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C 01_Complementizer Clause

Definition
The property Complementizer Clause has the value "yes" when there is at least one complementizer that precedes its clause. As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

Definition of Complementizer

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Complementizer Clause does not exclude a "yes" value for Clause Complementizer.

NA (Not Applicable): This property is defined for a language if there are overt complementizers. If a language does not have overt complementizers, this property has the value NA.

1.
English is "yes" for Complementizer Clause:

I said that John left. (complementizer = "that")
I asked if John left. (complementizer = "if")

Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
  Words: ma ’a ǂ’éẽ xore ǁkà“e ǀkò’a
  Gloss: 1SG PROG think that meat absent
  Translation: “I think there is no meat” (Collins and Gruber: 207).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Acehnese Yes Julie Legate
   Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: kòfí klò kɛ àdú kɔ́
  Gloss: Koffi souhaite que Adou partir
  Translation: Koffi souhaite que Adou part.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
   Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: Thashë se Beni iku.
  Gloss: said.1SG that Ben.the left.3SG
  Translation: I said that Ben left.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language NA Natasha Abner
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: kasa ɨndä-mät't'a awq-all-ähu
  Gloss: K. comp-come.PFV.3mss know.IPFV-Aux-1ss
  Translation: I know that Kasa came'
  Comment: Complementizers are placed prefixed to the subordinate verb as shown in the above example. The setting will be adjusted when the third property for complementizer placement is added.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: ouk horôntes hóti hoútōs ékei
  Gloss: NEG see-PTCP.PRS.NOM.M.PL that thus be-IND.PRS.3SG
  Translation: ‘not seeing that this is the case.’
  Comment: Plato Theaetetus, 176e
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: Ahmed qaraa al-ketab elli shaf-ah ams
  Gloss: Ahmed read.PST DET-book that see.PST-3SGM yesterday
  Translation: Ahmed read the book that he saw yesterday
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Babanki Yes Pius Akumbu
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: mfɔ̀ wá kɨ̀ wà’àtɨ́ [mə́ tàá ká kwô]
  Gloss: chief the PST think [that father FUT die]
  Translation: The chief thought that my father will die
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
   Bambara NA Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi No Claire Bowern
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: malet a- bí- kal lɛ́ ɓaúdú ɓá- sↄ́mb pɛ́m
  Gloss: 1teacher 1SM-PST2-say that 2students 2SM-buy.SBJV chalk
  Translation: ‘The teacher said that the students should buy chalk’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: mɛ ń- yí ɓéé tↄ̀ↄ́ malêt a- ń- lↄ̀
  Gloss: I PRES-know NEG if 1teacher 1SM-FUT1-come
  Translation: ‘I don’t know if the teacher will come’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque NA Karlos Arregi
+ Bellinzonese Yes Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: Al Mario l=pensa che piöf
  Gloss: the Mario he=think.PRS.3SG that tomorrow rain.PRS.3SG
  Translation: Mario thinks that it wil rain tomorrow.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng Yes Denis Paperno
+ Bengali Yes Satarupa Das
  Words: Ram dekh-l-o je Sita kha-cch-e
  Gloss: Ram.NOM see-PST-3 COMP Sita.NOM eat-PROG-3
  Translation: Ram saw that Sita is eating
  Contributor: Satarupa Das
+ Bole Yes Alhaji Gimba
  Words: (1) Ishi por-wo na ita ndai bono (2) ishi lodi-ta ba ita a ndina bono
  Gloss: (1)he say-pfv that she go (SBJV) house (2) he ask (pft)-her if she AGR FUT go house
  Translation: he said that she shoild go home (2) He asked her if she will go home
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
   Breton Yes Steve Hewitt
+ Bulgarian Yes Iliana Krapova
  Words: Kaza-x na Plamen da pochn-e rabota
  Gloss: say-1.SG.AOR to Plamen that start-3.SG.PRS work
  Translation: I told Plamen that he should start working
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burgenland-Romani Yes Michelle McComb
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) NA Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
+ Chalcatongo Mixtec Yes Jess Combs
  Words: Kùñù xa=ní-žee=rí kaa žíʔi
  Gloss: Meat COMP=CP-eat=1SING COP raw
  Translation: ‘The meat that I ate was raw’
  Contributor: Jess Combs
   Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Chol Yes Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: Ipen oti efien.
