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C 03_Adverbial_Subordinator Clause

Definition
The property Adverbial_Subordinator Clause has the value "yes" when there is at least one adverbial subordinator that can appear before the clause it combines with. As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

Definition of Adverbial Subordinator

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Adverbial_Subordinator Clause does not exclude a "yes" value for Clause Adverbial_Subordinator.

NA (Not Applicable): NA for this property means that a language does not have adverbial subordinators.

1.
English is "yes" for Adverbial_Subordinator Clause:

I went because I wanted to succeed.
Although you don't like linguistics, you should not ignore it.
Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
  Words: qà“a qo xú yȁ, yà kúe ’a nǀni’ni
  Gloss: 1PL.EXCL FUT leave 3SG 3SG because PROG refuse
  Translation: “We will leave him, because he refuses” (Collins and Gruber: 205).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ Acehnese Yes Julie Legate
  Words: Tapi seunang seubap awaknyan ka na aneuk.
  Gloss: but happy because they PFV exist child
  Translation: But they were happy because they had a child.
  Contributor: Julie Legate
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: omdat die studente die prys gewen het
  Gloss: because the student.PL the prize won.PSTPRT have
  Translation: because the students won the prize
  Comment: Like subordinate clauses introduced by overt subordinators more generally, the clauses following adverbial subordinators standardly exhibit OV order. In colloquial Afrikaans, V2 order is, however, possible in "because" clauses. This pattern doesn't extend to adverbial clauses more generally, though.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: kɛ̀ kòfí bà pɛ̀ àdú à hɔ́
  Gloss: Part. Koffi arriver Part. Adou Accompli partir
  Translation: Aussitôt Koffi arriva que Adou partit.
  Comment: La cause d’insistance est traduite par les particules séparables [kɛ̀…pɛ̀]. Dans un énoncé, la proposition causative est encadrée par ces particules.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: Nuk shkova sepse isha e zënë.
  Gloss: NEG went.1SG because was.1SG agr(F,SG) busy
  Translation: I didn’t go because I was busy.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner Found in antecedents of conditional (IF/SUPPOSE) and reason adjuncts (FOR-FOR).
   Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: epeidḕ ou xunekhṓroun, apépleusan ep’ oíkou
  Gloss: since NEG accept-IND.PRS.3PL sail.away.IND.AOR.3PL to home-GEN.SG
  Translation: ‘as (the inhabitants) would not submit, they sailed back home.’
  Comment: Thucydides, 2.66.2
  Contributor: Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Babanki Yes Pius Akumbu
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: mə̀ kɨ̀ wô kwà’ànɨ̀ [nlóŋmə́ ŋgwɛ́ ghà kɨ̀ kxə̌]
  Gloss: I PST fail exam [because wife my PST run]
  Translation: I failed the examination because my wife ran away
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: mɛ ń-jɛ́ ɓéé ínyuúlɛ́ mɛ ŋ́- kↄ̀n
  Gloss: I PRES-eat NEG because I PRES-be sick
  Translation:  ‘I don’t eat because I am sick’
  Comment: (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
+ Bellinzonese Yes Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: Sum nai a cà perché sevi sctrac
  Gloss: be.AUX.PRS.1 go.PST to home because be.PST.1 tired
  Translation: I went home because I was tired.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng Yes Denis Paperno
+ Bengali Yes Satarupa Das
  Words: ami am-ta kha-b-o karon am-ar khide peye-ch-e
  Gloss: 1.SG.NOM mango-CLF eat-FUT-1SG because 1SG-GEN hunger get.PERF-PRES-3
  Translation: I will eat the mango because I am hungry
  Contributor: Satarupa Das
+ Bole Yes Alhaji Gimba
  Words: n 'yoru nko n ndolu n gojje tagarda
  Gloss: I stop (pfv) because I want (pfv) I buy (SBJV) book
  Translation: I stopped because I wanted to buy a book.
