19_Possessor Noun

The property Possessor Noun has the value "yes" when a possessor can precede the noun it modifies in a neutral context. The possessor in this property is not a pronoun. As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Possessor Noun does not exclude a "yes" value for Noun Possessor.

NA (Not Applicable): Since all known languages have possessors and nouns, this property always has the value "yes" or "no".


English is "yes" for Possessor Noun:

John's hat

English is also "yes" for Noun Possessor

I lived for a while in the apartment of my best friend.

In this example, the possessor "my best friend" follows the head noun "apartment". Note that even though there is an "of" separating the head noun and the possessor, it counts as an instance of Noun Possessor.

In other words, English is "yes" for the property Possessor Noun and the property Noun Possessor.

Western Jutlandic (Julien 2005) is "yes" for Possessor Noun.

Feilberg sin bog
Feilberg refl.poss.sg book
Feilberg's book

Jens hans støvler
Jens masc.poss.sg books
Jens's books

Note: In Western Jutlandic, even though the possessor is separated from the noun by a possessive pronoun, this counts as an instance of Possessor Noun.

Julien, Marit. 2005. Nominal Phrases from a Scandinavian Perspective. Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

Japanese is "yes" for the property Possessor Noun:

Ken-no hon
Ken-Gen book
"Ken's book"
Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
  Comment: A NOTE FROM THE EDITOR: example is in databae, but will have to be linked here after migration to terraling. (POSSESSOR IS LEXICAL, NOT PRONOMINAL)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: ǂ’àmkȍe šı̏ kyěamà
  Gloss: person POSS dog
  Translation: “the person’s dog” (Collins and Gruber: 98).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Abaza Yes Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: my vriend se huis
  Gloss: my friend POSS house
  Translation: my friend's house
  Comment: This is the dominant possession-indicating structure in Afrikaans.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: mɛ̰́ wá
  Gloss: Mon enfant
  Translation: Mon fils, mon enfant
  Comment: Il n'existe pas d'accord en genre.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: kòfí wá
  Gloss: Koffi enfant
  Translation: Le fils de Koffi
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: kòfí wá jὶ bwáɲ
  Gloss: Koffi fils 3sgPoss. mouton
  Translation: Le mouton du fils de Koffi
  Comment: Il n'existe pas d'accord en genre.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
+ Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
  Words: *I Evës vëlla
  Gloss: agr(M,SG) Eva-GEN.F brother-the(NOM.M)
  Translation: Eva's brother
  Comment: becomes slightly better with contrastive focus on the possessor.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner JOHN (POSS) BOOK; POSS BOOK
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: yä-kasa bet
  Gloss: yä-K. house
  Translation: 'Kasa's house'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Eric Besson
  Words: stratópedón te kateskeuásanto en tô:i tê:s Artémidos ierô:i
  Gloss: camp.ACC and set-up.3.PL.AOR.MID in the.DAT the.GEN Artemis.GEN temple.DAT
  Translation: and they set-up camp in the temple of Artemis (Thucydides 6.44.3)
  Comment: Greek Text: στρατόπεδόν τε κατεσκευάσαντο ἐν τῷ τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος ἱερῷ,
  Contributor: Eric Besson
+ Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: * Ahmed shaaf Mariam ketab
  Gloss: Ahmed see.PST Mariam book
  Translation: Ahmed saw Mariam's book
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Aymara Yes Matt Coler
   Babanki No Pius Akumbu
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
+ Bambara Yes Bryan Villa
  Words: ne ka so
  Gloss: I POSS house
  Translation: My house
  Comment: from BB 64
  Contributor: Bryan Villa
   Bandial No Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
+ Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: í wɛm mân
  Gloss: DEF 1SG.POSS 1child
  Translation: MY child (not yours)
  Comment: only possible with focus on possessor
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
+ Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: Al mè libru
  Gloss: the my book
  Translation: My book
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng Yes Denis Paperno
+ Bengali Yes Satarupa Das
  Words: am-ar boi
  Gloss: 1.SG-GEN book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Satarupa Das
  Words: ram-er chele
  Gloss: Ram-GEN/POSS son
  Translation: Ram's son
  Contributor: Priyanka Biswas
+ Bole Yes Alhaji Gimba
  Words: tajiya Bamoi
  Gloss: hat Bamoi
  Translation: Bamoi's hat
  Comment: Possessive constructions in Bole are just N + N juxtaposition.
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
