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20_Noun Possessor

Definition
The property Noun Possessor has the value "yes" when a possessor can follow the noun it modifies in a neutral context. The possessor in this property is not a pronoun. As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Noun Posessor does not exclude a "yes" value for Possessor Noun.

NA (Not Applicable): Since all known languages have possessors and nouns, this property is always defined.

1.
English is "yes" for Noun Possessor

I lived for a while in the apartment of my best friend.

In this example, the possessor "my best friend" follows the head noun "apartment". Note that even though there is an "of" separating the head noun and the possessor, it counts as an instance of Noun Possessor.

2.
English is also "yes" for Possessor Noun:

John's hat

In other words, English is "yes" for both the property Noun Possessor and the property Possessor Noun.

3.
Italian is "yes" for Noun Possessor:

La casa di Gianni
the house of Gianni
'John's house'

La torta di Maria
the cake of Mary
'Mary's cake'

4.
Japanese is "no" for the property Noun Possessor, since this order is always ungrammatical:

*hon Ken-no
book Ken-Gen
"Ken's book"
Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Abaza No Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese Yes Julie Legate
   Adyghe No Yury Lander
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: die vriende van my buurman
  Gloss: the friend.PL of my neighbour
  Translation: my neighbour's friends
  Comment: This pattern is less common than the Possessor Noun one.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
  Words: Die huis van my vriend is 'n inspirerende plek
  Gloss: the house of my friend is an inspiring place
  Translation: My friend's house is an inspiring place
  Comment: Similarly to the situation in English, this is a marked option in Afrikaans.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
   Agni indénié No Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: vëllai i Evës
  Gloss: brother-the(NOM) agr(M,SG) Eva-DAT
  Translation:  Eva’s brother
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Eric Besson
  Words: [...] echré:santo pros tòn bo:mòn tê:s Ortho:síe:s Artémidos
  Gloss: [...] used.3.PL.MID.AOR.MID for the.ACC altar.ACC the.GEN Orthosia.GEN Artemis.GEN
  Translation: [...] they used (the pillars) for the altar of Orthosia Artemis (Herodotus 4.87.2)
  Comment: Greek Text: ἐχρήσαντο πρὸς τὸν βωμὸν τῆς Ὀρθωσίης Ἀρτέμιδος
  Contributor: Eric Besson
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: Ahmed shaaf ketab Mariam
  Gloss: Ahmed see.PST book Mariam
  Translation: Ahmed saw the book of Mariam
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Babanki Yes Pius Akumbu
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: mɨ̀lùù mɨ́ m̀fɔ̀ myâ
  Gloss: wine of chief the
  Translation: The wine of the chief / The chief's wine
  Comment: Associative marher (of) agrees in number and class with possessed noun. Some associative morphemes are tonal. No distinction in alienable and inalienable possession.
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: ɓàlêt ɓês
  Gloss: 2teachers 2.our
  Translation: our teachers
  Comment: Note that here the tone on the possessive becomes LH or HL. whereas the noun starts with a low tone.(still need to add an example without a relational noun)
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
+ Bellinzonese Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Sum nai a cà dal Mario
  Gloss: be.AUX.PRS.1 go.PTCP to home of.ART.M.3SG Mario
  Translation: I went to Mario's place.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Priyanka Biswas
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
+ Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
  Words: O chapéu do Rafael
  Gloss: The.M.SG hat.SG of.M.SG Rafael
  Translation: Rafael's hat
  Contributor: Bruna Moreira
   Breton Yes Steve Hewitt
+ Bulgarian Yes Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: Kola-ta na Plamen ne vərv-i dobre
  Gloss: car-DEF.F.SG of Plamen NEG walk-3.SG.PRS well
  Translation: Plamen's car does not run well; lit. 'The car of Plamen does not run well')
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
+ Chalcatongo Mixtec Yes Jess Combs
  Words: Kačíní xʷã
  Gloss: Hat Juan
  Translation: Juan's hat
  Contributor: Jess Combs
   Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
+ Chol Yes Jessica Coon
  Words: tyi majl-i i-chich jiñi alob
  Gloss: COMPL go-INTR 3GEN-older.sister DET boy
  Translation: The boy's older sister left.