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
+ Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
  Words: Eles comeram tudo porque estavam com fome
  Gloss: They eat.PST.3PL everything because be.PST.3PL with hunger
  Translation: They ate everything because they were hungry
  Contributor: Bruna Moreira
  Words: Eu fui para casa porque estava com sono
  Gloss: I go.PST.1SG to home because be.PST.1SG with sleepiness
  Translation: I went home because I was sleepy
  Contributor: Bruna Moreira
   Breton Yes Steve Hewitt
+ Bulgarian Yes Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: Dnes si stoj-ax v kəshti zashtoto navən beshe studen-o
  Gloss: Today REFL stay-IMPCT in home because outside be.IMPCT.3.SG cold-N.SG
  Translation: Today I stayed at home because it was cold outside
  Comment: IMFCT = imperfect, not in the Leipzig glossing rules; please note that this is the imperfect tense, not to be confused with the imperfective aspect
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burgenland-Romani Yes Michelle McComb
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: ngo sik zo janwai ngo toungo
  Gloss: I eat PGV because I hungry
  Translation: I ate because I am hungry.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
+ Chalcatongo Mixtec Yes Jess Combs
  Words: Ni-xãã=rí žaʔa xa=sáʔa náa=ri molí
  Gloss: CP-buy=1 chile COMP=make mother=1 mole
  Translation: ‘I bought chiles so that my mother could make mole’
  Contributor: Jess Combs
   Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Chol Yes Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: Efien giati ethelen na fai.
  Gloss: leave-3SG-PST because want-3SG-PST to eat-3SG
  Translation: He left because he wanted to eat.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Peter Kosta
  Words: Pavel napsal novou knihu, protože chtĕl přispĕt k rozšíření nových poznatků.
  Gloss: PaulNOMSG wrotePST newADJACCSGF bookACCSGF onPrep MinimalismLocSGM, becauseCOMP he wanted to contribute bradening our knowledge.
  Translation: Paul has written a new book, because he wanted to contribute broadening our knowledge.
  Contributor: Peter Kosta
+ Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
  Words: Ka foong ba bUOrO n yElE kyE fo e ka te gaa
  Gloss: COMP 2SG.Str NEG want.IMP 1SG matter but 2SG do COMP 1PL go
  Translation: Even if you dont like me you should let us go
  Comment: 2SG str = strong form of second person singular pronoun
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
   Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: Wa-fungbwa mana wa-iya matumbingwa ga atu.
  Gloss: 3SG.PST-tie.PAS for 3SG.PST-steal CL6.eggs.POS CL6.ASS CL2.people
  Translation: He was jailed because he stole some people's eggs.
  Comment: Adverbial subordinator = mana
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Marie zal hier komen hoewel Jan al vertrokken is.
  Gloss: Mary will come here how.yes John already left is
  Translation: Mary will come although John has already left.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: A Maria ficou triste quando o João disse não ter tempo para ela.
  Gloss: the.F Maria become.PST.3SG sad when the.M João say.PST.3SG not have.INF time for she.OBL
  Translation: Maria felt sad when João said he had no time for her.
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe Yes Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese Yes Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
+ Fijian Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: e gādē VOLI o koya ni māī cakacaka
  Gloss: 3S stroll CNT PRP 3S SUB DIR work
  Translation: 'he took a holiday when he had actually come to work'
  Comment: ni(“when”) precedes the verb. P297
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: Oli kivaa uida vaikka vesi oli kylmä
  Gloss: was nice swim although water was cold
  Translation: It was nice to swim although the water was cold
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Je ne suis pas venu parce que mon fils est malade.
  Gloss: 1SG NEG AUX.PST NEG come because POSS-1SG son be-PRS sick.
  Translation: I did not come because my son is sick.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna Yes Pam Munro
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German Yes Martin Haspelmath
+ Ghɔmáĺá' Yes Francine Moguo
  Words: wáp lɔ̀ nəkà é pfʉ́
  Gloss: they cry because he die
  Translation: The cry because he died
  Contributor: Francine Moguo
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: Den irthe epidi itan apasxolimenos.