   Breton No Steve Hewitt
+ Bulgarian Yes Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: Plamen-ova-ta kola ne vərv-i dobre
  Gloss: Plamen-POSS.F.SG-DEF.F.SG car NEG walk-3.SG.PRS well
  Translation: Plamen's car does not run well
  Comment: this order is more marked than Noun Possessor order; this is, however, the normal order if the possessor is pronominal. Although pronominal possessors are excluded from the current definition, it's still important to keep this in mind
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burgenland-Romani Yes Michelle McComb
   Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: John ge syu
  Gloss: John POSS book
  Translation: John’s book
  Comment: ge is a possessor marker in Cantonese, resembling de in Mandarin.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
  Words: John bun syu
  Gloss: John CLF book
  Translation: John’s book
  Comment: Reference: Stephen,Matthews and Yip, Virginia. 1994. Cantonese: A comprehensive grammar. Routledge, 2013. chapter 6.3
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
   Chalcatongo Mixtec No Jess Combs
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
   Chol No Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
  Words: *Tis Marias i mana.
  Gloss: the.GEN Mary.GEN the mother
  Translation: Mary's mother.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Pavel Caha
  Words: Petrova kniha
  Gloss: Petr.poss book
  Translation: Peter's book
  Comment: The possessor has to be (i) human (ii) syntactically simple. A single word is always fine (i.e., John yes, but John Smith no), but a compound is ok too. The restriction on prenominal possessors thus has to make reference to "word-hood" in some sense.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: *Petr(ova) Novákova kniha
  Gloss: Petr.poss Novak.poss book
  Translation: Petr Novák's book
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: *psova bouda
  Gloss: dog.poss shed
  Translation: the dog's shed
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: místo-prezidentova / žabožroutova kniha
  Gloss: vice-president.poss / frog_eater.poss book
  Translation: the vice-president's / frog-eater's book
  Comment: Illustrates the availability of compounds in the prenominal possessor position.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
+ Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Bilens ejer.
  Gloss: Car.DET owner.
  Translation: The car's owner
  Comment: See property 20.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby ALS4 workshop 2016
  Words: dàāgɔ̄ ɔ̍ ɓīté
  Gloss: dago POSS house
  Translation: Dago’s house
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: dàāgɔ̄ ɔ̍ sré
  Gloss: dago POSS house
  Translation: Dago’s house
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Digo No Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic Yes David Erschler
  Words: fid-i χɐʣarɐ
  Gloss: father-OBL house
  Translation: father's house
  Contributor: David Erschler
   Djambarrpuyŋu Yes Claire Bowern
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Jans huis is klein
  Gloss: John.s house is small
  Translation: John's house it small
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
  Words: Tigran-i girk-a
  Gloss: Tigran.POSS book.DEF
  Translation: Tigran's book
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Egyptian Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
   Estonian Yes Mark Norris
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
+ Ewe Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Kofi Fe agbale
  Gloss: Kofi POSS book
  Translation: Kofi's book
  Contributor: Chris Collins
+ Farefari Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: fu bia
  Gloss: 2SG.POSS child
  Translation: your child
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: budaa fuo
  Gloss: man.POSS garment
  Translation: the man's garment
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese Yes Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Fijian No Zhenyu Sun
   Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
   French No Chris Collins
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: nuu tsu
  Gloss: man house
  Translation: man's house
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: nuu lɛ adeka
  Gloss: man DEF box
  Translation: the man's box
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna No Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German Yes Martin Haspelmath
+ Ghɔmáĺá' Yes Francine Moguo
  Words: jə tʃò'
  Gloss: my cap
  Translation: my cap
  Comment: The possessive precedent the noun has a different form from the possessive following the noun. Possesives preceding the noun are usually use to mark focus or emphasis
  Contributor: Francine Moguo
  Words: tʃò' á
  Gloss: cap my
  Translation: my cap
