02_Verb Subject

The property Verb Subject has the value "yes" when in a clause with an intransitive verb the order Verb Subject can be used in a neutral context. The clause in this property is an active (non- passive) declarative (non-interrogative) clause. In this property, the subject is not a pronoun. Furthermore, the verb must be clause initial (see German example below). As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

Definition of Subject

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Verb Subject does not exclude a "yes" value for any other order of these categories.

NA (Not Applicable): All known languages have subjects in the defined sense, so this property is always defined and never has the value NA.


Welsh is "yes" for Verb Subject:

Gadawodd Mair.
leave.3SG.PST Mair
"Mair left."

Italian is "yes" for Verb Subject:

È apparsa la Madonna
is appeared the Virgin Mary
"The Virgin Mary appeared."

In general, a language will be classified as Verb Subject when that order is possible with a clause initial verb. German admits the order Verb Subject, but only in the presence of an initial adverb (this is the so-called Verb-Second property). Therefore, we assume that German is not Verb Subject.

Heute fliegt Hans nach München
today fly.3SG John to Munich
"Today John flies to Munich."

English is "no" for Verb Subject since this order is always ungrammatical:

*Left John.
(* means ungrammatical)
Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Acehnese No Julie Legate only neutral after verb na "exist"
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
  Words: 1. ∗ kɔ Kofi sukuu 2. *kɔ m- maa mmienu sukuu
  Gloss: 1. go Kofi school 2. go ol- woman two school
  Translation: intended: 1. Kofi goes to school/ 2. two women go to school
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: Erdhi Madona.
  Gloss: came Madonna
  Translation: Madonna came/arrived.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner Full nominal subject can follow verb in non-neutral context; neutral context Verb Subject order is only derived via subject pronoun doubling with drop of the pre-verbal full nominal subject.
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: érkhetai autè: e: Mandáne: pròs tòn patéra
  Gloss: come-PRS.3SG herself ART-NOM.F.SG M-NOM to ART-ACC.M.SG father-ACC.SG
  Translation: Mandane herself went to her father
  Comment: érkhetai:historical present (Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 1.3.1)
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: naam Ahmed badri
  Gloss: sleep.PST Ahmed early
  Translation: Ahmed slept early
  Contributor: Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
  Words: Mekn-ets Ani-n
  Gloss: leave-3SG.PST Ani-DET
  Translation: Ani left
  Contributor: Sona Haroutyunian
   Atayal (Squliq) Yes Sihwei Chen
   Babanki No Pius Akumbu
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
   Bambara No Hilda Koopman
   Bandial No Wolfgang Berndt
   baoulé - faafouê de kokumbo No kouakou koffi salomon
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
+ Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: ḿ- pↄ́d- ↄ́k wↄ́ -n maŋgɛ́ a- bí- *(pↄ́d)
  Gloss:  NMLZ- buy-NMLZ AGR-FOC 1child 1SM-PST2-talk
  Translation:  ‘The child TALKED (he did nothing else)
  Comment: The subject can be sandwiched between two verbs, with focus on the verb, still S precede tensed verb
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Basque No Karlos Arregi
   baule-kôdeh No Andréa ALLA
+ Bellinzonese Yes Mike Taylor
  Words: Riva al Gianni
  Gloss: arrive.PRS.3SG the Gianni
  Translation: Gianni arrives.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Priyanka Biswas OK under contrastive focus interpretation on verb.
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
   Breton Yes Steve Hewitt
   Bulgarian No Ljuba Veselinova
   Burgenland-Romani No Michelle McComb
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: zao-zo houdo jan
  Gloss: leave-PFV many people
  Translation: Many people left.
  Comment: Reference: Stephen,Matthews and Yip, Virginia. 1994. Cantonese: A comprehensive grammar. Routledge, 2013. chapter 4.1.2
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
+ Chalcatongo Mixtec Yes Jess Combs
  Words: Ni-na-ičì saʔma=ro
  Gloss: CP-REP-be.dry clothes=2
  Translation: 'Your clothes have dried'
  Contributor: Jess Combs
+ Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
  Words: u-ku-séka mkángo
  Gloss: 3SM-pres-laugh lion
  Translation: the lion is laughing
  Contributor: Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
   Chol Yes Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: Efien o Kostas.
  Gloss: Left the Kostas.
  Translation: Kostas left.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Pavel Caha
  Words: Padá sníh.
  Gloss: fall.3sg snow.nom
  Translation: It's snowing.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
  Words: nitie kombe adek e ot
  Gloss: NITIE chair three LOC house
  Translation: there are three chairs in the house
  Comment: Subjects always precede verbs (predcaites with verbal morphology), regardless of definiteness. Indefinite subjects follow the existential predicate, nitie, definite subjects precede it. Nitie does not seem to carry any verbal morphology.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby ALS4 workshop 2016