  Gloss: NEG came-3SG because was-3SG busy
  Translation: He didn't come because he was busy.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: mot pen strata (Dawkins 1916: 428)
  Gloss: while go.PRS.3SG road.SG.ACC
  Translation: while he is on his way
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) NA Stephen Mayeaux Since all subordination is marked by verbal inflection, this language may not have adverbial subordinators. The example shows how causative and contemporative moods are used to express subordination.
  Words: sinit-sil-lunga sinnattur-punga
  Gloss: sleep-CAUS-1s.CONT dream-1s.IND
  Translation: ‘While I was sleeping I had a dream’
  Contributor: Stephen Mayeaux
+ Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: ní à lìn ɖɔ̀ àsíbá ná dà mì bé à má bí kpálí
  Gloss: if 2sg think that Asiba Fut marry 1sg.Acc then 2sg Neg smart at.all
  Translation: If you think that Asiba will marry me, then you are really not smart.
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian Yes Michel DeGraff
   Hakka Yes Iris Wu
   Hanga Yes Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa Yes Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: ki 'asita zo't, 'arur 'atta (Gen 3,14)
  Gloss: because.ADV SUB do.2SGPFV this.DEM, cursed.MSG you.PRON
  Translation: Because you have done this, cursed you
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
+ Hindi Yes Gurprit Bains
  Words: yadapii bahar naheen aayi hai phool nikal gaye hEn
  Gloss: Although spring not come is flowers appear go-ASP are
  Translation: Although spring has not come, flowers have appeared.
  Contributor: Gurprit Bains
   Hittite Yes Mattyas Huggard
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Telefonál-j-ál, mi-elő-tt el-indul-sz.
  Gloss: phone-IMP-2SG what-front-LOC away-start-2SG
  Translation: `Call before you leave'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
  Words: sia anye m- mi- di- ghe, ami m- me- nyong
  Gloss: since he AGR tns come not, I AGR tns leave
  Translation: since he/she is not here, I am leaving
  Comment: tones are ommited
  Contributor: Willie Willie
+ Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
  Words: Ég var að borða morgunmatinn þegar hún kom
  Gloss: 1SG be.1SG.PST to eat breakfast.the.ACC.M.SG when 3SG.F arrive.3SG.PST
  Translation: I was having breakfast when she arrived.
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:13)
  Contributor: Jim Wood
   Igbo Yes Mary Amaechi
   Ijo (Kaiama) No Hilda Koopman
   Ilokano Yes Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua NA UCLA Linguistics 210
+ Indonesian Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: dia tidak lapar karena dia makan dulu
  Gloss: 3sg NEG hungry because 3sg eat first
  Translation: 'He's not hungry because he ate earlier.'
  Contributor: Daniel Kaufman
+ Irish Yes Bridget Nixdorf
  Words: Cé go bhfuil go-leor feilméara-í
  Gloss: although that are many farmer-PL
  Translation: 'Although there are many farmers'
  Contributor: Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun Yes Iris Wu
   Italian Yes Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English Yes Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   Jingulu NA Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
   Karachay No Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya NA John Gluckman
   Kayan Yes Ken Manson
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande Yes Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
+ Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
  Words: mudyaámbu yandí wuúsidi, beto thwéléko
  Gloss: because he come (= w.us.idi) , 1PL.go(=ele).NEG
  Translation: Because he came, we didn't go
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
+ Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
  Words: mà ko [bòmta [ bò ngweyn nghí wi á ndo]]
  Gloss: I go.up because father his is not prep. house
  Translation: I went up because his father is not in
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Konni Yes Michael Cahill
+ Korean No Shin-Sook Kim
  Words: Pilok swuhak-i silh-telato soholhiha-ci mal-ala.
  Gloss: although math-NOM dislike-although ignore-CONN not-IMP
  Translation: Although you don't like math, don't ignore it.
