Order N3 02_Demonstrative Noun Adjective

The value of the property Demonstrative Noun Adjective is "yes" for a language when this order is found in a neutral context. As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

Definition of Demonstrative

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for the property Demonstrative Noun Adjective does not exclude a "yes" value for other orders of these categories.

NA (Not Applicable): NA for this property means that the language has either no demonstratives or no nouns or no adjectives.


English is "yes" for Demonstrative Noun Adjective:

Those students responsible will be punished.
Those students present will know what is on the test.

Italian is "yes" for Demonstrative Noun Adjective:

Voglio questi libri rossi
want.1SG these books red.PL
"I want these red books."

Japanese is "no" for the property Demonstrative Noun Adjective, since this word order is always ungrammatical:

*kono hon akai
this book red
"this red book"

Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Abaza Yes Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
   Agni indénié No Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: ky libër i bukur
  Gloss: this(M,SG) book agr(M,SG) good
  Translation:  this good book
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: hath-i al-bent al-helw-ah eshter-et keteb
  Gloss: this-3FSG DET-girl DET-beautiful-3FSG buy.PST-3FSG book.PL
  Translation: this beautiful girl bought books
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
+ Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
  Words: ayd ark'a-n eritasard
  Gloss: that king-ART young
  Translation: that young king
  Comment: this word order is used in poetry, in tales etc. for rhyme or rhetoric purposes
  Contributor: Sona Haroutyunian
   Aymara No Matt Coler
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: yíì ndá yímfù’ù
  Gloss: that house white
  Translation: That white house
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
+ Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa
   Bandial No Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: máná mambↄ́t ma-lâm
  Gloss: AGR.DEM.PROX. 6garments AGR-nice
  Translation: ‘These nice garments (here)’
  Comment: (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
  Words: bíí biséyá bi-kɛ́ŋí
  Gloss: AGR.DEM.DIST 8plates AGR-big
  Translation: ‘These big plates (over there)’
  Comment: (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
+ Bellinzonese Yes Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: Ò töi chesctu libru ross ier
  Gloss: have.AUX.PRS.1 buy.PTCP this book red yesterday
  Translation: I bought this red book yesterday.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Priyanka Biswas Not to confuse with the order in ei(this) chele-Ta(boy-CLF) duSTu(naughty) 'This boy is naughty'.
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
+ Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
  Words: Aquele filme antigo
  Gloss: That.M.SG movie.M.SG old.M.SG
  Translation: That old movie
  Contributor: Bruna Moreira
   Breton No Steve Hewitt
   Bulgarian No Iliana Krapova
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
   Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw NA Pam Munro Chickasaw does not have adjectives, per se, only stative verbs.
   Chol No Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: Tuta ta vivlia ta prasina.
  Gloss: these the books the green
  Translation: These green books.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech No Peter Kosta
  Words: *Vidíš ten ručník bílej?
  Gloss: see.2sg dem towel white
  Translation: Can you see that white towel (over there)?
  Comment: However, as noted above, in some special context Czech allows N>A orders (see the N>A parameter). These may be preceded by demonstratives to yield Dem>N>A orders:
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: Vidíš toho psa domácího?
  Gloss: see.2sg dem dog domestic
  Translation: Can you see that domestic dog (over there)?
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: yuya m-chetu m-dide
  Gloss: CL1.DEM CL1-woman CL1-small
  Translation: that junior wife (i.e. the second wife of a husband)
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: O Manel é um rapaz alegre.
  Gloss: the.M Manel be-indiv-level.PRES.3SG a.M boy cheerful
  Translation: Manel is a cheerful boy.
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese No Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
+ Farsi Yes Natasha Schimka
  Words: In ketâb-e kohne
  Gloss: This book-ez old
  Translation: This old book
  Contributor: Natasha Schimka
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Cette voiture blanche
  Gloss: DEM-SG.F car white-F.SG
  Translation: That white car
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: nakai nuumo bɔdɔbɔdɔ lɛ
  Gloss: that old.man weak DEF
  Translation: that weak old man
  Comment: DEF is required
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna No Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Martin Haspelmath
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: afto to vivlio to kokino
  Gloss:  this the book the red
  Translation: this red book
  Comment: This order is possible only in the 'Determiner Spreading/Polydefinite' structure, and it is grammatical when referring to a previously mentioned entity in the discourse
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greek (Pontic) No Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hanga No Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa Yes Michael A. Estrada
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: hu henif ze degel adom
  Gloss: he hoist-PST this flag red
  Translation: He hoisted this red flag
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: ze hayyam gadol (Ps 104,25)
  Gloss: this.DEM sea great.ADJ
  Translation: this great sea
  Comment: This is a very rare case; when there is an adjective, the demonstrative usually follows.
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Gurprit Bains
   Hittite No Mattyas Huggard
+ Hixkaryana NA Laura Kalin
  Comment: There are demonstrative pronouns in Hixkaryana (Derbyshire 1985:p. 7) but no demonstratives that co-occur with a noun (p. 26).
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha No Mark Donohue
+ Ilokano Yes Jeremy Rafal
  Words: daytoy kotse a nalabbaga
  Gloss: this car LIG red
  Translation: this red car
  Contributor: Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Irish No Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun No Iris Wu
   Italian Yes Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara Yes Alan Vogel
   Jingulu NA Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Karachay No Steve Seegmiller
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Konni No Michael Cahill
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
+ Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
  Words: aw kteb-a astur-a