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: A-chi-nyamala yuno bwana.
  Gloss: 3SG-CONS-be.silent CL1.DEM CL1a.gentleman
  Translation: The man fell silent. (Lit: He fell silent that man.)
  Comment: Used when subject NP is a continued topic.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic Yes David Erschler
  Words: fɐcɐncɐ mɐ=suvallon-i fɐndon bɐn-ttɐ
  Gloss: end.PST.3PL POSS.1SG=child-OBL free.will day-PL
  Translation: My free childhood days ended.
  Contributor: David Erschler
+ Dutch No Hilda Koopman only in narrative contexts.
  Words: komt Jan gisteren bij de bakker; is al het brood op
  Gloss: comes John yesterday at the bakery, is all the bread up
  Translation: (wh/th/en) John gets to the bakery yesterday, (and) all the bread is gone
  Comment: OK in narrative contexts(cf Gert Jan Postma on the forum), and in joke contexts. But "Komt Jan gisteren bij de bakker" needs further continuation, and cannot stand on its own. Hence I set V-S to NO. Which (V-second) languages have narrative V-first, or V first in joke settings? This could be a future development (pehaps for V second languages).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
   Egyptian Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: Já chegou o João.
  Gloss: already arrive.PST.3SG the.M João
  Translation: João already arrived.
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese No Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Farsi No Natasha Schimka
+ Fijian Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: erāū sā dabe na gone
  Gloss: 3D ASP sit DEF child
  Translation: 'the two children were sitting'
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg Possible chiefly with verbs of occurrence/appearance.
   French No Chris Collins
   French (Ivorian) Yes Akpoué Josué
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna Yes Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   george test language Yes Hilda Koopman
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German No Chris Collins
   Ghɔmáĺá' Yes Francine Moguo
   Gothic Not Yet Set Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: Tragudhise o Gaetano Veloso.
  Gloss: sang the Gaetano Veloso
  Translation: Gaetano Veloso sang.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: irten enan alo insanos (Dawkins 1916: 394)
  Gloss: come.PST.3SG INDF other.SG.NOM man.SG.NOM
  Translation: another man came
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) No Stephen Mayeaux
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hanga No Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa No Russell Schuh
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky Hebrew does allow VS(0) but in a constrained way: Either some constituent precedes V (not V2, but V-not-1) or the postverbal subject is indefinite (with intransitives, not with transitives), or, the verb is presentational (not simply unaccusative) or if there is a weak locative 'here' or 'there' in the sentence.
  Words: *yaSan Gabi
  Gloss: sleep.M.S.PST Gabi
  Translation: Gabi slept
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: hushav kispi (Gen 42,28)
  Gloss: is returned.PFR.3SG my money.SBJ + POSS
  Translation: my money is returned
  Comment: the dominant order in the verbal clause
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Anoop Mahajan
   Hittite No Mattyas Huggard
+ Hixkaryana Yes Laura Kalin
  Words: n-eweh-yatxhe woriskomo komo
  Gloss: 3SBJ-bathe-COLL.NONPST woman COLL
  Translation: The women are bathing/taking a bath.
  Comment: This is the unmarked, canonical word order for intransitives. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 31)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Le-es-ett a hó.
  Gloss: down-fall-PST[3SG.IND] the snow[NOM}
  Translation: `The snow began to fall / It snowed'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   Ijo (Kaiama) No Hilda Koopman
+ Ilokano Yes Jeremy Rafal
  Words: Timmaray ni Juan
  Gloss: ran PN Juan
  Translation: Juan ran.
  Contributor: Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
+ Irish Yes Bridget Nixdorf
  Words: Léann Bríd.
  Gloss: Reads Bríd
  Translation: Bríd reads.
  Contributor: Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic Yes David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun Yes Iris Wu
   Italian Yes Chris Collins
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Tonjes Veenstra
   Japanese No Chris Collins
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   Jingulu Yes Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
   Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) No Amrit Amritavalli
   Karachay No Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kindendeule No Deo Ngonyani
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Konni No Michael Cahill
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Koyo No Hilda Koopman
+ Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
  Words: O-ikat-oŋ Adam muabari aŋ.
  Gloss: 3F.OBJ-check-3M.SBJ Adam sun/clock 3M.POSS.3S
  Translation: Adam checked his watch.
  Contributor: Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: * sa kul nidib si'a
  Gloss: PRT go-home.perf people some
  Translation:  ‘some people went home yesterday’
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lani No Mark Donohue