  Comment: The possessed noun shows agreement (here 3GEN) with the possessor. Interrogative possessors appear pre-nominally (e.g. "whose sister").
  Contributor: Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: I mana tis Marias.
  Gloss: the mother the.GEN Mary.GEN
  Translation: The mother of Mary.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Pavel Caha
  Words: kniha Petra Nováka
  Gloss: book Petr.gen Novák.gen
  Translation: Peter Novák's book
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: bouda našeho psa
  Gloss: shed our.gen dog.gen
  Translation: our dog's shed
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
+ Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Ejeren af bilen
  Gloss: Owner.DET of car.DET
  Translation: The owner of the car
  Comment: See property 19.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Comment: 
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: Mtoto wa Juma
  Gloss: CL1.child CL1.ASS Proper_Name
  Translation: Juma's child (child of Juma)
  Comment: ASS = associative marker
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Het huis van Marie staat te koop
  Gloss: The house of Mary stays to buy
  Translation: Mary's house is for sale
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
  Words: girk-a Tigran-i
  Gloss: book.DEF Tigran.POSS
  Translation: Tigran’s book
  Comment: this is only possible with focus on the possessor
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Egyptian Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
   Estonian No Mark Norris
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: O carro da Maria é enorme.
  Gloss: the.M car of-the.F Maria be-indiv-level.PRES.3SG huge
  Translation: Maria's car is huge.
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese Yes Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
+ Farsi Yes Natasha Schimka
  Words: Pedar-e Nikta
  Gloss: Father-ez Nikta
  Translation: Nikta's father
  Contributor: Natasha Schimka
+ Fijian Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: na vale ne-i Erelia
  Gloss: DEF house POS Erelia
  Translation: ‘Erelia’s house’
  Comment: P398
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Chris Collins
  Words: la maison de Julie
  Gloss: DEF-DET-F house POSS Julie
  Translation: Julie's house
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
+ Garifuna Yes Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
  Words: l-uguchu Juan
  Gloss: 3SG.M-mother Juan
  Translation: Juan's mother
  Contributor: Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German Yes Martin Haspelmath
   Ghɔmáĺá' Yes Francine Moguo
+ Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: waurd gudis
  Gloss: word.NOM god.GEN
  Translation: god's word /word of god (John 10:35)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: i mitera tu Petru
  Gloss: the mother the-GEN Peter-GEN
  Translation: Peter's mother
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greek (Pontic) No Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) No Stephen Mayeaux
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
+ Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: àwù àsíbá tɔ́n
  Gloss: shirt asiba Poss
  Translation: A/the shirt of Aba's
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian Yes Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hanga No Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa Yes Russell Schuh
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: xatul Sel Gabi
  Gloss: cat of Gabi
  Translation: Gabi's cat
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: chelqat hassadeh lebo'az (Rut 2,3)
  Gloss: of (le).PREP Boaz.POSSESSOR
  Translation: part of the field of boaz
  Comment: preposition l- "to" expresses belonging, being a dative of possession
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Gurprit Bains The possessor can be predicational as in "This house is John's
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
+ Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
  Words: bók Jóns
  Gloss: book John.GEN
  Translation: John's book
  Contributor: Jim Wood
  Words: Bókin hans Jóns
  Gloss: book.the.NOM his.GEN Jon.GEN
  Translation: John's book
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
  Words: Bókin Jóns
  Gloss: book.the.NOM Jon.GEN
  Translation: John's book
  Comment: A regional variant (mainly used in the North and North East)
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Igala Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Igbo Yes Mary Amaechi
  Words: iko Ada
  Gloss: cup Ada
  Translation: 'Ada's cup'