  Contributor: Francine Moguo
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Arhonto Terzi
  Words: *Tis Elenis o adhelfos
  Gloss: the-GEN.F Eleni-GEN.F the-NOM.M brother-NOM.M
  Translation: Eleni's brother
  Comment: The expression becomes grammatical with contrastive focus on the possessor.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Calabria) No Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: patiʃaçu to spiʃ (Dawkins 1916: 334)
  Gloss: king.SG.GEN ART.DEF.SG.ACC house.SG.ACC
  Translation: the king's house
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greek (Pontic) Yes Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
+ Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) Yes Stephen Mayeaux
  Words: Anda-p illu-a
  Gloss: Anda-ERG house-3s.POSS
  Translation: ‘Anda’s house'
  Contributor: Stephen Mayeaux
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
+ Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: àsíbá sín àwù
  Gloss: asiba Poss shirt
  Translation: Asiba's shirt
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene Yes Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka Yes Iris Wu
+ Hanga Yes Geoffrey Hunt
  Words: m ma ba dii
  Gloss: my mother is-in hut
  Translation: My mother is in (her) hut
  Contributor: Geoffrey Hunt
  Words: bii maa ba naagi
  Gloss: child the father cows
  Translation: the child's father's cows
  Contributor: Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa No Russell Schuh
+ Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
  Words: *Sel Gabi xatul
  Gloss: of Gabi cat
  Translation: Gabi's cat
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Hittite Yes Mattyas Huggard
+ Hixkaryana Yes Laura Kalin
  Words: biryekomo y-okn-ni
  Gloss: child 3-pet-POSSN
  Translation: the child's pet
  Comment: The possessor always precedes the possessee. The possessee is marked for person agreement with the possessor. Finally, the possessee carries a suffix indicating that it is possessed. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 26)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: (a) Kati kalap-ja
  Gloss: the Kati-NOM hat-POSS.3sg
  Translation: Kati's hat
  Comment: The definite article may belong to the whole construction, not the possessor, with names in the Upper-Tisza dialect.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: a te kalap-od
  Gloss: the you-NOM hat-POSS.2sg
  Translation: your hat
  Comment: The definite article is obligatory. Because personal pronouns cannot have an article, we know that it belongs to the whole construction.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Kati-nak a kalap-ja
  Gloss: Kati-DAT the hat-POSS.3sg
  Translation: Kati's hat
  Comment: This can be a single constituent, as shown by overt focus movement test.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
+ Icelandic No Jim Wood
  Words: Jóns hús er rautt
  Gloss: Jon.GEN house.NOM is.3SG red.N.SG.NOM
  Translation: John's house is red
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha Yes Mark Donohue
   Ijo (Kaiama) Yes Hilda Koopman
   Ilokano No Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Irish No Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic Yes David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun Yes Iris Wu
   Italian No Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English Yes Tonjes Veenstra
+ Japanese Yes Ken Hiraiwa
  Words: Ken-no hon
  Gloss: Ken-GEN book
  Translation: Ken's book
  Contributor: Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara Yes Alan Vogel Dixon 2004:295ff, 310ff
   Jingulu Yes Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) Yes Amrit Amritavalli
   Karachay Yes Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   Kayan Yes Ken Manson
   Khasi No Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kindendeule No Deo Ngonyani
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Konni Yes Michael Cahill
+ Korean Yes Chung-hye Han
  Words: Toli-uy chayk
  Gloss: Toli-GEN book
  Translation: Toli's book
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: biis la ba
  Gloss:  children DEF father
  Translation:  ‘the children’s father’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lani Yes Mark Donohue
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo only in residual lexicalized expressions
  Words: ante pullorum cantum
  Gloss: before cocks:GEN crow:ACC
  Translation: 'before the cock crow'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 24.1) General distribution in the Itin. Eg: GN orders: 35 / 540 = 6.5% (Gianollo 2005: 172). This is the situation attested also in the Vulgata, cf. Gianollo 2011. Mostly in residual lexicalized expressions (sine Dei gratias, 2.7; )- Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90)