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
+ Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: animadvertit Trimalchio
  Gloss: notice.PRF.3SG T.NOM
  Translation: Trimalchio noticed
  Comment: Petron (34,2). See Baldi and Cuzzolin (2009: 280ss). VS order in Latin seems to be pragmatically related.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Giovanni Pairotti a value 'yes' was assigned since the statistical distribution is beyond 30%
  Words: intrat episcopus intro cancellos Anastasis
  Gloss: get: PRS: 3SG bishop: NOM into rail: PL Anastasis: GEN
  Translation: 'The bishop enters the rails of the Anastasis'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 38.2). This pattern is found in 38,8% (my own data) of the main active declarative clauses in the sample – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
  Words: fall-it Layla bakkir
  Gloss: left-3FSG Layla early
  Translation: Layla left early
  Contributor: Lina Choueiri
+ Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
  Words: Sode auga didelė liepa.
  Gloss: garden.LOC.SG grow.PRS.3 big.NOM.SG.F linden-tree.NOM.SG
  Translation: In the garden grows a big linden-tree.
  Comment: "In two-constituent rhematic sentences, where no theme is distinguished, the regular word order is VS." (Ambrazas 2006: 694)
  Contributor: Felix Thies
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
+ Malagasy Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: Enjehin-dRabe ny mpangalatra
  Gloss: chase.TT-GEN.Rabe DET thief
  Translation: Rabe chases/is chasing the thief
  Comment: Traditional grammars would call 'ny mpangalatra' the subject here, and say the verb is in the passive voice. However, 'Rabe' here does have some significant subject-like properties. Note: TT stands for 'Theme Topic', which is the voice morphology on the verb indicating that the subject is the theme.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam No Mythili Menon
+ Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: zou le henduo ren
  Gloss: leave PFV many person
  Translation: Many people left.
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
   Mankanya No Tim Gaved
+ Maori Yes Ray Harlow
  Words: I te hii ika au
  Gloss: T/A catch fish Isg
  Translation: 'I've been fishing'
  Comment: (with pronominal subjects)
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: Re=j tutu ajri ro.
  Gloss: 3PL.AGR=PRS swim child the.PL.HUMAN
  Translation: The children are swimming.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
   Masarak No Jessica Chen
   Mbuko No Richard Gravina
   Middle Dutch No Gertjan Postma
   Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: maat.et Sakina
  Gloss: die.3SG.F.PST Sakina
  Translation: Sakina died.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang No Bebey Théodore
  Words: * á adaɗáy ahay
  Gloss: 3sg shake house
  Translation: intended: A house is shaking
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N|u No Chris Collins
+ Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
  Words: zaniloa Maria
  Gloss: speaks Maria
  Translation: "Maria speaks"
  Comment: Language consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Naki No Jeff Good
   Nawdm No Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' No Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
   Ndut No Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Niuean Yes Diane Massam
+ Nkore-Kiga Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: ha-ija abantu babiri
  Gloss: there came two people
  Translation: There arrived two people
  Comment: Taylor 85:115b. "The equivalent to English 'there' is found not only in existential equatives (1.2.1. 1.6.4) but with other verbs. The range of these verbs includes both state verbs and verbs of motion"
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: mbwenu omubyamo ku gw-a-turukire, ha-taaha eifa rihango
  Gloss: now anthrax when it-RP-arise.APPL there-enter famine great
  Translation: 'So when anthrax broke out, there came a great famine.'
  Comment: cf. position of ku (when).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
+ Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: *Fu elugi.
  Gloss: fly bird
  Translation: The bird flew.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English No Steve Seegmiller
+ Old French Yes Heather Burnett
  Words:  Es en la court venu I. messagier
  Gloss: Is in the court came 1 messanger
  Translation: One messanger came to the court
  Comment: Le roman d’Auberon, éd. Jean Subrenat, Droz, Genève, 1973. (p.40)
  Contributor: Heather Burnett
  Words:  Es en la court venu I. messagier
  Gloss: Is in the court came 1 messanger
  Translation: One messanger came to the court
  Comment: Le roman d’Auberon, éd. Jean Subrenat, Droz, Genève, 1973. (p.40) (14th Century-Middle French)
  Contributor: Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon No George Walkden Clauses with this order are not infrequent, but assumed to be non-neutral. See section 3.3 of Walkden, George (2014). Syntactic Reconstruction and Proto-Germanic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  Words: Skrêd the uuintar forđ
  Gloss: moved the winter forth
  Translation: The winter progressed
  Comment: (Heliand 197)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One No Mark Donohue
   Palue No Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Pada śnieg.
