11_Adposition Noun_Phrase

The property Adposition Noun_Phrase has the value "yes" when there is at least one adposition in the language that precedes the noun phrase it occurs with. In this case, the adposition is called a preposition. As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

Definition of Adposition

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Adposition Noun_Phrase does not exclude a "yes" value for Noun_Phrase Adposition. In other words, a language may have both prepositions and postpositions.

NA (Not Applicable): A language has the value NA for this property if it does not have any sort of adpositional morpheme.


English is "yes" for Adposition Noun_Phrase:

I went to the store.
I sat on the rock.

Ewe is "yes" for Adposition Noun_Phrase:

Kofi Da nu kple Ama (preposition = kple)
Kofi cook thing with Ama
"Kofi cooked with Ama."

Ewe is also "yes" for Noun_Phrase Adposition:

Agbale la le kplO dzi (post-position = dzi)
book the be.LOC table on
"The book is on the table."

Although the word dzi "on" in Ewe is an inalienable noun, we count it here as an adposition. In certain languages, locative adpositions are closely related to the category of inalienable nouns. For the purposes of this property, these are counted as adpositions.

Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
  Words: ma ’a kyà“o ke ’àm j̆ĭu
  Gloss: 1sg PROG go with 1sg.GEN wife
  Translation: “I am going with my wife” (Collins and Gruber: 110).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Abaza No Brian O'Herin
+ Acehnese Yes Julie Legate
  Words: Fatimah ji-taguen sie bak dapu
  Gloss: Fatimah 3(familiar)-cook meat at kitchen
  Translation: Fatimah cooked the meat in the kitchen
  Contributor: Julie Legate
   Adyghe No Yury Lander
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: in die woud
  Gloss: in the forest
  Translation: in the forest
  Comment: Prepositions are the dominant form of adposition in Afrikaans. They often have locative semantics, although there are exceptions (e.g. "na" meaning "to(wards)").
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
  Words: na die kant toe
  Gloss: after the side towards
  Translation: to the side
  Comment: Prepositions may combine with postpositions to create circumpositional structures. Some circumpositional structures are optional ("na die kant toe" could also be realised as "na die kant" without loss of the directional meaning), but there are some fixed pre+postpositional combinations where the adpositions form an obligatory unit (e.g. op hulle na - on them after, "except for them").
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
   Agni indénié No Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: .∗mu dan no / OK: dan no mu
  Gloss: *in house DEF/ OK house DEF in
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: Me kënaqësi
  Gloss: with pleasure
  Translation: with pleasure
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner FROM CALIFORNIA
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: kä-addis abäba
  Gloss: from-Addis Ababa
  Translation: 'from Addis Ababa'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: perì tôn theôn
  Gloss: about art-GEN.M.PL god-GEN.PL
  Translation: about the gods
  Comment: Plato Euthyphro, 6a
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: Ahmed nesaa al-ketaab 3la 6-6awlah
  Gloss: Ahmed forget.PST DET-book on DET-table
  Translation: Ahmed forgot the book on the table
  Contributor: Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
  Words: Ani-n vaze-ts depi partez
  Gloss: Ani-DET run-3SG.PST towards garden
  Translation: Ani run towards the garden
  Contributor: Sona Haroutyunian
   Babanki Yes Pius Akumbu
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: Àmbɛ́ kɨ̀ nɔ̀ŋsɨ́ mbà yá átú ŋgɔ̀’ɔ̀
  Gloss: Ambe PST put meat the on stone
  Translation: Ambe placed the meat on a stone
  Comment: The preposition is usually a combination of á (a particle which marks location, direction, etc.) and a body part. In this example, á + àtû head)
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   baoulé - faafouê de kokumbo Yes kouakou koffi salomon
   Bardi NA Claire Bowern
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: ɓàúdú ɓá- ń- tilá ni bisáó
  Gloss: 2students 2SM-PRES-write with 8pens
  Translation: The students write with pens
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque No Karlos Arregi
+ Bellinzonese Yes Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: (La cà) dal Mario
  Gloss: (the house) of.ART.SG.M Mario
  Translation: (The house) of Mario
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Satarupa Das
+ Bole Yes Alhaji Gimba
  Words: Ishi dowu ga ko dawun
  Gloss: he sit (pfv) LOC on mat
  Translation: he sat on a mat
  Comment: Adpositions in Bole require the locative "ga" before the preposition.
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
+ Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
  Words: Fomos a-o cinema
  Gloss: Went.1PL to-the.M movies