  Comment: The example was originally provided by Chung-hye Han. Shin-Sook Kim comments: In Han’s example above, the adverb pilok can be omitted but the clause-final adverbial subordinator -telato ‘although’ is obligatory, showing that the clause-final –telato, not the clause-initial pilok, is the real adverbial subordinator here.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Koyo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
+ Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
  Words: agarchi Hiwa aqil-a, balam (pro) hamisha ba-pala-(y)a
  Gloss: although Hiwa intelligent-be.3SG, but (pro) always with-haste-be.3SG
  Translation: Although Hiwa is intelligent, he is always impulsive.
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal Yes Florian Lionnet
   Lango Yes Arwa Rangwala
   Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic NA Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
   Lubukusu Yes Aggrey Wasike
+ Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: a-ewuo pee a-dol
  Gloss: 1s-came-PERF in.order 1s-see (him)
  Translation: I came in order to see him
  Comment: pee is optional in this particular example. 3rd person object is silent. pro drop of third person object
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
+ Malagasy Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: Tsy nanatrika ny fety Rabe satria marary (izy)
  Gloss: NEG PST.AT.attend DET party Rabe because sick 3.NOM
  Translation: Rabe didn't attend the party because he was sick.
  Comment: Note: AT stands for 'Actor Topic', which is the voice morphology on the verb indicating that the subject is the agent.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
+ Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: wo yao shui yinwei wo lei le
  Gloss: I want sleep because I tired PFV
  Translation: I want to sleep because I am tired
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ Maori Yes Ray Harlow
  Words: I a ia e haere ana i te ngahere, ka taka-hia noa-tia e ia teetahi ngaarara
  Gloss: at pers IIIsg T/A move T/A at the bush, T/A tread-pass sudden-pass by IIIsg a(sp) lizard.
  Translation: “While he was walking in the bush, he suddenly stepped on a lizard.’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: I=j kakkije bwe i=jaad mōk
  Gloss: 1SG.AGR=PRS rest because 1SG.AGR=fairly be.tired
  Translation: I'm resting because I'm fairly tired.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
+ Masarak Yes Jessica Chen
  Words: hɑsɑn t-ɑk-ɑ (iŋkɛn) hɑwɑ rɑniŋ t-ind-eɾi
  Gloss: Hasan 3SG-left-PST because Hawa sleep.PROG 3SG-stay-FUT
  Translation: 'Hasan left because Hawa was sleeping'
  Contributor: Jessica Chen
   Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
+ Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
  Words: tá dòo m(a) áa ghə̀ns-úw, míy má d́ma tàwaz-úw
  Gloss: if fall NEG PS "God"-NEG we NEG do planting-NEG
  Translation: 'if it doesn't rain, we won't do the planting.'
  Comment: The PS in the gloss stands for 'Postverbal Subject'. In the text, Schuh states that "relative clauses with internal nominal subjects allow only the postverbal subject ordering" (p.286).
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: wakha ana mreeDH msheet li.l.jami’a
  Gloss: though I sick go.PST.1SG to.DEF.university
  Translation: Though I was sick, I went to school.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
  Words: Lawan á wáy Aicha daɗaba á Bláy
  Gloss: Lawan 3sg like Aicha because 3sg be good
  Translation: Lawan loves Aicha because she is beautiful.”
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: daɗaba á Bláy (nahma) Lawan á wáy Aicha
  Gloss: Because 3sg be good Top Lawan 3sg like Aicha
  Translation: Because she is beautiful, Lawan loves Aicha.
  Comment: here the adverbial clause has been topicalized
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Naki Yes Jeff Good
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: à dɛ̀ bɛ̀ lógé lé sǎʔ ná á dé déːté
  Gloss: he de-pasy not-perf take-perf it beofre that he eat-perf food+cm(te)
  Translation: 'he didn't take it before he ate food' (28).
  Comment: All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam
   Ndut Yes Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce Yes Amy Rose Deal
+ Nkore-Kiga Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: obu o-riku-uny-ima amaizi aga amabi ny-ine aha marungi
  Gloss: while you-TP-me-grudge water this bad I-have here good
  Translation: 'Although you refuse me this bad water, I have good water here.'
  Comment: Taylor (90b). Intersting order (lit I have here good)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: ...ebogao, Musa si nakan.