  Gloss: said-3SG.PST that left-3SG.PST
  Translation: He said that he left.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Peter Kosta
  Words: Petr se domnívá, že se léto povedlo.
  Gloss: Peter REFL assume_3SGPS_COMP Refl summer was fine.
  Translation: "Peter thinks that the summer was nice."
  Contributor: Peter Kosta
+ Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
  Words: o yeli ka Dakoraa kulee la
  Gloss: 3.SG say.PERF COMP dakoraa go.home.PERF foc
  Translation: He said that Dakoraa has gone home
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
   Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: ɔ̍ nū ṵ́ ɡbà: ɔ̍ mlɛ̰̍ du̍ku̍
  Gloss: she tell.PAST me COMP she go.IMPF village
  Translation: she told me that she was going to the village.
  Comment: ALS4 workshop 2016
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: ŋɔ̰̄ṵ̄ ɓā ṵ́ ɛ̄ zà ɪ̄ lɪ̄ bɛ̀
  Gloss: hunger hit me it reason I eat something
  Translation: I’m hungry, that's why I am eating something
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: Wa-laga kala a-nda-mu-pha pesa.
  Gloss: 3SG.PST-promise COMP 3SG-FUT-3SG(obj)-give money
  Translation: S/he promised that s/he would give him/her money.
  Comment: The complementizer 'kala' is a reduced form of 'ku-kala' (INF-be). When the subject of the matrix and complementizer clauses is the same, as in this example, the complementizer is optional.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Je zal wel niet geloven dat Jan Marie opgebeld heeft
  Gloss: You will yes not believe.PRCT that John Mary up.ge.call.PCPT has
  Translation: You probably won't believe that John called Mary
  Comment: that is homophonous with the neutral singular demonstrative (dat.sg.neut).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
   Estonian Yes Mark Norris
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: A Ana disse que estava cansada.
  Gloss: the.F Ana say.PST.3SG that be-stage-level.PST-IMPERF.3SF tired.F
  Translation: Ana said that she was tired.
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe Yes Chris Collins
   Farefari Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese Yes Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
+ Farsi Yes Natasha Schimka
  Words: Goft ke tamâm shod.
  Gloss: Say.3SG.PST COMP complete become.3SG.PRS
  Translation: He said that it's finished.
  Contributor: Natasha Schimka
+ Fijian Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: sā na dēī-tak-a sē rawa sē sega
  Gloss: ASP PT confirm-TR-3S SUB able SUB not
  Translation: 'he'll confirm whether it's possible or not'
  Comment: comment: subordinate marker is “whether”.
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: e kidacala ni-u lutu
  Gloss: 3S surprised SUB-1S fall
  Translation: 'he was surprised that I fell'
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: Hyvää että lapset tulivat kotiin.
  Gloss: good that children came home
  Translation: Good that the children came home.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Je pense que tu es prêt.
  Gloss: 1SG think-PRS COMP 2SG be-PRS ready.
  Translation: I think that you are ready.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna Yes Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German Yes Chris Collins
+ Ghɔmáĺá' Yes Francine Moguo
  Words: gæ̂ wɔ̀m gə́ é nə́ŋ/gæ̂ həŋtə̀ bě é nəŋ
  Gloss: I say that he dance/ I ask if he dance
  Translation: I said that he danced/ I asked if he danced
  Contributor: Francine Moguo
+ Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: witum ei þu kant alla
  Gloss: know.1.PL that you.SG know.PRS all.ACC.N.PL
  Translation: we know that you know everything
  Comment: John 16:30
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: Ipes oti tha figis noris.