  Contributor: Mary Amaechi
   Iha Yes Mark Donohue
   Ilokano Yes Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian Yes Mark Donohue
+ Irish Yes Bridget Nixdorf
  Words: Tá teach Pheadair i lár an bhaile.
  Gloss: Is house Peadair in center the town
  Translation: 'Peadair’s house is in the center of the town.'
  Contributor: Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun No Iris Wu
   Italian Yes Chris Collins
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English Yes Tonjes Veenstra
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   Jingulu Yes Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
   Karachay No Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
+ Kinande Yes Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
  Words: e-ki-tábu ky-a Magúlu
  Gloss: AUG-7-book 7-ASSOC Magulu
  Translation: 'Magulu's book'
  Comment: The associative marker agrees in class with the head noun; ASSOC = associative marker
  Contributor: Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kindendeule Yes Deo Ngonyani
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
+ Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
  Words: ndo ÀngtSang
  Gloss: house ÀngtSang
  Translation: ÀngtSang's house
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Konni No Michael Cahill
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: * ba biis la
  Gloss:  father children DEF
  Translation:  ‘the children’s father’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal Yes Florian Lionnet
+ Lango Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: gwôkk à lócə̀
  Gloss: dog ATT man
  Translation: the man's dog (Noonan 1992: 154 ex 1.)
  Comment: possessives can be made with the associative construction
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Lani No Mark Donohue
   Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Words: castra filiorum Israhel
  Gloss: camp:NOM sons:GEN Israel:GEN
  Translation: 'the camp of the sons of Israel'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 5.13) General distribution in the Itin. Eg: NG orders: 505 / 540 = 93.5% (Gianollo 2005: 172). This is the situation attested also in the Vulgata, cf. Gianollo 2011 - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
   Lubukusu Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
+ Malagasy Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: ny tranon-dRasoa
  Gloss: DET house-GEN.Rasoa
  Translation: Rasoa's house
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam No Mythili Menon
   Mandarin No Arthur Wang
   Mankanya Yes Tim Gaved
+ Maori Yes Ray Harlow
  Words: te kurii a Turi
  Gloss: the dog gen Turi
  Translation: ‘Turi’s dog’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: bok eo a-n John
  Gloss: book the.SG GENERAL.POSS.CLF-3SG.GEN John
  Translation: John's book
  Comment: Possessive classifiers are only used with alienable possession.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
+ Masarak Yes Jessica Chen
  Words: ɑmɑː leɾi daʊd tɑ-k ɑ-kɑl-ɑ
  Gloss: 1SG donkey Daowd POSS.3SG-OBJ 1SG-saw-PST
  Translation: 'I saw Daowd's donkey'
  Contributor: Jessica Chen
   Mbuko Yes Richard Gravina
+ Medumba Yes KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
  Words: tʉ́tú fən
  Gloss: statue chief
  Translation: The statue of the chief
  Contributor: KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: op die goetheit gods
  Gloss: on the goodness God.GEN
  Translation: on the goodness of God
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
  Words: mbàda laahə
  Gloss: thigh.F jackal
  Translation: 'thigh of a jackal'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: kitaab il.wald
  Gloss: book DEF.boy
  Translation: the boy’s book
  Comment: This is the formal Arabic possessive construction
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: el.kitaab dyal.el.wald
  Gloss: DEF.book of.DEF.boy
  Translation: the boy's book
  Comment: This form is more natural to say than the formal construction (previous example).
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: sayyarat dyal.el.ustaad
  Gloss: car.F of.DEF.teacher.M
  Translation: the teacher's car
  Comment: A "t" is pronounced at the end of a feminine word when it's in a possessive construction.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
  Words: Awák ga Galu
  Gloss: Goats of Galu
  Translation: Galu's goats
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
  Words: i-chan Maria
  Gloss: 3SG.p-house Maria
  Translation: "Maria's house"
  Comment: Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Naki Yes Jeff Good