  Translation: We went to the movies
  Contributor: Bruna Moreira
   Breton Yes Steve Hewitt
+ Bulgarian Yes Iliana Krapova
  Words: Plamen otid-e do Varna s kola-ta
  Gloss: Plamen go.PFV-AOR.3.SG to Varna with car-DEF.SG.F
  Translation: Plamen drove to Varna
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burgenland-Romani Yes Michelle McComb
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: keoi tung ngo heoi-zo gung jyun
  Gloss: (s)he with I go-PFV park
  Translation: (S)He went to the park with me.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
+ Chalcatongo Mixtec Yes Jess Combs
  Words: Kù kaka=žó ondé San Miguel
  Gloss: Be.able walk=1PL up.to San Miguel
  Translation: ‘We can walk to San Miguel’
  Contributor: Jess Combs
+ Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
  Words: afisi a-ku-séwéra ndí mikango
  Gloss: hyenas 2SM-pres-play with lions
  Translation: (the) hyenas are playing with (the) lions
  Comment: ndí (with, and) is the only preposition. Locative pa (on) ku (at) and mu (in) are not real prepositions in that they create locative nouns
  Contributor: Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw NA Pam Munro
+ Chol Yes Jessica Coon
  Words: tyi wäy-i-yoñ tyi ab
  Gloss: COMPL sleep-INTR-1ABS PREP hammock
  Translation: I slept in a hammock.
  Contributor: Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: Me tin Marian.
  Gloss: with the Mary
  Translation: with Mary.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Peter Kosta
  Words: na stole
  Gloss: on table.loc
  Translation: on the table (static location)
  Comment: An example of a spatial prepositional phrase.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: s Petrem
  Gloss: with Petr.ins
  Translation: with Petr (accompaniment only)
  Comment: an example of a non-spatial preposition
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
+ Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
  Words: DEre ngmaa la nEne ne sUO
  Gloss: Dere cut.PERF foc mean with knife
  Translation: DEre cut meat with a knife
  Comment: There are very few of such prepositions in Dagaare; mostly the language uses body-part postpositions.
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
+ Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: De tog på en lang ferie
  Gloss: They go.PRF on a long holiday
  Translation: They went on a long holiday
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: ka-ya-gomba na mutu
  Gloss: 3SG.NEG-PST-speak COM CL1.person
  Translation: he did not speak to (with) anyone
  Comment: The comitative marker na functions here as a preposition.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
  Words: u-chere ndani ya madzi
  Gloss: 2SG-PERSISITIVE inside CL9.ASS CL6.water
  Translation: you (sg) are still in the water
  Comment: The preposition consists of the locative noun ndani (inside) plus the class 9 form of the associative marker.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic Yes David Erschler There is only one preposition, 'without'.
  Words: ɐnɐ mɐ=lɐg
  Gloss: without POSS.1SG=man
  Translation: without my husband
  Contributor: David Erschler
  Words: [dor-i raž-i] is-bad-idɐ
  Gloss: stone-OBL front-OBL PRV-sit-SUB.PRS.3SG
  Translation: 'S/he used to sit down in front of the stone.'
  Comment: SUB subjunctive, the present subjunctive often means iterative in the past.
  Contributor: David Erschler
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Jan woont in een groot huis
  Gloss: John lives in a big house
  Translation: John is living in a big house.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
   Egyptian Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
   Estonian Yes Mark Norris
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: Dei um livro a-o João
  Gloss: gave.1SG a book to-the.M João
  Translation: I gave a book to João
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe Yes Chris Collins
+ Farefari Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: A kini wuu bã’ara
  Gloss: 3SG go.IPFV like sick.person
  Translation: He is walking like a sick person
  Comment: There are only two or three prepositions in the language
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
+ Faroese Yes Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
  Words: í húsinum
  Gloss: in house.the.DAT
  Translation: in the house
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
+ Fijian Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: e na ruku ni vūnikāū
  Gloss: ABL DEF under POS tree
  Translation: 'under the tree'
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: kohti talo-a
  Gloss: towards house-PART
  Translation: towards the/a house
  Comment: There are both postpositions and prepositions. The prepositions are few (about ten). They can all alternatively follow the noun. Most of them take a complement noun with partitive case, while the 'pure' postpositions are constructed with a noun in genitive case.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Le chat est sur le lit.