  Gloss: that book-DEF thick-DEF
  Translation: That thick book
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal NA Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lani No Mark Donohue
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Words: illa una septimana paschalis, quam...
  Gloss: that:NOM one:NOM week:NOM of.Easter:NOM, which:ACC
  Translation: 'that one week of Easter, which…' ('paschalis' has adjectival morphology)
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 46.5) unmarked; Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
+ Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
+ Malagasy Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: ity boky mena ity
  Gloss: DEM.close book red DEM.close
  Translation: this red book
  Comment: Each of the seven demonstratives in Malagasy must frame the noun phrase it is qualifying. As seen here, the demonstrative 'ity' appears both before the noun phrase and after. Very occasionally, the second demonstrative is absent.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam No Mythili Menon
   Mandarin No Arthur Wang
   Maori Yes Ray Harlow
+ Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: *Eo ļoon kileplep e=jorrāān.
  Gloss: the.SG boat big 3SG.AGR=be.broken
  Translation: The big boat is broken.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
   Masarak No Jessica Chen
   Mbuko No Richard Gravina
  Words: jʉ̄n fɔ́ktə́p zwʕ́ lī
  Gloss: this white cloth this
  Translation: this white cloth (as opposed to that white uniform)
  Comment: This order is not attested in neutral context since it has a contrastive reading
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: Die helege ewangelie waer
  Gloss: the.F holy.F gospel true.ø
  Translation: the holy true gospel
  Comment: the prost nominal adjective remains uninflected
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
  Words: níykin cúw rín-niy derbitim
  Gloss: these goats black-pl ten
  Translation: 'These ten black goats'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: had el.bint ez.zwiina
  Gloss: this DEF.girl DEF.beautiful
  Translation: this beautiful girl
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang No Bebey Théodore
  Words: *Heni awak geɗɗakani
  Gloss: This goat big
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Naki No Jeff Good
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: làʔà bà hɔ́lə̀ té tèréʔétéː
  Gloss: that dog black cl-pl cl-two-cl
  Translation: 'those two black (big) dogs' (6).
  Comment: All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Ndut No Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
+ Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: *Nana eci dzuru
  Gloss: DEM yam red
  Translation: this red yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Occitan Yes Patrick Sauzet
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English Yes Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: that gethuing mikil
  Gloss: that need great
  Translation: that great need
  Comment: (Heliand 4317)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   Palue No Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay Yes Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Widzisz ten ręcznik biały?
  Gloss: see.2sg this towel white
  Translation: Do you see this white towel?
  Comment: Judgment unclear. This order is marked, but certainly possible and found in the corpus. Especially when followed by further modifiers, e.g."czy ktoś zabierze tego psa dużego, obolałego po kastracji?" (google, 'Q anyone take this dog big hurting after neutering' - "Will anyone take this big dog in pain after neutering?")
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Este trabalho sujo
  Gloss: DEM.M work durty.M
  Translation: This dirty work
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: acest copac superb
  Gloss: this.M.SG tree.M.SG superb.M.SG
  Translation: this superb tree
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
+ Russian No Stephanie Harves
  Words: *Ja pročital ètu knigu interesnuju.
  Gloss: I.NOM read this book.ACC interesting
  Translation: I read this interesting book.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: V ètom restorane novom ja uže byl.
  Gloss: in this restaurant.PREP new I.NOM already was
  Translation: I was already in this new restaurant.
  Comment: Note that the order Demonstrative Noun Adjective is felicitous in topicalized (i.e., non-neutral) contexts. Thus, this example is felicitous in a context where this restaurant has already been mentioned.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Saweru No Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Senaya Yes Laura McPherson
   Shan No Alif Silpachai
+ Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare The order Demonstrative Noun Adjective is possible when the demonstrative is focussed.
  Words: ji pa ngure pa kamkeri
  Gloss: this bag big copula rare
  Translation: This big bag is rare.
  Comment: This order is possible when the demonstrative "ji" is focussed.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: stu lìbbru bbèllu
  Gloss: this book beautiful
  Translation: this beautiful book
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: sta màkina rrùssa
  Gloss: this car red
  Translation: this red car
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
+ Spanish Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Leí esta novela corta
  Gloss: read.PST.1SG this.F novel short.F
  Translation: I read this short novel
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Swedish No fredrik heinat
  Words: *de här/dessa studenter närvarande
  Gloss: DEM students present
  Translation: These students presents
  Comment: This order is not possible.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: ito-ng babae-ng maganda
  Gloss: this-Lk woman-Lk beautiful
  Translation: this beautiful woman
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
   Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: ʃta bambula bellə
  Gloss: this doll beautiful
  Translation: this beautiful doll
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: ʃta bambula roʃə
  Gloss: this doll red
  Translation: this red doll
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern
+ Tlingit Yes James Crippen
  Words: yaa lingít tlein
  Gloss: DEM.PROX person big
  Translation: this big/important person
  Contributor: James Crippen
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural
   Tuvan No Brian Hsu
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian Yes Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
   Yiddish No Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Quien quiere este manzana colorao?
  Gloss: who want this apple red
  Translation: Who wants this red apple?
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
+ Zulu Yes Esther Park
  Words: le n-to en-kulu
  Gloss: this.DEM.AGR 9-thing 9-big
  Translation: 'this big thing'
  Contributor: Esther Park