  Gloss: said-2SG that FUT leave-2SG early
  Translation: You said that you will leave early.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: ito t' aqulu aðelfo=t transin ci aðelfo=t ðe=ni (Dawkins 1916: 408)
  Gloss: DEM.PROX.SG.NOM ART.DEF.SG.NOM clever.SG.NOM brother.SG.NOM=3SG.GEN see.PST.3SG COMP brother.SG.NOM=3SG.GEN NEG=COP.PRS.3SG
  Translation: the clever brother saw that his brother is missing
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) NA Stephen Mayeaux Subordination is marked by verbal inflection alone in West Greenlandic. This suggests that the language lacks overt complementizers.
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
+ Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words:  ùn lìn ɖɔ̀ àsíbá ná dà mì
  Gloss: 1sg.nom think that Asiba Fut marry 1sg.Acc
  Translation: 1sg.nom think that Asiba Fut marry 1sg.Acc
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene Yes Samuel Atintono
   Haitian Yes Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hanga Yes Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa Yes Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: 'eda' ky 'asita (Gen 24,14)
  Gloss: know-1SGFUT that (ky)-COMP do-2SGPFV
  Translation: I'll know that you have done
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Hittite Yes Mattyas Huggard
+ Hixkaryana NA Laura Kalin
  Comment: See example for Clause Complementizer order.
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Tud-om, hogy ki vagy.
  Gloss: know-1SG.SUBJ.DEF.OBJ COMP who[NOM.SG] be.2SG.PRS.IND
  Translation: `I know who you are'
  Comment: The same complementizer "hogy" introduces declarative and interrogative complements.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
+ Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
  Words: Ég held að hann sé í húsinu
  Gloss: 1SG think.1SG.PRS that 3SG.M is.SBJV in house.the.DAT.SG.N
  Translation: I think that he is in the house
  Comment: Corrected mood in the embedded clause
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Igala Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Igbo Yes Mary Amaechi
  Words: ka ha bia-ra
  Gloss: COMP 3PL come-PST
  Translation: 'as they came'
  Contributor: Mary Amaechi
   Ilokano Yes Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua NA UCLA Linguistics 210
+ Indonesian Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: mereka percaya bahwa dia matamata
  Gloss: 3pl believe COMP 3sg spy
  Translation: They believe that he's a spy
  Contributor: Daniel Kaufman
+ Irish Yes Bridget Nixdorf
  Words: Deir sé go raibh Cáit anseo inné.
  Gloss: Says he that was Cáit here yesterday
  Translation: 'He says that Cáit was here yesterday.'
  Contributor: Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun Yes Iris Wu
   Italian Yes Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English Yes Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara NA Alan Vogel
   Jingulu Yes Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
   Karachay No Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya NA John Gluckman
+ Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
  Words: ŋa-tip ba u-ban u-dɛi u-dɔktɔr
  Gloss: 1sg-know COMP m-Ban 3ms-be 3ms-doctor
  Translation: "I know that Ban is a doctor"
  Contributor: Gracious Temsen
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande Yes Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kindendeule Yes Deo Ngonyani
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
+ Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
  Words: ghe m- bé [na [IlvÍ kfeyn meyn ]]
  Gloss: they are saying [that [time reach already]]
  Translation: they are saying [that [time reach already]]
  Comment: The adverb “ meyn” follows the verb but when it appears after a tense morpheme it precedes the verb. ˆlvÍ tí meyn kfeyn “time reached” Time past asp reach
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Konni Yes Michael Cahill
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Koyo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
+ Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
  Words: min a-zan-im ka Hana zirak-a
  Gloss: I IPFV-know-1SG that Hana smart-be.3SG
  Translation: I know that Hana is smart.