  Gloss: DEF-DET-M cat be-PRS LOC DEF-DET-M bed
  Translation: The cat is on the bed.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: E-fo brodo kɛ kakla
  Gloss: 3SG-cut bread with knife
  Translation: She cut bread with a knife
  Comment: kɛ is the only real preposition in this language, and always in this function indicates an instrument
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
+ Garifuna Yes Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
  Words: t-abu gabara
  Gloss: 3SG.F-with goat
  Translation: with (a) goat
  Comment: This 'with' is not the canonical commititave. It indicates that the object is being strung along unwillingly.
  Contributor: Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German Yes Martin Haspelmath
+ Ghɔmáĺá' Yes Francine Moguo
  Words: gə̂ níŋ bap tʉ́m bɛ́
  Gloss: I put meat in pot
  Translation: I put the meat in the pot
  Contributor: Francine Moguo
+ Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: in dulþ þo
  Gloss: to feast.ACC.F this.ACC
  Translation: to this feast
  Comment: John 7:8
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: Me megali efxaristisi
  Gloss: with big pleasure
  Translation: with great pleasure
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: ap to perendʒe (Dawkins 1916: 330)
  Gloss: from ART.DEF.SG.ACC window.SG.ACC
  Translation: from the window
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greek (Pontic) Yes Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) No Stephen Mayeaux
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene Yes Samuel Atintono
   Haitian Yes Michel DeGraff
   Hakka Yes Iris Wu
   Hanga No Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa Yes Russell Schuh
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: Gabi yaSav 9al kise
  Gloss: Gabi sat-PST on chair
  Translation: Gabi sat on a chair
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: weruach 'elohim merachefet 'al-pene hammaim (Gen 1,2)
  Gloss: the Spirit of God.SBJ moved.PTCP.F.SG.
  Translation: And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Gurprit Bains
   Hittite No Mattyas Huggard
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
+ Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
  Words: í hús-inu
  Gloss: in house-the.DAT.SG.N
  Translation: In the house.
  Contributor: Jim Wood
   Igala Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Igbo Yes Mary Amaechi
  Words: na efere ahu
  Gloss: in plate DET
  Translation: 'in that/the plate'
  Contributor: Mary Amaechi
   Iha Yes Mark Donohue
+ Ilokano Yes Jeremy Rafal
  Words: Nag-kanta-ak para kenni Maria.
  Gloss: ACTVOC-sing-1SG for OBL Maria
  Translation: I sang for Mary.
  Contributor: Jeremy Rafal
  Words: N-ag-kanta-ak para kenni Maria.
  Gloss: PFV-ACTVOC-sing-1SG for OBL Mary
  Translation: I sang for Mary.
  Comment: ACTVOC = Actor Voice
  Contributor: Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
+ Indonesian Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: di rumah
  Gloss: in house
  Translation: 'in the house'
  Contributor: Daniel Kaufman
  Words: ke kali
  Gloss: to river
  Translation: 'to the river'
  Contributor: Daniel Kaufman
+ Irish Yes Bridget Nixdorf
  Words: Chuaigh Cáit tri gheata.
  Gloss: Went Cáit through gate
  Translation: 'Cáit went through a gate.'
  Contributor: Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic Yes David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun Yes Iris Wu
   Italian Yes Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English Yes Tonjes Veenstra
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   Jingulu NA Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
   Karachay No Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Kayan Yes Ken Manson
+ Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
  Words: ŋa-bo:ʔ ya-ka-kɔt ha-lɔ:r-ka-me:c
  Gloss: 1sg-put acc-f-book loc-surface-f-table
  Translation: “I put the book on the table”
  Contributor: Gracious Temsen
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande Yes Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kindendeule Yes Deo Ngonyani
+ Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
  Words: katika shamba la wa-nyama
  Gloss: in farm of CLS2PRF-animal
  Translation: in the animal farm (in the farm of animals)
  Contributor: Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
+ Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
  Words: mà tí se? á gve^yn
  Gloss: I past go to farm
  Translation: I went to the farm
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Konni NA Michael Cahill
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
+ Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
  Words: (min) chu-m bo qutabxane
  Gloss: (I) go.PST-1SG to school
  Translation: I went to school.
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: i. Asibi nɛ Adoluba bɛ dᴐᴐg la ni ii. ᴐ nᴐk sυυg nwa ni’im la