   Nawdm No Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
   Ndut Yes Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
+ Nkore-Kiga Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: (a-gi-gambira omugabe ku a-gi-mu-tumire ku) a-rikw-enda ku-teeka obugyenyi bw’amamanzi ge
  Gloss: (he-it-tell king how he-it-him-send.M how) he-PC-want to-cook party of heroes his
  Translation: ‘(He told him that the King had sent him to him (to say) that) he wished to throw a party for his warriors.’
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai Yes Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Nangi Musa
  Gloss: goat Musa
  Translation: Musa's goat
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Occitan Yes Patrick Sauzet
  Words: Lo capèl de Pèire es nòu.
  Gloss: ART-M hat PREP Peter COP new
  Translation: Peter's hat is new
  Comment: Noun possessor order is always mediated by a preposition in the modern language. Old occitan had construction like : la tèrra En Guilhem "the land (of) Lord William" where "En Guilhem" is in the objective case. In the present day this syntax only remains in fossilized forms as toponyms: Ròcamador "the stone (of Saint) Amador" etc.
  Contributor: Patrick Sauzet
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
+ Old English Yes Willem Koopman
  Words: sumne dael thaes felles
  Gloss: some ACC-M part ACC-M of-the GEN-SG skin GEN-SG
  Translation: "some part of the skin"
  Contributor: Willem Koopman
+ Old French Yes Heather Burnett
  Words: sa femme fu fille le roi de Navarre
  Gloss: his wife were daughter the king of Navarre
  Translation: His wife was the daughter of the king of Navarre
  Comment: Histoire de la quête de Constantinople (Villhardouin 12thC)
  Contributor: Heather Burnett
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: that hôha hûs heƀancuninges
  Gloss: the high house heaven-king.GEN
  Translation: God's house
  Comment: (Heliand 5575)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Nd-a-menya mu-nzu mwa o- mwitsa wanje
  Gloss: 1sg-SA-live Prep-house Prep AUG-friend mine
  Translation: ‘ I live in the house of my friend’
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: I-kofia ya John
  Gloss:  C9-hat 9.a John
  Translation: John's hat
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ One Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: moru i-enu
  Gloss: house 1SG-GEN
  Translation: my house
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
   Palue Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: książka Piotra Nowaka
  Gloss: book.nom Piotr.gen Nowak.gen
  Translation: Piotr Nowak's book
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: buda naszego psa
  Gloss: house our.gen dog.gen
  Translation: our dog's house
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Casa de Paulo / casa do Paulo
  Gloss: house of P. / house of the.M P.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: Asta este cartea Mariei.
  Gloss: this.F.SG is book-THE Mary-GEN
  Translation: This is Mary's book.
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
+ Russian Yes Stephanie Harves
  Words: dom Ivana
  Gloss: house.NOM Ivan.GEN
  Translation: Ivan's house
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan Yes Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec Yes George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Sasak Yes Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Saweru No Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic Yes Andrew Carnie
   Senaya Yes Laura McPherson
   Shan Yes Alif Silpachai
+ Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: kun mfon pa ngure
  Gloss: bed king copula big
  Translation: The king's bed is big.
  Comment: Non-pronominal possessors always comes after the head noun.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: nu ritràttu ri Ggiovànni
  Gloss: a picture of John
  Translation: a picture of John
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
+ Spanish Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Bailamos en la boda de María
  Gloss: dance.PST.1PL at the.F wedding of M.
  Translation: We danced at Maria's wedding
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
  Words: porträttet av kungen -- kungens porträtt
  Gloss: portrait.DEF of king.DEF -- king.DEF.GEN portrait
  Translation: the portrait of the king
  Comment: The genitive has broader usage: 19_Possessor Noun
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: slutet på historien --- historiens slut
  Gloss: end.DEF on history.DEF -- history.DEF.GEN end
  Translation: the end of the story