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal Yes Florian Lionnet
+ Lango Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: àŋéô nɪ̂ lócə̀ dágô tìc
  Gloss: 1SG.know.HAB comp man 3SG.hate.HAB work
  Translation: I know that the man hates work (Noonan 1992: 191 ex. 1.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Lani No Mark Donohue
   Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
   Lubukusu Yes Aggrey Wasike
+ Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: eyeu naleng nelo
  Gloss: 3s.want a.lot C-3s. go
  Translation: He really wants to go He very much wants to go
  Comment: n marks a subjunctive clause. Clausal complements of verbs of saying of thinking do not need to be introduced by a complementizer. The form a.jo (inf.sg.say) can introduce indirect speech, or direct speech. n.cere can introduce clausal complements of verbs like read, write
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
+ Malagasy Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: ny lehilahy izay nampian-dRabe tany an-tsena
  Gloss: DET man COMP PST.help.TT-GEN.Rabe PST.LOC at-market
  Translation: the man that Rabe helped at the market
  Comment: Note: TT stands for 'Theme Topic', which is the voice morphology on the verb indicating that the subject is the theme.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: Mihevitra aho fa mbola marary Rasoa
  Gloss: PRES.AT.think 1SG.NOM COMP still sick Rasoa
  Translation: I think that Rasoa is still sick.
  Comment: Note: AT stands for 'Actor Topic', which is the voice morphology on the verb indicating that the subject is the agent.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Mandarin NA Arthur Wang
+ Maori NA Ray Harlow
  Words: E maumahara ana ahau i whiu-a koe moo te haehae i roto i too pukapuka
  Gloss: T/A remember T/A Isg T/A punish-pass IIsg intgen the scribble at inside at sggenIIsg book
  Translation: ‘I remember that you were punished for scribbling in your book’
  Comment: no complementizer
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: Tataō e=kar ron ke e=kar kokkure kōrkōr eo.
  Gloss: Tataō 3SG=PST hear that 3SG=PST destroy canoe the.SG
  Translation: Tataō heard that she destroyed the canoe.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
   Masarak NA Jessica Chen
+ Medumba Yes KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
  Words: bʉ̀ Nʉ̀mí nɛ́ kʉ̀lɔ̀
  Gloss: bʉ̀ Numi cook banana
  Translation: that Numi coooked banana
  Contributor: KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: hi sal weten dattie goetheit sijns liefs meere es dan sijn sneuen.
  Gloss: he shall know that-the goodness his.GEN love.GEN more is than his perishing
  Translation: he must know that the goodness of his love is more than his perishing
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
  Words: málvə dəenga səb aanduw də báy wùtləmíy niytlən amakaranta
  Gloss: chief say people Qt Sjn take children their school
  Translation: 'the chief told the people to take their children to school'
  Comment: Qt here stands for 'Quote'.
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: ka.n’araf bi.illi ka.tuskun hena
  Gloss: PRES.1SG.know with.that PRES.3SG.live.F here
  Translation: I know that she lives here.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
  Words: Lawan o ɗùm kado Satai ó zúm ɗaf
  Gloss: Lawan 3sg say that Satai 3sg eat food
  Translation: Lawan said that Satai is eating food.”
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
  Words: qu-ihtoh-qui para ni-pobre
  Gloss: 3SG.O-say-PAST COM 1SG.S-poor
  Translation: ‘she said that I am poor’
  Comment: The use of /para/ is optional. It appears /para/ is an overt complementizer, which would distinguish Huasteca Nahuatl with Classical Nahuatl. Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
+ Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
  Words: Quil in tonacayotl chichipahtic mo-chiuh
  Gloss: (it is said) the food bitter REFL-become.PAST
  Translation: It is said that the food became very bitter’
  Comment: It appears that Classical Nahuatl had no overt complementizers. At least i've yet to spot one. Example from:Andrews, J. Richard. Introduction to Classical Nahuatl. Austin: University of Texas, 1975. Print. (page 298 )
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Naki Yes Jeff Good
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: mà díːlá ná sámbà də̀ra dèːté
  Gloss: I think-impf that Samba eat-perf food+cm(te)
  Translation: 'I think that Samba has eaten food' (17).
