu.
  Gloss: I.NOM read book.ACC this
  Translation: I read this book.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: V restorane ètom ja uže byl.
  Gloss: In restaurant.PREP this I.NOM already was
  Translation: I was already in this restaurant.
  Comment: Note that the order Noun Demonstrative is felicitous in topicalized (i.e., non-neutral) contexts. Thus, this example is felicitous in a context where this restaurant has already been mentioned.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan Yes Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec Yes George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
+ Sasak Yes Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
  Words: sampi nono
  Gloss: cow that
  Translation: 'That cow'
  Comment: Sukadana, Northern Sasak
  Contributor:  Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Saweru Yes Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic Yes Andrew Carnie
   Senaya No Laura McPherson
   Serbian No Miloje Despic
   Shan Yes Alif Silpachai
+ Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: pam i pa kamkeri
  Gloss: bag this copula rare
  Translation: This bag is rare.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: * mi ligghìi lìbbra (ki)sti
  Gloss: to.me I.read books these
  Translation: I read these books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Slovenian No Franc Marušič
+ Spanish No Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: *Leí novela esta
  Gloss: read.PST.1SG novel this.F
  Translation: Intended: I read this novel
  Comment: A demonstrative can occur after a noun with an adjectival function and in non-neutral contexts only: "Leí la novela esta". Such constructions always need a definite article and the demonstrative does not act as a determiner.
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Swedish No fredrik heinat
  Words: *grisen denna/den här
  Gloss: pig.DEF this/this here
  Translation: this pig
  Comment: This order is not possible.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: *grisarna de här/dessa
  Gloss: pigs.DEF these here/these
  Translation: these pigs
  Comment: This order is not possible.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: babae-ng ito
  Gloss: woman-Lk Dem
  Translation: this woman
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
+ Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: jiwátsï wék-sïn-ti tsíkata-ni i-ni
  Gloss: coyote want-IPFV-3 hen-OBJ DEM-OBJ
  Translation: 'The coyote wants this hen'
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *so lettə latterə ʃti
  Gloss: I.am read letters these
  Translation: I read these letters
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
   Tigre No Zhenyu Sun
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern
   Tiwa No Virginia Dawson
   Tlingit No James Crippen
+ Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
  Words: Gìnɛ́=gɛ
  Gloss: house=DEF
  Translation: ‘The house’ (161: 241c).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Tongan Yes Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala Yes George Aaron Broadwell
+ Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: te mia iso
  Gloss: CORE person that:DIST
  Translation: that person
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) Yes Edmond Biloa
  Words: yĕndze aye
  Gloss: house this
  Translation: this house
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: okutu ódzú eena a nŏ- ḿ
  Gloss: woman this here SM sick-INC
  Translation: This woman is sick
  Comment: In Tuki, as in some other languages, demonstratives co-occur with a locative reinforce inside NP.
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: okuu ódzú dzu
  Gloss: woman this reinforcer
  Translation: ThIS woman
  Comment: another reinforcer Another reinforcer appears to be a diminutive form of the demonstrative. the reinforcer seems to lay emphasis on the demonstrative. That is the demonstrative is focalized due to the presence of the reinforcer.
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural
   Tuvan No Mark Donohue
+ Twi Yes Cansada Martin
  Words: sikan yi
  Gloss: knife DEM
  Translation: this knife
  Contributor: Cansada Martin
   Udmurt No Orsolya Tanczos
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
+ Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: kO mE
  Gloss: man this
  Translation: this man
  Comment: mE: short form after N; prenominally augmented with nI (also occurring on prenominal possessors)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese Yes Binh Ngo
  Words: Cái điê.n thoa.i này là cȗa tôi
  Gloss: The phone this is of me
  Translation: This phone is mine
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian No Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan Yes Tatiana Nikitina
+ Warlpiri Yes Margit Bowler
  Words: Watiya nyampu kirrirdi-mpayi.
  Gloss: tree this tall-AUG
  Translation: This tree is very tall.
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
   Welsh Yes David Willis
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof Yes Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa Yes Mark Donohue
   Yiddish No Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zamboageño Chabacano No Grace Gaspardo
+ Zulu Yes Esther Park
  Words: I-:hashi lelo li-ya-gijim-a.
  Gloss: 5-horse that.DEM.AGR 5-PRES-run-PRES
  Translation: 'That horse is running.'
  Contributor: Esther Park