  Gloss: therefore/because of that, Musa buy meat
  Translation: ...therefore, Musa bought meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English Yes Willem Koopman
+ Old French Yes Heather Burnett
  Words: Quant oïrent iço de lui, Dunc en parlerent dui e dui.
  Gloss: When heard.3.PLUR this from him, So of.it talk.3.PLUR two and two
  Translation: When they heard this from him, they talked about it two by two
  Comment: Benedeit. Voyage de Saint-Brandan. p.33
  Contributor: Heather Burnett
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: That gêr furđor skrêd, untthat that friđubarn godes fiartig habda dago endi nahto
  Gloss: the year further went until the peace-child god.GEN forty had days.GEN and nights.GEN
  Translation: The year went on, until the child of God was forty days old
  Comment: (Heliand 449–451)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Nd –a- soma khubera nd-enya-nga khu-bura
  Gloss: 1sg-PST-read because 1sg-want-PST INFIN-pass
  Translation: ‘ I read because I wanted to pass’
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ One Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: I i wapli, sa namna wolsaple
  Gloss: 1SG go village, TOP eye tired
  Translation: I went back home, because (I) was tired
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
  Words: Nd –a- soma khubera nd-enya-nga khu-bura.
  Gloss: 1sg-PST-read because 1sg-want-PST INFIN-pass
  Translation: ‘ I read because I wanted to pass’
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Palue Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay Yes Mark Donohue
+ Pashto Yes Taylor Roberts
  Words: táasee wos de ta tse zyaan ne shey rasawel-ay dzeka tshee day zmaa porawérray day aw maa ta yee panaann raawrr-i da
  Gloss: 2PL now 3SG.M.OBL to any harm.M NEG be.PRS.PFV.2PL bring.PST.PFV-PTCP because COMP 3SG.M.ABS 1SG.POSS debtor.M be.PRS.IPFV.3SG.M and 1SG.OBL to 3SG.ABS asylum.F bring.PST.IPFV-3SG be.PRS.IPFV.3SG
  Translation: None of you can harm him because he owes me and came to me for asylum.
  Comment: Ulfat, "A True Story," cited by Tegey and Robson 1996: 213
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Piotr wyszedł ponieważ Jan przyszedł.
  Gloss: Piotr left because Jan arrived
  Translation: Piotr left because Jan arrived.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Apesar de não confiar em ti, acredito na tua história
  Gloss: although not trust.INF in you.ACC, believe.PRS.1SG in your.F story
  Translation: Although I do not trust you, I believe in your story.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: A plecat fiindcă era obosit.
  Gloss: have.AUX.3 left because be.PST.3 tired
  Translation: He left because he was tired.
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
+ Russian Yes Stephanie Harves
  Words: Xotja ja ne ljublju fil'my užasov, mne nravjatsja fil'my Xičkoka
  Gloss: Although I.NOM not love films.ACC horror.GEN I.DAT like.PL films Hitchcock.GEN
  Translation: Although I don't like horror films, I like Hitchcock's films.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan Yes Vincent Homer
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Saramaccan Yes Tonjes Veenstra
   Sasak Yes Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic Yes David Adger
   Serbian Yes Miloje Despic
+ Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: mfon won na mengaka i ken ne
  Gloss: king leave.PST perfect because 3sg be.tired COMP
  Translation: The king left because he was tired.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: mba jekaa mfon kene, i ke ku'ushe pwomshe
  Gloss: Even though king be-tired, 3sg still continue.PST meeting
  Translation: Even though the king was tired, he still went ahead with the meeting.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: nun vìnni pikkì u mo' fìgghju èra malàtu
  Gloss: not I.came because the my son was sick
  Translation: I didn't come because my son was sick
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
+ Spanish Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Vine porque me llamaron
  Gloss: come.PST.1SG because ACC.1SG call.PST.3PL
  Translation: I came because they called me
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Aunque no quieras venir, vendrás.