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic No Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
+ Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: wo de shu
  Gloss: I GEN book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
   Mankanya No Tim Gaved
+ Maori Yes Ray Harlow
  Words: tana kurii
  Gloss: sggenIIdl house
  Translation: ‘his dog’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: taa Turi kurii
  Gloss: sggen Turi dog
  Translation: ‘Turi’s dog’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: jine-n John
  Gloss: mother-3SG.GEN John
  Translation: John's mother
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: bok eo a-n John
  Gloss: book the.SG GENERAL.POSS.CLF-3SG.GEN John
  Translation: John's book
  Comment: This example contains an alienable noun and therefore a possessive classifier.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
   Masarak No Jessica Chen
   Mbuko No Richard Gravina
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: al Reinaerts maghen
  Gloss: all Reinaert.GEN kinsmen
  Translation: all Reinaert's family
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang No Bebey Théodore
  Words: ⃰ * Galu ga awák/ * ga Galu awák
  Gloss: Galu of goats
  Comment: no prenominal posssessors, regardless of form
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N|u Yes Chris Collins
+ Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
  Words: Maria i-chan
  Gloss: Maria 3SG.P-house
  Translation: "Maria's house"
  Comment: Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Naki No Jeff Good
   Navajo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: báːgáː hâːrěː
  Gloss: dog-spec house-spec
  Translation: 'the house of the dog' (10).
  Comment: All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' No Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
   Ndut No Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: *Musa nangi
  Gloss: Musa goat
  Translation: Musa's goat
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan Yes Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English Yes Steve Seegmiller
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: godes êgan barn
  Gloss: god.GEN own child
  Translation: God's own child
  Comment: (Heliand 3085)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
+ One Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: I moru
  Gloss: 1SG house
  Translation: my house
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
   Palue Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi Yes Hilda Koopman
   Papuan Malay Yes Mark Donohue
+ Pashto Yes Taylor Roberts
  Words: dee dzan plaar
  Gloss: POSS John father
  Translation: John's father
  Comment: Babrakzai 1999: 31
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
  Words: dee maktab dee shaagerdáano dee dars dee dawree dee wakht le khwakhey na ddáka yaaduna
  Gloss: POSS school POSS students POSS study POSS period POSS time from happiness from full memories
  Translation: memories full of happiness of the time period of students' studying at school
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 172.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
  Words: dee asad dee plaar tsalor ddeeree ssaaysta lunnee
  Gloss: POSS Asad POSS father.OBL.SG four very.F.Dir.PL pretty daughter.DIR.PL
  Translation: Asad's father four very pretty daughters
  Comment: (also Num A N); same for alienable possession . Tegey and Robson: 171
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: #Piotra książka
  Gloss: Piotr.gen book.nom
  Translation: Peter's book.
  Comment: Felicitous with contrastive focus: 'Take Peter's book, not Mary's".
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi Possible only when possessor is a pronoun.
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Oana Savescu
+ Russian Yes Stephanie Harves
  Words: Sašina kniga
  Gloss: Sasha's.ADJ.POSS.NOM.F.SG book.NOM.F.SG
  Translation: Sasha's book
  Comment: Note that prenominal possessor adjectives are restricted to proper names and some kinship terms. (Pronominal possessive adjectives are also prenominal.)
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua Yes Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec Yes George Aaron Broadwell Interrogative possessors precede the noun, but regular possessors follow
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Saramaccan Yes Tonjes Veenstra
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
+ Saweru Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: Ruama-o ra-arian
  Gloss: woman-CONSTRUCT 3SG.F.ACC-child
  Translation: woman's child
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic Yes Andrew Carnie
   Senaya No Laura McPherson
   Serbian Yes Miloje Despic
   Shan No Alif Silpachai
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: * ri Ggiovànni nu ritràttu
  Gloss: of John a picture
