12_Noun_Phrase Adposition

The property Noun_Phrase Adposition has the value "yes" when there is at least one adposition in the language that follows the noun phrase it occurs with. In this case, the adposition is called a postposition. As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

Definition of Adposition

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Adposition Noun_Phrase does not exclude a "yes" value for Noun_Phrase Adposition. In other words, a language may have both prepositions and postpositions.

NA (Not Applicable): A language has the value NA for this property if it does not have any sort of adpositional morpheme.


English is "no" for the property Noun_Phrase Adposition since this order is always ungrammatical:

*I went the store to
*I sat the rock on

Japanese is "yes" for Noun_Phrase Adposition:

boku-wa mise-kara modot-ta.
1Sg-TOP store-from return-PST
"I returned from the store."

boku-wa niwa-de ason-da.
1Sg.-TOP garden-at play-PST
"I played in the garden."

Note: post-positions in Japanese are clitics or suffixes, which does not affect our definition.

Ewe is also "yes" for Noun_Phrase Adposition:

Agbale la le kplO dzi (post-position = dzi)
book the be.LOC table on
"The book is on the table."

Although the word dzi "on" in Ewe is an inalienable noun, we count it here as an adposition. In certain languages, locative adpositions are closely related to the category of inalienable nouns. For the puproses of this property, these are counted as adpositions.

Ewe is also "yes" for Adposition Noun_Phrase:

Kofi Da nu kple Ama (preposition = kple)
Kofi cook thing with Ama
"Kofi cooked with Ama."