  Gloss: although not want.PRS.SBJVE.2SG come.INF, come.FUT.2SG
  Translation: Although you don't want to come, you will come
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
  Words: Jag var sen eftersom bussen gick sönder.
  Gloss: I was late because bus.DEF went broke
  Translation: I was late because the bus broke down.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: Ni-linis nang babae ang bahay bago siya <um>alis.
  Gloss: Tr.Perf-clean Erg woman Abs house before 3.Sg.Abs <Intr.Nonfin>leave
  Translation: The woman cleaned the house before she left.
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
+ Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: i m chiah inui i pa a
  Gloss: he NEG eat because he full PFV
  Translation: He doesn't want to eat because he is full.
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: enki wéra-ka-ni juchínia janí-sha-p-ti
  Gloss: ADV.SUB go.out-1-1SG my.house rain-PROG-PST-3
  Translation: 'When I left the house, it was raining'
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: arhá-s-ka-ni jasï eske kharhíma-sha-p-ka
  Gloss: eat-PERF-1-1SG fava.beans ADV.SUB hungry-PROG-PST-1
  Translation: I ate the beans because I was hungry
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: nə zo menutə pekkə Mariə a ʃitə
  Gloss: not I.am come because Maria has left
  Translation: I did not come because Maria left
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
+ Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: rayim gabay 'əb 'əgru 'əgəl ligis 'ala 'əlu 'əbmi makina-tu 'əb-hamgam təsabbara.
  Gloss: Long way by his-foot to go he had because his-car suddenly broke-down.
  Translation: 'He had to walk a long way because his car suddenly broke down.'
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan Yes Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala Yes George Aaron Broadwell
+ Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: Ku-waliako entaea ku-motuturu
  Gloss: 1SG-return because 1SG-sleepy
  Translation: I'm going home because I'm sleepy
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) Yes Edmond Biloa
  Words: nŭ ngu mú enda ná wáspíta asene nŭ nŏ- ḿ
  Gloss: I SM- PST1- go to hospital because I sick- IND
  Translation: I went to the hospital because I am sick
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural
   Twi Yes Cansada Martin
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: Taras pryjšov, tomu ščo vin xotiv pobačyty druziv
  Gloss: Taras came because he wanted see.INF friends
  Translation: Taras came because he wanted to see his friends
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
+ Vata No Hilda Koopman
  Comment: "adverbial subordinators" often are translated as special auxiliaries in I (+T), with I (+T)followed by D (bO) in S I (D) X V order; D (bO) shows up in relatives in the same position.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
+ Vietnamese Yes Jimmy Nguyen
  Words: Nếu anh ở với em thì anh sẽ thiệt là hạnh phúc.
  Gloss: If you stay with me then you will really is happy
  Translation: If you stay with me then you will be very happy.
  Contributor: Jimmy Nguyen
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian Yes Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Welsh Yes David Willis
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
  Words: Marie goat niet kommen omdat Valère a weg is
  Gloss: Marie go-3sg not come because Valère already away is
  Translation: 'Mary won't come because Valère has already left.'
  Comment: the subordinator omdat agrees with the subject Valère
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolof Yes Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
   Yan-nhaŋu NA Claire Bowern
+ Yiddish Yes Shannon Mooney
  Words: Er ken nit elofn, vajl di exejnshm zingshn.
  Gloss: 3SG.NOM can not sleep because the.PL neighbor.PL sing
  Translation: "He can't sleep because the neighbors are singing."
  Contributor: Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Ya come le porcausa con ambre le.
  Gloss: PST eat 3SG because with hunger 3SG
  Translation: He ate because he was hungry.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
+ Zulu Yes Esther Park
  Words: Uku-fa kwezin-komo ku-se-khona noma se-ku-damb-ile kancane.
  Gloss: 15-death 15.POSS.10-cattle 15-still-here although already-15-abate-PRF little
  Translation: 'The cattle disease is still here although it has now abated a little.'
  Comment: "kwezin" is a result of combining "kwa" (possessive) with "izin" (prefix of noun class 10).
  Contributor: Esther Park