  Translation: A picture of John
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
+ Spanish No Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: *Fuimos a de María la boda
  Gloss: go.PST.1PL to of M. the.F wedding
  Translation: Intended: We danced at Maria's wedding
  Comment: Possessor Noun is only possible when the possessor is a pronoun.
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
  Words: flickans glass
  Gloss: girl.DEF.GEN ice-cream
  Translation: the girl's ice-cream
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
+ Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: i e tiannau
  Gloss: he GEN computer
  Translation: his computer
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: jiwatsï pá-h-ti chí tsíkata-ni
  Gloss: coyote take-PFV-3 2.SG.POSS hen-OBJ
  Translation: 'The coyote took away your hen'
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: jiwatsï pá-h-ti Juanu-iri tsíkata-ni
  Gloss: coyote take-PFV-3 Juan-GEN hen-OBJ
  Translation: 'The coyote took away Juan's hen'
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *də Paolə lu librə
  Gloss: of Paul the book
  Translation: Paul's book
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Tigre No Zhenyu Sun
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tiwa Yes Virginia Dawson
   Tlingit Yes James Crippen
+ Tocharian A Yes Bernhard Koller
  Words: wlāññäktes vājrä
  Gloss: Indra.GEN mace
  Translation: Indra's cudgel
  Comment: source: A 356 a1
  Contributor: Bernhard Koller
   Tocharian B Yes Bernhard Koller
+ Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
  Words: Sáná jàndùlùL
  Gloss: Sana donkey
  Translation: ‘Sana’s donkey’ (371: 668a).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala Yes George Aaron Broadwell This is the order found when the possessor is interrogative.
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Tukana tĩ
  Gloss: Toucan beak
  Translation: Toucan's beak
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Turkish Yes Ryan Caro
  Words: abla-m-ın kitab-ı
  Gloss: elder.sister-1SG-GEN book-POSS
  Translation: my elder sister's book
  Comment: Turkish marks both the possessor and the possessed.
  Contributor: Ryan Caro
+ Tuvan Yes Brian Hsu
  Words: Teve-niŋ baš-ɨ
  Gloss: camel-GEN head-3POSS
  Translation: the camel's head
  Contributor: Brian Hsu
   Twi Yes Cansada Martin
   Udmurt Yes Orsolya Tanczos
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: Ivanovyj velosyped
  Gloss: Ivan's bicycle
  Translation: Ivan's bicycle
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
+ Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Kofi nI slee
  Gloss: Kofi nI(H.L) house.D
  Translation: Kofi's house
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
+ Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian Yes Zvjezdana Vrzic
  Words: caruluj filju; a luj fråte
  Translation: tzar's son; his brother
  Contributor: Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan Yes Tatiana Nikitina
+ Warlpiri Yes Margit Bowler
  Words: Napaljarri-kirlangu ngurrju maliki.
  Gloss: Napaljarri-POSS good dog
  Translation: Napaljarri's dog is nice.
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
   Welsh No David Willis
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
  Words: Valèresen us; Valèrese broere
  Gloss: Valère-sen house; Valère-se brother
  Translation: 'Valère's house'
  Comment: this pattern is much like the Anglosaxon genitive, sen before a vowel, se before a consonant
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
  Words: den meester van Frans sen us
  Gloss: the-masc-sg master of French his house
  Translation: 'The French teacher's house'
  Comment: sen before a vowel, se before a consonant
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
  Words: de juffrouw van Frans sen us/ se broere
  Gloss: the miss of French sen house/se brother
  Translation: 'The (female) French teacher's house/ brother'
  Comment: sen is used with a feminine possessor; sen before a vowel, se before a consonant
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
  Words: de juffrow van Frans eur us
  Gloss: the miss of French her house
  Translation: 'the (female) French teacher's house'
  Comment: 'eur' is the feminine poss. pronoun.
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
+ Wolane Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: ʔənnē yɛ-šāmil gār-n
  Gloss: This GEN-Shamil house-COP:3sm
  Translation: ‘This is Shamil’s house’
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Wolof Yes Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa Yes Mark Donohue
+ Yiddish Yes Shannon Mooney
  Words: der man-s gut-er av-er
  Gloss: the.M.SG man-POSS good-M.SG friend-M.SG
  Translation: "the man's good friend"
  Contributor: Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zulu No Claire Halpert