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C 04_Clause Adverbial Subordinator

Definition
The property Clause Adverbial_Subordinator has the value "yes" when there is at least one adverbial subordinator that can follow the clause it combines with. As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

Definition of Adverbial Subordinator

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Adverbial_Subordinator Clause does not exclude a "yes" value for Clause Adverbial_Subordinator.

NA (Not Applicable): NA for this property means that a language does not have adverbial subordinators.

1.
English is "no" for Clause Adverbial_Subordinator since this order is always ungrammatical.

*I went I wanted to succeed because.
*You don't like linguistics although, you should not ignore it.
(* means ungrammatical)

2.
Japanese is "yes" for Clause Adverbial_Subordinator.

boku-wa [iki-takat-ta kara] it-ta. (subordinator = kara)
1SG-TOP go-want-PST because go-PST
"I went because I wanted to go."
Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
+ Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
  Words: *Beni iku ngrënë pa.
  Gloss: Ben.the left-3SG eaten.PART without
  Translation: Ben left without eating.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
   Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Babanki No Pius Akumbu
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
+ Bambara Yes Bryan Villa
  Words: A kèra cogo o cogo, I k'a kè.
  Gloss: it do.PAST way that way, you it do
  Translation: No matter how it's done, do it
  Comment: Taken from: The New Bambara Grammar, Pool, Jonathan, 1983 (abbreviated as TNBG, henceforth) pg 143
  Contributor: Bryan Villa
  Words: A kèra cogo o cogo, I k'a kè.
  Gloss: it do.PAST way that way, you it do
  Translation: No matter how it's done, do it
  Comment: from TNBG pg 143
  Contributor: Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi No Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
   Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng Yes Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Satarupa Das
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
   Breton Yes Steve Hewitt
   Bulgarian No Iliana Krapova
   Burgenland-Romani No Michelle McComb
   Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: ngo fan-zo zihau, lokjyu la
  Gloss: I sleep-PFV after, rain PRT
  Translation: After I slept, it rained.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Txuss Martin
   Chalcatongo Mixtec No Jess Combs
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
   Chol No Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
  Words: *Efien ethelen na fai giati.
  Gloss: leave-3SG.PST want-3SG.PST to eat-3SG because
  Translation: He left because he wanted to eat.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Czech No Peter Kosta
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Digo No Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
+ Dutch No Hilda Koopman
  Words: [[dat hij zich zo verzette] tenspijt]
  Gloss: that he SELF so resisted] despite
  Translation:  ‘despite the fact that he resisted so much’
  Comment: Gertjan Postma wrote on the forum: I know of (possibly) one post-clause subordinator. Usually as stand-alone clause. Does, however, with difficulty, integrate into the sentence. This form does not seem to be part of HK's speech, hence NO
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe Not Yet Set Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese No Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Fijian No Zhenyu Sun
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
   French No Chris Collins
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Martin Haspelmath
   Ghɔmáĺá' No Francine Moguo
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Arhonto Terzi
  Words: *O Petros efige na fai xoris
  Gloss: the Peter left-3SG SBJV eat-3SG without
  Translation: Peter left without eating.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
+ Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) NA Stephen Mayeaux Since all subordination is marked by verbal inflection, this language may not have adverbial subordinators. The example shows how causative and contemporative moods are used to express subordination.
  Words: sinit-sil-lunga sinnattur-punga
  Gloss: sleep-CAUS-1s.CONT dream-1s.IND
  Translation: ‘While I was sleeping I had a dream’
  Contributor: Stephen Mayeaux
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hanga Yes Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa No Michael A. Estrada
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: *Gabi 'azav le-'exol bli
  Gloss: Gabi left INF-eat without
  Translation: Gabi left without eating
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Gurprit Bains
   Hittite No Mattyas Huggard
+ Hixkaryana Yes Laura Kalin
  Words: thenyehra tuna y-omok-nir ke
  Gloss: much water 3SBJ-come-NMLZ because
  Translation: because it was raining heavily (literally: because of the coming of much water)
  Comment: (Derbyshire 1985:p. 38); See also comment under C 02.
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Ijo (Kaiama) Yes Hilda Koopman
   Ilokano Yes Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua NA UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Irish No Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun No Iris Wu
   Italian No Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
+ Japanese Yes Ken Hiraiwa
  Words: boku-wa [iki-takat-ta kara] it-ta.
  Gloss: 1SG-TOP go-want-PST because go-PST
  Translation: I went because I wanted to go.
  Contributor: Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara Yes Alan Vogel Dixon 2004:chs 20, 21