  Gloss: i. Asibi CONJ Adoluba to-be room DEF in ii. 3sg take knife cut meat DEF
  Translation: i. ‘Asibi is with Adoluba in the room’ ‘Asibi and Adoluba are in the room’ ii. ‘s/he cut the meat with the knife’
  Comment: Kusaal does not have prepositions. For instance, the conjunction ne/nɛ is used in comitatives (i) and the verb nᴐk ‘take’ is used in instrumental SVCs as in (ii).
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal Yes Florian Lionnet
+ Lango Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: lócə̀ òwòtò tú bòt dákô
  Gloss: man 3S.walk.PRF toward to woman
  Translation: the man walked toward the woman (Noonan 1992: 171 ex 3.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Lani No Mark Donohue
+ Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
  Words: khoi mii muu laai khon yuu hoong-hian
  Gloss: 1SG have friend many CLF at school
  Translation: I have a lot of friends at school
  Contributor: Alif Silpachai
+ Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: ad verbum
  Gloss: to word.ACC
  Translation: to the word/literally
  Comment: Cic. (de Orat. 1, 157)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Words: super ipsa valle tota
  Gloss: above that:ABL valley:ABL entire:ABL
  Translation: 'above that entire valley'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 5.16) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
+ Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
  Words: Jis sėdi prie stalo.
  Gloss: he sit.PRS.3 at table.GEN.SG
  Translation: He is sitting at the table.
  Contributor: Felix Thies
  Words: Ateisiu su Petru.
  Gloss: come.FUT.1SG with Peter.INS.SG
  Translation: I will come with Peter.
  Contributor: Felix Thies
   Lubukusu Yes Aggrey Wasike
+ Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman There is a single generalized P
  Words: t-oo l-ayiok
  Gloss: P-PL.MS D.PL.boy.PL.NOM
  Translation: (with, for, by, at, etc.) the boys
  Comment: t- is an all purpose P, followed by an agreement marker, with common noun objects. (agreement with the prepositional object in number and gender) . The preposiitonal object itself carries nominative case, expressed as a tonal pattern (prefix/suffix); The form is te/ti before proper nouns/pronouns/nouns without gender prefix. (Tucker Mpaayei, p. 42)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
+ Malagasy Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: ambonin'ny latabatra
  Gloss: on.top.of'DET table
  Translation: on top of the table
  Comment: The apostrophe is standard Malagasy orthography.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam No Mythili Menon
+ Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: cong Taipei
  Gloss: from Taipei
  Translation: from Taipei
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
   Mankanya Yes Tim Gaved
+ Maori Yes Ray Harlow
  Words: ki te kura
  Gloss: to the school
  Translation: ‘to the school’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: i te kaapata
  Gloss: at the cupboard
  Translation: ‘in the cupboard’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: Ri-eonōd ro re=j turon ilo lomaļo eo.
  Gloss: one.who-fish the.PL.HUMAN 3PL.AGR=PRS dive in lagoon the.SG
  Translation: The fishermen are diving in the lagoon.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
   Masarak No Jessica Chen
   Mbuko Yes Richard Gravina
  Words: á kú? nùm tú`bà?
  Gloss: He climb on head house
  Translation: He climbed on the roof
  Comment: (? is glottal stop)
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma This is the standard order
  Words: Tes hi quam te Maupertus /Ende vant Reynaerde in zijn huus
  Gloss: Until he came at Maupertus/ and found Reinaert in his house
  Translation: Until he came at Maupertus and found Reinaert at home
  Comment: prepositions are the common case of appositions; prepositions govern the dative, accusative or genitive case
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
  Words: ənáa zh̀aakə
  Gloss: with donkey
  Translation: 'with a donkey'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: ka.yamshee li.l.maktab
  Gloss: PRES.M.go.3SG to.DEF.office
  Translation: He goes to the office.
  Comment: reduced pronunciation: li el-maktab is reduced to [lilmaktab]
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
  Words: ana wal
  Gloss: to woman
  Translation: To wife
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N|u Yes Chris Collins
+ Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
  Words: i-pan i-ilhuih
  Gloss: 3SG.POSS-on 3SG.POSS-festival
  Translation: "on his/her festival"
  Comment: Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Naki Yes Jeff Good
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: k͡͡pɛ̀lé ɛ̀n náŋk͡pàʔé ʔènàːʔé
  Gloss: table with leg-cl(pl) cl-four-cl
  Translation: 'a table with four legs' (MB2/19 6).
  Comment: The only candidate for adposition here is En. All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
   Ndut Yes Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