  Comment: All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Ndut Yes Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce Yes Amy Rose Deal
+ Nkore-Kiga Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: a-gi-gambira omugabe ku a-gi-mu-tumire ku a-rikw-enda ku-teeka obugyenyi bw’amamanzi ge
  Gloss: he-it-tell king how he-it-him-send.M how he-PC-want to-cook party of heroes his
  Translation: ‘He told him that the King had sent him to him (to say) that he wished to throw a party for his warriors.’
  Comment: Taylor (5).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: ba-a-bona kw-i juka ngu ebyo by-a-kor[w]a
  Gloss: they-TP-see to-remember that these they-TP-do-P
  Translation: ‘They were able to remember that these things had been done.’
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai Yes Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa kpe ganan etsu du nakan.
  Gloss: Musa know COMP chief cook meat
  Translation: Musa knows that the chief cooked the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa gbin-gan ko etsu du nakan.
  Gloss: Musa loose-say COMP chief cook meat
  Translation: Musa asked whether the chief cooked the meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Occitan Yes Patrick Sauzet
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English Yes Steve Seegmiller
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: Hiet man, that alla thea elilendiun man iro ôđil sôhtin
  Gloss: ordered one that all the foreign men their homeland sought
  Translation: It was commanded that all foreigners should visit their homeland
  Comment: (Heliand 345-346)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Nd- a- bola mbu John y - a- tsia
  Gloss: 1sg-PST- say that 3sg.SA-PST-leave
  Translation: I said that John left
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   Palue Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay Yes Mark Donohue
+ Pashto Yes Taylor Roberts
  Words: maa katel tshee asad rághay
  Gloss: 1SG.OBL see.PST.IPFV.3PL.M COMP Asad come.PST.PFV.3SG.M
  Translation: I saw that Asad had arrived.
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 200. The matrix verb agrees with the embedded clause as if it is masculine plural.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Piotr powiedział, że Jan wyszedł.
  Gloss: Piotr said that Jan left
  Translation: Piotr said that Jan left.
  Comment: complementizer = "that"
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Piotr spytał, czy Jan wyszedł.
  Gloss: Piotr asked if Jan left
  Translation: Piotr asked if Jan left.
  Comment: complementizer = "if"
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Eu disse que João saiu
  Gloss: I said.PRF.3SG that John left.PRF.3SG
  Translation: I said that John left
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: Maria speră că va ploua.
  Gloss: Mary hope.PRS.SG.3 that will.3 rain
  Translation: Mary hopes that it'll rain
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
+ Russian Yes Stephanie Harves
  Words: Ivan dumaet čto lingvistika interesnaja nauka
  Gloss: Ivan.NOM thinks COMP linguistics.NOM interesting science.NOM
  Translation: Ivan thinks that linguistics is an interesting science
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua Yes Pieter Muysken
   Samoan Yes Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec Yes George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Scottish Gaelic Yes Andrew Carnie
   Serbian Yes Miloje Despic
+ Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: mfon ria mi i ton pit
  Gloss: king say-PST that 3sg burn-PST war
  Translation: The king said that he won the war
  Comment: The meaning of the verb 'burn' is extended here to 'win'
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: mon na ngupme mi i pa rani
  Gloss: child PROG think that 3sg copula smart
  Translation: The child thinks that he is smart.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ti rìssi ka Ggiovànni arrwàu
  Gloss: to.you I.told that John arrived
  Translation: I told you that John arrived
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
+ Spanish Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Dije que [estaba enferma]
  Gloss: say.PST.1SG COMP be.PST.IMPF.1SG sick.F
  Translation: I said that I was sick
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
  Words: Flickan sa att hon var sen.
  Gloss: girl.DEF said COMP she was late
  Translation: The girl said that she was late.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: S<in>abi nang babae-ng d<um>ating ang lalaki kahapon.