In other words, Ewe is "yes" for the property Noun_Phrase Adposition and the property Adposition Noun_Phrase.
Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
  Words: kyěamà ʼa kì !kôa za
  Gloss: dog COP LK house by
  Translation: ‘the dog is by the house’ (Collins and Gruber: 114).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Abaza Yes Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: die woud in
  Gloss: the forest in
  Translation: into the forest
  Comment: Postpositions in Afrikaans are outnumbered by prepositions. Some elements are obligatorily postpositional, while others (e.g. "langs" - "alongside/beside") may optionally be either pre- or postpositional, without semantic consequences. A limited number of adpositions may surface as both pre- and postpositions, with positional differences coinciding with semantic differences. Thus prepositional "in" has locative semantics ("in"/"inside"), while postpositional "in" is directional ("into").
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: kòfí wrʋ̀ sùwà nṵ́
  Gloss: Koffi entrer maison Prép
  Translation: Koffi entre dans la maison.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: sika da pono no so.
  Gloss: money sleep table DEF on
  Translation: There is money on the table
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: rrugës pranë
  Gloss:  road-the near
  Translation: by the road
  Comment: not a terribly productive pattern but it obviously exists
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
+ Amharic No Girma Demeke
  Comment: Amharic has circumpositions, P ... (N/"other") but since the preposition is obligatory and the second part can be omitted, we set the value for DP P as NO, and will wait for circumpositional propert(ies) to give the value 'yes'.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: philosophias péri
  Gloss: philosophy-GEN.SG about
  Translation: about philosophy
  Comment: CAVEAT: in prose, peri is the only possible postposition. (example: Plato Phaedo, 66d)
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: * Ahmed nessa al-ketab 6-6awlah 3la
  Gloss: Ahmed forget.PST DET-book DET-table on
  Translation: Ahmed forgat the book on the table
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
+ Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
  Words: katu-n nst-ets atori tak
  Gloss: cat-DET sit-3SG.PST chair under
  Translation: The cat sat under the chair
  Contributor: Sona Haroutyunian
   Babanki No Pius Akumbu
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
+ Bambara Yes Bryan Villa
  Words: Toòro t'an na.
  Gloss: Trouble NEG us with
  Translation: There is no no trouble with us ("we are fine")
  Comment: from BB pg 27
  Contributor: Bryan Villa
   Bandial No Wolfgang Berndt
   baoulé - faafouê de kokumbo Yes kouakou koffi salomon
   Bardi NA Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
+ Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: * Sum nai la machina cun
  Gloss: be.AUX.PRS.1 go.PTCP the.ART.F.3SG car with
  Translation: I went with the car.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng Yes Denis Paperno
+ Bengali Yes Satarupa Das
  Words: boi-ta tebil-er opor ach-e
  Gloss: book-CLF table-GEN on be-3.PRES
  Translation: The book is on the table
  Contributor: Satarupa Das
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
   Breton No Steve Hewitt
   Bulgarian No Iliana Krapova
   Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: ngo hai saan soeng
  Gloss: I at mountain on
  Translation: I am on the mountain.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Txuss Martin
   Chalcatongo Mixtec No Jess Combs
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw NA Pam Munro Chickasaw has no prepositions or postpositions, though there are "relational nouns" that can add specificity. But all semantically adpositional phrases are direct arguments of the verb
   Chol No Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
  Words: *tin Marian me.
  Gloss: the Mary with
  Translation: with Mary
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Pavel Caha
  Words: Porazil Murreyho větru navzdory
  Gloss: beat.3sg.past Murrey.acc wind.dat in_spite_of
  Translation: He beat Murrey in spite of the wind.
  Comment: Postpositions are rare (I can think of one more: naproti `against') compared to prepositions. They are complex, and allow a prepositional option (navzdory větru `in_spite_of wind' would be fine as well in the example).
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
+ Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
  Words: DEre ngmaa la nEne ne sUO a tabUl zu
  Gloss: DEre cut.PERF foc meat with knife def table top
  Translation: DEre cut mean with a knife on the table
  Comment: the adpositon 'zu' derives from the lexical verb/body part 'head'.
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
+ Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: dagen igennem
  Gloss: day.DET throughout
  Translation: Throughout the day
  Comment: There are very few postpositions in Danish.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Jeg blev natten over
  Gloss: I stay.PRF the night/overnight
  Translation: I stayed overnight
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby ALS4 workshop 2016
  Words: tūtùkpō mlɛ̰̄ kwa ni
  Gloss: toutoukpo go.IMPF farm to
  Translation: Toutoukpo goes to the farm.
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: tūtùkpō mlɛ̰̄ kwá ní
  Gloss: toutoukpo go.IMPF farm to
  Translation: Toutoukpo goes to the farm.
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Digo No Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic Yes David Erschler
  Words: cad-i wɐngɐ
  Gloss: lake-OBL up.to/until
  Translation: 'up to the/a lake'
  Contributor: David Erschler
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Het pad het bos in begint hier
  Gloss: The path the forest in starts here
  Translation: The path into the forests starts here
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
  Words: Mariam-a trav seghani vra
  Gloss: Mariam.DEF jump.3SG.PST table on
  Translation: Mariam jumped on the table
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Egyptian Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   Estonian Yes Mark Norris
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe Yes Chris Collins
+ Farefari Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: deo puan
  Gloss: room inside
  Translation: inside the room
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese No Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Fijian No Zhenyu Sun
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: talo-n alla
  Gloss: house-GEN under
  Translation: under the/a house
  Comment: Postpositions are noun-like. They are constructed with a genitive complement in a structure which looks like a Possessor-Noun structure.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   French No Chris Collins