   Nkore-Kiga Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Northern Thai Yes Alif Silpachai
  Words: siaw haa nang yuu nai huean
  Gloss: friend 1SG sit stay in house
  Translation: My friend is sitting inside the house
  Contributor: Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: daga Nigeria
  Gloss: from Nigeria
  Translation: from Nigeria
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: be ebi yin
  Gloss: with knife INS
  Translation: 'with a knife'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Odia (Oriya) Yes Rajat Mohanty
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
+ Old English Yes Willem Koopman
  Comment: this is the standard order
  Contributor: Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden This is the standard order.
  Words: that he it gio an is hertan gehugda
  Gloss: that he it ever in his heart believed
  Translation: that he ever believed it in his heart
  Comment: (Heliand 2505)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Nd-a-tsi-re khu-sukuli
  Gloss: 1sg-PST-go-PST Prep-school
  Translation: I went to school
  Comment: a-V-re: recent past
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   Palue Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay Yes Mark Donohue
+ Pashto Yes Taylor Roberts
  Words: dee asad laas
  Gloss: POSS Asad hand
  Translation: Asad's hand
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 153. One of only two prepositions in the language; aside from a single postposition, the remaining adpositions are ambipositions/circumpositions.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
  Words: pe tshaarre
  Gloss: INS knife
  Translation: with/by means of a knife
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 154. One of only two prepositions in the language; aside from a single postposition, the remaining adpositions are ambipositions/circumpositions.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: na stole
  Gloss: on table.loc
  Translation: on the table (static location)
  Comment: spatial prepositional phrases
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: z Piotrem
  Gloss: with Peter.ins
  Translation: with Peter (as a companion)
  Comment: non-spatial prepositional phrase
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: O prato está sobre a mesa
  Gloss: the plate be.PRS.3SG on the.F table
  Translation: The plate is on the table
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: Maria a plecat la magazin
  Gloss: Mary has gone to store
  Translation: "Mary has gone to the store"
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
+ Russian Yes Stephanie Harves
  Words: v restorane
  Gloss: in restaurant.PREP
  Translation: in a/the restaurant
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan Yes Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec Yes George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
+ Sasak Yes Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
  Words: timpaq Awan
  Gloss: to Awan
  Translation: 'to Awan'
  Comment: Sukadana, Northern Sasak
  Contributor:  Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
  Words: kon pawang
  Gloss: in forest
  Translation: 'in the forest'
  Comment: Sukadana, Northern Sasak
  Contributor:  Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Saweru Yes Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic Yes David Adger
   Senaya Yes Laura McPherson
   Serbian Yes Miloje Despic
+ Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: na paa ma ndap
  Gloss: mother be.PRES. at house
  Translation: The mother is at home
  Comment: 'Ma' is the most general locative preposition.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: mfon kut ndap nkop nke
  Gloss: King buid-PST house near river
  Translation: The king built a house near a river
  Comment: A bare noun is either definite or indefinite.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: lera won ma ndale ndia'a
  Gloss: teacher go.PST to school today
  Translation: The teacher went to school today.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: mi nn’ìi a mmàri
  Gloss: to.me "ne" I.went to sea
  Translation: I went to the sea
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: niscìi kku Mmàrju
  Gloss: I.went.out with Mario
  Translation: I went out with Mario
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
+ Spanish Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: El libro está sobre la mesa
  Gloss: the.M book be.PRS.3SG on the.F table
  Translation: The book is on the table
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
   St'át'imcets Yes Lisa Matthewson
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
  Words: Flickan satt på bänken.
  Gloss: girl.DEF sat on bench.def
  Translation: The girl sat on the bench.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: sa bahay
  Gloss: P house
  Translation: 'in the house'/'at home'
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
+ Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: ti taipak