  Gloss: <Tr.Perf>say Erg woman-Lk <Intr.Perf>arrive Abs man yesterday
  Translation: The woman said that the man arrived yesterday.
  Comment: The linker 'ng' functions as the complementizer.
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
+ Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: gua jinui kong i si ho lang
  Gloss: I think COMP he COP good person
  Translation: I think that he is a good person
  Comment: "kong" literally means "say/speak"
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Juanu wanda-h-ti eski jani-a-ka
  Gloss: juan say-PFV-3 COMP rain-FUT-3.SBJV
  Translation: 'Juan said that it will rain'
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: ti so dettə kə Mariə a ʃitə
  Gloss: to.you I.am told that Maria has left
  Translation: I told you that Maria left
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
   Tigre NA Zhenyu Sun
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern
   Tlingit No James Crippen
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan Yes Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala Yes George Aaron Broadwell
+ Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: No-rodongo kua no-wila=mo
  Gloss: 3R-hear COMP 3R-go=PERF
  Translation: She heard that they had gone
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) Yes Edmond Biloa
  Words: Mbárá a- mu- údza ee Putá a- mu- eta
  Gloss: Mbara SM- PST1- say COMP Puta SM- PST1- go back
  Translation: Mbara said that Puta went back
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: Mbárá a- mu- sésá ngí Putá a-mu-eta
  Gloss: Mbara SM p1 ask if Puta P1 go.back
  Translation: Mbara asked if Puta went back
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish NA Murat Kural
   Tuvan No Brian Hsu
+ Twi Yes Cansada Martin
  Words: Yaw kaa sɛ Kofi bɛ-bɔ Ama.
  Gloss: Yaw say.PST COMP Kofi FUT-hit Ama
  Translation: Yaw said that Kofi will hit Ama.
  Contributor: Cansada Martin
   Udmurt Yes Orsolya Tanczos
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: Ol'ha skazala, ščo dity zaraz spliat'
  Gloss: Olga said that children now sleep
  Translation: Olga said that the children are sleeping now
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
+ Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: ngOnU n wa na n ka ngOnU a
  Gloss: sleep you want NA you FUT sleep Q
  Translation: Do you want to SLEEP?
  Comment: na (related to the paradigm for the light verb 'say'), followed by full tensed clause (direct or indirect discourse); extraposed S I X(O) V [na CP]; only in selected contexts (say, think, want,..) excluded from relatives
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese Yes Jimmy Nguyen
  Words: Thuý hỏi nếu cô ấy đi lễ chưa.
  Gloss: Thuy ask if lady DEM go church already
  Translation: Thuy asked if that lady had gone to church already.
  Contributor: Jimmy Nguyen
+ Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian Yes Zvjezdana Vrzic
  Words: Lj-av zis ke neka męre.
  Translation: He told him to go.
  Contributor: Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Welsh Yes David Willis
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
  Words: da-n die mensen dat niet wet-en
  Gloss: that-3pl dem-pl people that not know-3pl
  Translation: 'that those people don't know that'
  Comment: the complementiser agrees with the subject
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof Yes Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese NA Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
+ Yiddish Yes Shannon Mooney
  Words: Ix vejs, az Mojse kumt morgn.
  Gloss: 1SG.NOM know that Moishe comes tomorrow
  Translation: "I know that Moishe is coming tomorrow."
  Contributor: Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Ya habla si Jose cay si Maria ya sale.
  Gloss: PST say DET Jose that DET Maria PST leave
  Translation: Jose said that Maria left.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Si Jose ya habla cay ya sale si Maria.
  Gloss: DET Jose PST say that PST leave DET Maria.
  Translation: Jose said that Maria left.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
+ Zulu Yes Esther Park
  Words: Ngi-cabang-a ukuthi u-siz-e is-alukazi.
  Gloss: 1SG-think-PRES that 2SG-help-SUBJ 7-old.woman
  Translation: 'I think that you should help the old lady.'
  Contributor: Esther Park