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: tsu-i a-mli
  Gloss: room-Pl ASSOC-inside
  Translation: in the room
  Comment: The noun-postposition construction is morphologically identical with the possessive
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna No Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German No Martin Haspelmath
   Ghɔmáĺá' No Francine Moguo
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Arhonto Terzi
  Words: *to grafio apo
  Gloss: the office from
  Translation: from the office
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: do quʝu mesa (Dawkins 1916: 352)
  Gloss: ART.DEF.SG.ACC well.SG.ACC inside
  Translation: inside the well
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
   Greek (Pontic) No Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
+ Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) Yes Stephen Mayeaux
  Words: illu-p ilu-a-ni
  Gloss: house-REL interior-3s.POSS-LOC
  Translation: ‘in the house’
  Contributor: Stephen Mayeaux
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
+ Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: ùn nyìn àwù xlán távò jí
  Gloss: 1sg throw shirt Prep table top
  Translation: I threw the shirt on the table
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene Yes Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
+ Hanga Yes Geoffrey Hunt I'm not sure whether is true adposition
  Words: o ŋoo niŋ dugu niŋ
  Gloss: he/she pour put-in pot put-in
  Translation: she poured (it) into a pot
  Comment: I'm not sure whether this is an adposition, because I analyze the final word as a verb
  Contributor: Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa No Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Hittite Yes Mattyas Huggard
+ Hixkaryana Yes Laura Kalin
  Words: watma ke
  Gloss: club with
  Translation: with clubs/a club
  Comment: Hixkaryana is a postpositional language. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 19/39)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: A kutya Kati után szalad-t.
  Gloss: the dog[NOM.SG] Kati[NOM.SG] after run-PST[3SG]
  Translation: `The dog ran after Kati'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha Yes Mark Donohue
   Ijo (Kaiama) Yes Hilda Koopman
   Ilokano No Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Irish No Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic Yes David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun No Iris Wu
   Italian No Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Tonjes Veenstra
+ Japanese Yes Ken Hiraiwa
  Words: Ken-wa mise-kara modot-ta.
  Gloss: Ken-TOP store-from return-PST
  Translation: Ken returned from the store
  Contributor: Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara Yes Alan Vogel Dixon 2004:chs 11, 20, 21
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) Yes Amrit Amritavalli
   Karachay Yes Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi No Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kindendeule No Deo Ngonyani
+ Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
  Words: shamba-ni
  Gloss: farm-in
  Translation: in the farm
  Contributor: Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Konni NA Michael Cahill
+ Korean Yes Chung-hye Han
  Words: Toli-nun hankwuk-eyse wa-ss-ta.
  Gloss: Toli-TOP Korea-from come-PST-DECL
  Translation: Toli came from Korea.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Koyo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: biig la bɛ dᴐᴐg la ni
  Gloss: child.NC Def to-be room.NC Def eye
  Translation: ‘the child is in the room'
  Comment: Kusaal uses body parts as postposition: zug “head…on’ pug “stomach…inside’ etc
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lani Yes Mark Donohue
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
+ Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Invidiae detestandae gratia
  Gloss: hatred.GEN deprecate.GERUNDIVE.GEN because
  Translation: for the sake/because/in order to deprecate hatred
  Comment: Cic. (nat. deor. 1,123). There are only 5 postpositions in Latin. They are of very restricted use, with the exception of 'gratia' and 'causa'. See Menge (2005: 291ss )
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
  Comment: Even the postpositions of Classical Latin ('gratia', 'causa') show a predominant P-N order in the variety under consideration (e.g. Itin. Eg. 19.5 gratia religionis 'for religion's sake'). The only case where adposition is post-N are found when 'cum' = 'with' encliticizes to personal pronouns (e.g. Itin. Eg. 1.2 nobiscum = 'with us') - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic No Lina Choueiri
+ Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
  Words: Nuėjome miesto link.
  Gloss: walk.PST.1.PL town.GEN.SG towards
  Translation: We walked towards the town.
  Comment: In Standard Lithuanian there are three prepositions (link, dėlei, vietoj) which can also be used as postpositions.
  Contributor: Felix Thies
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore To verify if this occurs only in combination with a preposition "ere djerne va" in the garden. The language is
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
+ Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: Taipei li
  Gloss: Taipei in
  Translation: in Taipei
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Maori No Ray Harlow
+ Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: *Ri-eonōd ro re=j turon lomaļo eo ilo.
  Gloss: one.who-fish the.PL.HUMAN 3PL.AGR=PRS dive lagoon the.SG in
  Translation: The fishermen are diving in the lagoon.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
+ Masarak Yes Jessica Chen
  Words: tiː ɲuɡuɾu mɪntɑ-mɑlɑk ti-niɲɑn-ɑ
  Gloss: 3SG food.SG us-from 3SG-steal-PST
  Translation: 'He stole the food from us'
  Contributor: Jessica Chen
  Words: tiː mɑŋ dʒiɑ-kɑnɑŋ t-ɑɾtʃ-ɑ
  Gloss: 3SG you 2SG-toward 3SG-throw-PST
  Translation: ‘He threw something toward you’
  Contributor: Jessica Chen
  Words: mɑŋ ɑm(ɑ)-m sɑː l-ɔɪn-ɑ
  Gloss: 2SG 1SG-LOC water 2SG-poured-PST
  Translation: 'You spilled water on me'
  Contributor: Jessica Chen
   Mbuko No Richard Gravina
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: Verware mijn stede di beneven
  Gloss: guard my place you next
  Translation: protect my place at your side
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
  Words: Dlant dat hem lach beneven
  Gloss: the-land that him.DAT laid beside
  Translation: the land that was laying beside him
  Comment: Note: non-adjacency of NP and P; not clearly separable from the resultative particle construction
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
  Words: Doe leedde hi tfolc den berghe bi
  Gloss: Then guided he the.ACC.N-people.ACC.N the.DAT.M mountain.DAT.M along
  Translation: Then he guided the people along the mountain
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
  Words: Alle steden die den hemel zijn beneden