  Comment: Various prepositions can be used,
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: libro nang babae
  Gloss: book Gen woman
  Translation: a/the woman's book
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
+ Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: tsíkata Juanu-iri-cha phuku-sha-ti-ksï.
  Gloss: hen Juan-GEN-PL fat-PROG-3-3.PL.SBJ
  Translation: 'Juan's hens are getting fat'
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: lu librə də Paolə
  Gloss: the book of Paul
  Translation: Paul's book
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
+ Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: dār 'abu-ha
  Gloss: the property father-her
  Translation: her father's property
  Comment: P91
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern
   Tiwa No Virginia Dawson
   Tlingit No James Crippen
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan Yes Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala Yes George Aaron Broadwell This is the usual word order. Poss noun is found when the possessor is interrogative (in the construction called Pied-piping with inversion)
+ Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: te ama nu ana iso
  Gloss: CORE father GEN child that:DIST
  Translation: the father of that child
  Comment: (or, that father of the child)
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) Yes Edmond Biloa
  Words: Mbárá a- mu- ena mwana Putá /mwaná (w) a Putá
  Gloss: Mbara SM- PST1- see child Puta/ child 1.ASS Puta
  Translation: Mbara saw Puta's child
  Comment: The genitive marker is not phonetically realized between mwana and Puta. This is typical of cases of inalienable possession in Bantu languages. Rhe phonetic realization of the genitive marker (w)a is optional:
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words:  Nù' nga- má- kúsa matúwa wa mberE ame
  Gloss: 1 SM- P2- buy car of friend my
  Translation: I bought the car of my friend
  Comment: wa functions like a preposition and it agrees in noun class with matuwa.In Bantu Linguistics, it is sometimes called a possessive marker or a genitive marker. That the morphological form of the genitive marker is crucially dependent upon the noun class of the NP to which it refers is evidenced by the fact that if matuwa (car) is substituted for aranga (bicycle) below, wa changes to ya
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural
   Tuvan No Brian Hsu
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Udmurt No Orsolya Tanczos
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: velosyped Ivana
  Gloss: velosyped Ivan.GEN
  Translation: Ivan's bicycle
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese Yes Binh Ngo
  Words: Cuô’n sách cȗa John
  Gloss: book this of John
  Translation: John's book
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian Yes Zvjezdana Vrzic
  Words: filju caruluj; fråtele a luj
  Translation: tzar's son; his brother
  Contributor: Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
+ Warlpiri Yes Margit Bowler
  Words: Maliki ngurrju Napaljarri-kirlangu.
  Gloss: dog good Napaljarri-POSS
  Translation: Napaljarri's dog is nice.
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
   Welsh Yes David Willis
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
  Words: den oto van Valère is kapot
  Gloss: the-masc-sg car of Valère is broken
  Translation: 'Valère's car is out of order'
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof Yes Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
+ Yiddish Yes Shannon Mooney
  Words: der bruder des kind
  Gloss: the.M.SG brother of child
  Translation: "the child's brother"
  Contributor: Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: el bisicleta del bata
  Gloss: the bicycle of.the child
  Translation: the child’s bike/the bike of the child
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
  Words: bisicleta di Jose
  Gloss: bicycle of.DET Jose
  Translation: Jose's bicycle
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
+ Zulu Yes Esther Park
  Words: I-:geja lentombazana l-aphuk-ile.
  Gloss: 5-hoe 5.POSS.9.young.girl 5-break-STAT
  Translation: 'The young girl's hoe is broken.'
  Comment: The process of vowel coalescence between "la-" and "intombazana" results in "lentombazana" where "la-" is the possessive concord and "in-" of "intombazana" is the noun class 9 prefix. The stem of "intombazana" is "-ntombazana" so a morpheme division was not made. (STAT=stative tense)
  Contributor: Esther Park
  Words: ikhaya l-akho
  Gloss: 5house 5-2sg
  Translation: `your house'
  Contributor: Claire Halpert