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C 02_Clause Complementizer

Definition
The property Clause Complementizer has the value "yes" when there is at least one complementizer that follows its clause. As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

Definition of Complementizer

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Clause Complementizer does not exclude a "yes" value for Complementizer Clause.

NA (Not Applicable): This property is defined for a language if there are overt complementizers. If a language does not have overt complementizers, this property has the value NA.

1.
English is "no" for Clause Complementizer since this order is always ungrammatical:

*I said John left that
*I asked John left if
(* means ungrammatical)

2.
Japanese is "yes" for the property Clause Complemetizer:

boku-wa John-ga kaet-ta to it-ta. (to = complementizer)
1SG-TOP John-NOM leave-PST COMP say-PST
"I said that John left."

boku-wa John-ga kaet-ta ka tazune-ta. (ka = complementizer)
1SG-TOP John-NOM leave-PST COMP ask-PST
"I asked if John left."

Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
+ Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
  Words: *Thashë Beni iku se.
  Gloss: said.1SG Ben.the left.3SG that
  Translation: I said that Ben left.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language NA Natasha Abner
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf NA Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Babanki No Pius Akumbu
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
   Bambara NA Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi No Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque NA Karlos Arregi
+ Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: * Al Mario u=pensa duman piöf che
  Gloss: the Mario he=think.PRS.3SG tomorrow rain.PRS.3SG that
  Translation: Mario thinks that it will rain tomorrow.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Satarupa Das
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
   Breton No Steve Hewitt
   Bulgarian No Iliana Krapova
   Burgenland-Romani No Michelle McComb
   Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) NA Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Txuss Martin
   Chalcatongo Mixtec No Jess Combs
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
   Chol No Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
  Words: *Ipen efien oti.
  Gloss: said-3SG-PST left-3SG-PST that
  Translation: He said that he left.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Czech No Peter Kosta
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Digo No Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   Estonian No Mark Norris
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese No Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Fijian No Zhenyu Sun
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
   French No Chris Collins
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna No Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Chris Collins
   Ghɔmáĺá' No Francine Moguo
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Arhonto Terzi
  Words: *Ipes tha figis noris oti
  Gloss: said-2SG FUT leave-2SG early that
  Translation: You said that you will leave early.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
   Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) NA Stephen Mayeaux Subordination is marked by verbal inflection alone in West Greenlandic. This suggests that the language lacks overt complementizers.
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hanga No Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa No Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Gurprit Bains
   Hittite No Mattyas Huggard
+ Hixkaryana NA Laura Kalin
  Words: tahataka-txhe
  Gloss: 3SBJ.come.out-after
  Translation: after he/she came out
  Comment: There are no independent words that serve as complementizers in Hixkaryana, though nonfinite verbs can productively be embedded under postpositions. There are also a couple of verbal suffixes (attaching to nonfinite verb forms) that serve to subordinate a nonfinite verb, like the example shown here. The subordinating suffix is -txhe. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 39)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Tudom, hogy szeret-sz-e en-ni.
  Gloss: know-1SG.SUBJ.DEF.OBJ COMP like-2SG[PRS.IND]-Q eat-INF
  Translation: `I know whether you like to eat'
  Comment: The yes/no question marker "-e" is clause-final in the more strictly SOV relatives of Hungarian; in Hungarian it cliticizes to the finite verb, which is not necessarily clause-final. The subordinating complementizer is the invariant "hogy".
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Ilokano Yes Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua NA UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Irish No Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun No Iris Wu
   Italian No Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
+ Japanese Yes Ken Hiraiwa
  Words: Ken-wa [Naomi-ga kaet-ta to] it-ta.
  Gloss: Ken-TOP Naomi-NOM go-PST C say-PST
  Translation: Ken said that Naomi went home
  Contributor: Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara NA Alan Vogel
   Jingulu No Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Karachay Yes Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya NA John Gluckman
   Khasi No Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka It is possible for a question particle to occur in clause final position.
   Kindendeule No Deo Ngonyani
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Konni No Michael Cahill
+ Korean Yes Chung-hye Han