  Gloss: in Taipei
  Translation: in Taipei
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ Tarascan No Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: *Saulina u-h-ti churipu jimpó tsúntsu jimbáni-ni
  Gloss: Saulina make-PFV-3 soup ADP pot new-OBJ
  Translation: Intended: Saulina made soup in the new pot
  Comment: 'jimpó' is a postposition. It requires accusative (objective) case in its complement NP.
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: *Pegru jura-h-ti khwíndikwa-rhu jingóni Juánu-ni.
  Gloss: Pedro come-PFV-3 party-LOC ADP Juan-OBJ
  Translation: Intended: 'Pedro came to the party with Juan'
  Comment: 'jingóni' is a postposition with comitative meaning. It requires (objective) accusative case marking on its complement NP.
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so ʃitə kə Mariə
  Gloss: I.am gone.out with Mary
  Translation: I went out with Mary
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so jitə a lu marə
  Gloss: I.am gone to the sea
  Translation: I went to the sea
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
+ Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: 'əb səlluma 'ət h̩əgəs ladabər bat̩r-at.
  Gloss: Safely at lower part the mountain she stood.
  Translation: ‘She stood safely at the lower part of the mountain.’
  Comment: P85
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern
   Tiwa No Virginia Dawson
   Tlingit No James Crippen
+ Tocharian A Yes Bernhard Koller
  Words: śla tuṅk
  Gloss: with love
  Translation: with love
  Comment: source: A 5 b3
  Contributor: Bernhard Koller
+ Tocharian B Yes Bernhard Koller
  Words: snai proskai
  Gloss: without fear
  Translation: without fear
  Comment: source: THT 368 b2
  Contributor: Bernhard Koller
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan Yes Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala Yes George Aaron Broadwell The ordinary order is Prep NP, but this inverts when the NP is interrogative (in the construction called Pied-piping with Inversion)
+ Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: mina di kampo
  Gloss: from OBL.R village
  Translation: from the village
  Comment: 'mina' takes the oblique case marker, in this case in realis form
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) Yes Edmond Biloa
  Words: Mbárá a- mu- enda na sukuru
  Gloss: Mbara SM- P1- go to school
  Translation: Mbara went to school
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural
   Tuvan No Brian Hsu
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Udmurt Yes Orsolya Tanczos
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: v universyteti
  Gloss: in university
  Translation: in the university
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese Yes Binh Ngo
  Words: Tôi đi tù’ nhà
  Gloss: I come from home
  Translation: I came from home
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian Yes Zvjezdana Vrzic
  Words: pre kåle
  Translation: on the road
  Contributor: Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
   Warlpiri No Margit Bowler
   Welsh Yes David Willis
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
  Words: Valère woon-t in een groot huis
  Gloss: Valère live-3sg in a big house
  Translation: 'Valère lives in a big house'
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
+ Wolane Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: fɛrɛŋk bɛ-tɛrɛbēzɛ dɛr ʔalɛ.
  Gloss: money LOC-table TOP exist:PV:3sm
  Translation: ‘Money is on the table’ (282).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Wolof Yes Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
+ Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
  Words: In-kawu i-se-m-thi-ni.
  Gloss: 9-monkey SM9-Loc-3-tree-Loc
  Translation: The monkey is in the tree.
  Contributor: Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu NA Claire Bowern
   Yawa Yes Mark Donohue
+ Yiddish Yes Shannon Mooney
  Words: Es iz do a bux afn tish.
  Gloss: It is there a book on table
  Translation: "There's a book on the table."
  Contributor: Shannon Mooney
+ Yoruba Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
  Words: Mo lọ [ sí Èkó/Ìbàdàn/Òyọ́ ]
  Gloss: 1sg go Loc Lagos/Ibadan/Oyo
  Translation: 'I went to Lagos/Ibadan/Oyo
  Comment: 'sí ' is the adposition here while any location (or city) e.g. Èkó/Ìbàdàn/Òyọ́ is the noun phrase complement.
  Contributor: Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Ya pone yo el libro na mesa.
  Gloss: PST put 1SG the book on table
  Translation: I put the book on the table.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
+ Zulu Yes Esther Park
  Words: Ngi-hamb-a nge-bhasi.
  Gloss: 1SG-travel-PRES by.5-bus
  Translation: 'I travel by bus.'
  Contributor: Esther Park
  Words: U-gogo u-hamb-a no-Sipho.
  Gloss: 1a-grandmother 1a-walk-PRES with.1a-Sipho
  Translation: 'Grandmother is walking with Sipho.'
  Comment: "no" is a result of combining "na" (with) with "u" (prefix of noun class 1a).
  Contributor: Esther Park