   Jingulu NA Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Karachay Yes Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya NA John Gluckman
   Kayan Yes Ken Manson
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Konni No Michael Cahill
+ Korean Yes Chung-hye Han
  Words: Toli-nun wuntong-ul mayil ha-ki ttaymwuney kenkangha-ta.
  Gloss: Toli-TOP exercise-ACC everyday do-NMLZ because healthy-DECL
  Translation: Toli is healthy because he exercises everyday.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango NA Arwa Rangwala
   Lani Yes Mark Donohue
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic NA Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian No Felix Thies
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
+ Mandarin No Arthur Wang
  Words: *wo yao shui wo lei le yinwei
  Gloss: I want sleep I tired PFV because
  Translation: I want to sleep because I am tired
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
   Maori No Ray Harlow
+ Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: *Kwo=n jab mōmaelep e=naaj jako ek kaņe bwe.
  Gloss: 2SG=should NEG be.overanxious 3SG=fut be.gone fish those because
  Translation: You shouldn't be overanxious because those fish will leave.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
   Masarak No Jessica Chen
   Middle Dutch No Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
   Nawdm No Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' No Christelle Niguieu Toukam
   Ndut Yes Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
   Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
+ Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: *...Musa si nakan ebogao.
  Gloss: Musa buy meat therefore
  Translation: ...therefore, Musa bought meat.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan Yes Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   Palue No Mark Donohue
   panjabi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Oana Savescu
+ Russian No Stephanie Harves
  Words: *Ja ne ljublju fil'my užasov xotja, mne nravjatsja fil'my Xičkoka
  Gloss: I.NOM not love films.ACC horror.GEN although I.DAT like.PL films Hitchcock.GEN
  Translation: Although I don't like horror films, I like Hitchcock's films
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua Yes Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Serbian No Miloje Despic
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Slovenian No Franc Marušič
+ Spanish No Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: *Vine me llamaron porque
  Gloss: come.PST.1SG ACC.1SG call.PST.3PL because
  Translation: Intended: I came because they called me
  Comment: the adverbial subordinator 'porque' cannot be postposed to the clause it introduces.
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: *[No quieras venir] aunque, vendrás
  Gloss: NEG want.SBJVE.PRS.2SG come.INF although come.FUT.2SG
  Translation: Intended: Although you don't want to come, you will come.
  Comment: 'Aunque' ('although') is introducing the clause 'no quieras venir'. It can therefore only precede it (see Adverbial_Subordinator Clause)
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Swedish No fredrik heinat
  Words: * Jag var sen, bussen gick sönder eftersom.
  Gloss: I was late, bus.DEF went broke because
  Translation: I was late because the bus broke down.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
+ Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
  Words: *i m chiah i pa a inui
  Gloss: he NEG eat he full PFV because
  Translation: He doesn't want to eat because he is full.
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
   Tarascan No Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
+ Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: ka'əlli dam la'əlu s̩ammat h̩əmum dam ga'a mən-gabbə' həta tah̩amməm wa-bə'dām h̩ar lətnakkaš
  Gloss: and this blood which-it sucked-out sick blood became if she becomes-ill and-others after-that are-bitten
  Translation: ‘And if this blood which they sucked is sick blood, they become ill and then others are bitten.’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern
+ Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
  Words: Àná=gɛ=diyɛ yò-ì-ɛ̀n.
  Gloss: rain=DEF=for enter-PFV.L-3PL
  Translation: ‘They went in because of the rain’ (259: 456a).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: O sykyîé-sa(ba)-pe, kunumĩ hnah-i
  Gloss: His fear.NMLZ because of boy run.3SG.PST/PRS.IND
  Translation: The boy runs because he fears (because of his fear)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Murat Kural
+ Tuvan Yes Brian Hsu
  Words: Sook bolgan užurunda kidis idik kedip aldɨm
  Gloss: cold be-PAST because-3.POSS-LOC felt shoe wear-CVB SBEN-PAST.II-1
  Translation: because it was cold, I put on felt boots
  Comment: Adverbial subordinators are formed from auxiliary nouns carrying possessive case endings. 'SBEN' denotes self-benefactive mood.
  Contributor: Brian Hsu
   Twi Yes Cansada Martin
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
+ Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: O yi-bO gbu
  Gloss: 3sg come-D cause
  Translation: because she came
  Comment: [S I-bO(=D) X V] cause; *no inf about tense on V at this point* D final (bO) shows up in relative clause type contexts after the I+T complex
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian No Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Welsh No David Willis
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yan-nhaŋu No Claire Bowern
   Yawa Yes Mark Donohue
   Yiddish No Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zulu No Claire Halpert