  Words: Yuli-nun Toli-ka cip-ey ka-ss-tako malha-yess-ta.
  Gloss: Yuli-TOP Toli-NOM house-to go-PST-COMP say-PST-DECL
  Translation: Yuli said that Toli went home.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Koyo No Hilda Koopman
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lani Yes Mark Donohue
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic No Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian No Felix Thies
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Mandarin NA Arthur Wang
   Maori NA Ray Harlow
+ Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: *Tataō e=kar ron e=kar kokkure kōrkōr eo ke.
  Gloss: Tataō 3SG=PST hear 3SG=PST destroy canoe the.SG that
  Translation: Tataō heard that she destroyed the canoe.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
   Masarak NA Jessica Chen
   Medumba No KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
   Middle Dutch No Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
   Naki No Jeff Good
   Nawdm No Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam
   Ndut No Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
   Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: U be ke etsu ma nakan du na.
  Gloss: 3 seem COMP chief know meat cook COMP
  Translation: It seems that the chief knows how to cook meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: nakan na etsu du na
  Gloss: meat REL COMP chief cook REL COMP
  Translation: the meat that the chief cooked
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Occitan No Patrick Sauzet
   Odia (Oriya) Yes Rajat Mohanty
   Oevdalian Yes Piotr Garbacz
   Okinawan Yes Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   Palue No Mark Donohue
   panjabi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Oana Savescu
+ Russian No Stephanie Harves
  Words: *Ivan dumaet lingvistika interesnaja nauka čto
  Gloss: Ivan.NOM thinks linguistics.NOM interesting science.NOM COMP
  Translation: Ivan thinks that linguistics is an interesting science.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua Yes Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic No Andrew Carnie
   Serbian No Miloje Despic
+ Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: mon yuwo i gba pam-mi ne kwon lerwa
  Gloss: child who 3sg loose.PAST bag-3sg.Gen Comp miss-PST school
  Translation: The child who lost his bag missed the class
  Comment: In relative clauses, there is a final complementizer.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words:  a pa mon yuwo mfon fu ne
  Gloss: Foc copula child that king call.PST that
  Translation: It is the child that the king called.
  Comment: In a cleft construction, there is always final complementizer "ne".
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Slovenian No Franc Marušič
+ Spanish No Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: *Dije [estaba enferma] que
  Gloss: say.PST.1SG be.PST.IMPF.1SG sick.F COMP
  Translation: Intended: I said that I was sick
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Swedish No fredrik heinat
  Words: *Flickan sa hon var sen att
  Gloss: girl.DEF said she was late COMP
  Translation: The girl said that she was late.
  Comment: This order of complementizer and clause is not possible.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
   Tarascan No Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Tigre NA Zhenyu Sun
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern
   Tlingit Yes James Crippen
+ Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
  Words: Gɔ́ɔ́ íg-go=wɔ-m=gɛ y-àá=wɔ.
  Gloss: dance know-ADV=be-1SG=COMP see-PFV=be
  Translation: ‘He saw that I know how to dance’ (531: 1004b).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish NA Murat Kural Or more like "maybe": I argued in "V to (I to ) C in Turkish: in UCLA Occasional Papers vol 11, that one of the morphological elements found attached to a verb, outside of tense but inside of agreement is potentially a complementizer incorporated into the verb. This is by no means a widely accepted opinion, so I am leaving this as "N/A". But I believe argument can be made for a clause-complementizer order in Turkish ... with potentially a nominalizing effect on the subordinate clause.
+ Tuvan Yes Brian Hsu
  Words: ol kelgen dep dɨŋnadɨm
  Gloss: he come-PAST COMP hear-PAST-1sg
  Translation: I heard that he came
  Contributor: Brian Hsu
+ Twi No Chris Collins
  Words: *Yaw kaa Kofi bɛ-bɔ Ama sɛ.
  Gloss: Yaw say.PST Kofi FUT-hit Ama COMP
  Contributor: Cansada Martin
   Udmurt Yes Orsolya Tanczos
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
+ Vata No Hilda Koopman
  Words: n n'ɪ-ka y'ɔɔ saka flʊ ka lowo
  Gloss: 1S FUTAUX-FUT [ child.D rice buy C ] send
  Translation:  I will send the child buy rice
  Comment: Given the definition of C (introducing a verb of sayng, thinking believing),this property is NO. Vata has a final C s however in other contexts. A C (ka) occurs as an infinitival C with complements of movement verbs (go, etc). This constituent can be fronted to left peripheral position.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian No Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Welsh No David Willis
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
+ Wolane Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: gār yɛ-tāt-ɛ-kō sɛmɛ.
  Gloss: house REL-build_house:PV-3sm-CMP hear:PV:3sm
  Translation: 'he heard that he built a house' (299).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese NA Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu No Claire Bowern
   Yawa Yes Mark Donohue
   Yiddish No Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zulu No Claire Halpert