  Gloss: all towns that the-ACC sky/heaven.ACC are below
  Translation: all towns that are below heaven
  Comment: difficult to separate from adverbial use of 'beneden'. Non-adjacency is especially common if the NP has genitive case
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   N|u Yes Chris Collins
+ Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
  Words: no-nacaz-tlan
  Gloss: 1SG.P-ear-Locative
  Translation: ‘Next to me’
  Comment: (lit. on the place of my ear). Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Naki No Jeff Good
   Navajo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' No Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
   Ndut No Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce NA Amy Rose Deal
   Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa a ci kata o
  Gloss: Musa PRV lie house LOC
  Translation: Musa has lied down in the house.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan Yes Ken Hiraiwa
+ Old English Yes Willem Koopman
  Words: thaer hi com him to
  Gloss: there they came him to
  Translation: "there they came to him"
  Comment: this occurs after 'her'and 'thaer'and often with personal pronouns
  Contributor: Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden Rare, mainly with pronominal NPs. I'm not aware of any systematic study of this property.
  Words: Thô geng im tô the landes uuard
  Gloss: then went him.DAT to the.NOM land.GEN ward.GEN
  Translation: Then the lord of the land went to him
  Comment: (Heliand 3155)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   Palue No Mark Donohue
   panjabi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
+ Pashto Yes Taylor Roberts
  Words: bazaar ta dz-em
  Gloss: market to go.PRS.IPFV-1SG
  Translation: I'm going to the market.
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 154. The only postposition in the language; aside from two prepositions, the remaining adpositions are ambipositions/circumpositions.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Oana Savescu
+ Russian No Stephanie Harves
  Words: *dome v
  Gloss: house.PREP in
  Translation: in the house
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua Yes Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell Interrogative object of preposition precedes the Prep; an ordinary object follows the Prep
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Saweru Yes Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Senaya No Laura McPherson
   Serbian No Miloje Despic
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: * niscìi Mmàrju kku
  Gloss: I.went.out Mario with
  Translation: I went out with Mario
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
+ Slovenian No Franc Marušič This is true for most adpositions, yet there are a few that can be used as postpositions.
  Words: hiši naproti
  Gloss: house.LOC towards
  Translation: towards the house
  Comment: Typically this adposition is also used as a preposition, but it can also be used in slightly marked examples as postposition. The other such adposition is 'nasproti' (opposite).
  Contributor: Franc Marušič
  Words: hiši nasproti
  Gloss: house.LOC opposite
  Translation: opposite the house
  Comment: Typically this adposition is also used as a preposition, but it can also be used in slightly marked examples as postposition. The other such adposition is 'naproti' (towards).
  Contributor: Franc Marušič
+ Spanish No Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: *Bailamos la boda en
  Gloss: dance.PST.1PL the.F wedding at
  Translation: Intended: We danced at the wedding
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
   St'át'imcets No Lisa Matthewson
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
+ Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
  Words: *taipak ti
  Gloss: Taipei in
  Translation: in Taipei
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Saulina u-h-ti churipu tsúntsu jimbáni-ni jimpó
  Gloss: Saulina make-PERF-3 soup pot new-OBJ ADP
  Translation: 'Saulina made soup in the new pot'
  Comment: The postposition 'jimpó' requires objective (accusative) case on its NP complement.
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Pegru jura-h-ti khwíndikwa-rhu Juanu-ni jingóni
  Gloss: Pedro come-PFV-3 party-LOC Juan-OBJ ADP
  Translation: 'Pedro came to the party with Juan'
  Comment: The comitative postposition 'jingóni' requires objective (accusative) case on its NP complement.
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *so ʃitə Mariə kə
  Gloss: I.am gone.out Mary with
  Translation: I went out with Mary
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Tigre No Zhenyu Sun
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tiwa Yes Virginia Dawson
+ Tlingit Yes James Crippen
  Words: yaa hít-xʼ
  Gloss: DEM.PROX house-LOC
  Translation: in this house
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ Tocharian A Yes Bernhard Koller
  Words: eṅkäl ṣurmaṣ
  Gloss: passion due.to
  Translation: due to passion
  Comment: A 355 b1
  Contributor: Bernhard Koller
   Tocharian B Yes Bernhard Koller
+ Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
  Words: NààL gɛ́m=gɛ ɛ̀nɛ́=gɛ gèŋgèL=nɛ=wɔ.
  Gloss: cow black=DEF goat=DEF beside=OBL=is
  Translation: ‘The black cow is next to the goat’ (252: 438b).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala Yes George Aaron Broadwell This is the order found when the object NP is interrogative.
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Abá ygar-usu-pe o-só
  Gloss: Indian.SG/PL boat-big-to (3.SG/PL)-go.PRS/PST.IND
  Translation: The indian(s) go(es)/went to the big boat (ship)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Murat Kural
+ Tuvan Yes Brian Hsu
  Words: dag ažɨr
  Gloss: mountain across
  Translation: across the mountain
  Contributor: Brian Hsu
   Twi Yes Cansada Martin
   Udmurt Yes Orsolya Tanczos
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
+ Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: a budole samana mlI
  Gloss: we wash.APPL soap P
  Translation: We wash ourselves with soap
  Comment: mlI also has clitic form (H tone); mlI (related to 'inside') is a bleached P; instrumental requires applied verb form (V-lE); applied form cooccurs with PP
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian No Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan Yes Tatiana Nikitina
+ Warlpiri Yes Margit Bowler The adpositions are nominal suffixes.
  Words: Nyirripi-wana
  Gloss: Nyirripi-around
  Translation: around Nyirripi
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
   Welsh No David Willis
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu NA Claire Bowern
   Yawa Yes Mark Donohue
   Yiddish No Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zamboageño Chabacano No Grace Gaspardo
+ Zulu Yes Esther Park
  Words: Uku-dla ku-s-en-sim-ini.
  Gloss: 15-food 15-LOC-9-field-in
  Translation: 'The food is in the field.'
  Contributor: Esther Park