  Gloss: fall.3sg snow.nom
  Translation: It is snowing.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Sumiu minha carteira
  Gloss: disappear.PST my.F wallet
  Translation: My wallet disappeared
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
   Q'eqchi' Yes Ava Berinstein
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: Au căzut frunzele.
  Gloss: have.AUX.PL. 3 fallen leaf-the.PL.F
  Translation: The leaves have fallen.
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
+ Russian Yes Stephanie Harves
  Words: Idjot dožd'.
  Gloss: goes rain.NOM
  Translation: It's raining.
  Comment: The order Verb Subject is neutral with unaccusative predicates (i.e., when the verb is intransitive and the subject is non-agentive).
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: Zvonit telefon.
  Gloss: rings telephone.NOM
  Translation: The telephone is ringing.
  Comment: The order Verb Subject is neutral with unaccusative predicates (i.e., when the verb is intransitive and the subject is non-agentive).
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: Tancuet Ivan, a ne Boris.
  Gloss: dances Ivan.NOM but not Boris.NOM
  Translation: Ivan is dancing, not Boris.
  Comment: Although the order Verb Subject is not neutral with unergative predicates (i.e., when the verb is intransitive and the subject is agentive), if the subject is contrastively focused, then the word order is felicitous.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan Yes Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec Yes George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Saramaccan No Tonjes Veenstra
+ Sasak Yes Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager sometimes (but not necessarily) marked for intonation stress on 'mate'
  Words: mate manuk ino
  Gloss: die chicken that
  Translation: 'the chicken died'
  Comment: both VS and SV are productive in Pancor, Eastern Sasak
  Contributor:  Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Saweru No Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic Yes Andrew Carnie
   Senaya No Laura McPherson
   Shan No Alif Silpachai
+ Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare The order Verb Subject is possible when the subject is focussed.
  Words: a shiket-na mfon
  Gloss: Foc speak-perfective king
  Translation: It is the king who spoke.
  Comment: When the speaker is focusing on the subject NP while answering a question, the natural way of doing that is to prepose the verb before the subject DP. This is generally done when answering a question like "who spoke?"
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: partìu Gjovànni
  Gloss: left John
  Translation: John left
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Slovenian No Franc Marušič
   Spanish Yes Chris Collins
   St'át'imcets Yes Lisa Matthewson
+ Swedish No fredrik heinat
  Words: Nu sover hunden.
  Gloss: now sleeps dog.DEF
  Translation: Now the dog is sleeping
  Comment: Swedish has V2 properties in mainclauses - see the comment on German in the property definition
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: D<um>ating ang babae.
  Gloss: <Intr.Perf>arrive Abs woman
  Translation: The woman arrived.
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
+ Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: jarha-h-ti némani juchíin=ia
  Gloss: be-PFV-3 someone 1.SG.POSS=ADV
  Translation: 'There is someone in my house'
  Comment: The verb can precede the subject in existential constructions in an 'out-of-the-blue' context if the subject is indefinite
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: jarhá-h-ti ambé mésa-rhu
  Gloss: be-PFV-3 something table-LOC
  Translation: 'There is something on the table'
  Comment: The verb can precede the subject in existential constructions when the subject is indefinite ('someone' or 'something')
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: partó Mariə
  Gloss: left Mary
  Translation: Mary left
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
+ Tigre No Zhenyu Sun
  Words: təkabbat-att-om
  Gloss: meet-she-them
  Translation: ‘she met them’
  Comment: Tigre grammar and texts / by Shlomo Raz. P39///pronominal subject markers follow V, but nominal subjects must precede
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Comment: “As a SOV language the verb in Tigre is at the end of the sentence.” ---The Semitic Languages, Weninger Stefan, P1146
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tiwa No Virginia Dawson
+ Tlingit Yes James Crippen
  Words: x̱ʼa-w-0-di-taan wé ḵáa
  Gloss: mouth-PFV-3.A-CLF[+D,0,+I]-carry DEM.MDIST man
  Translation: the man spoke
  Contributor: James Crippen
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan Yes Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala Yes George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Murat Kural
   Tuvan No Brian Hsu
   Twi No Chris Collins
   Udmurt No Orsolya Tanczos
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: Ide snih
  Gloss: goes snow
  Translation: It is snowing
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Uyghur No Travis Major
+ Vata No Hilda Koopman
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
  Words: *ngủ Lan rồi
  Gloss: sleep Lan already
  Translation: intended meaning "Lan fell asleep."
  Contributor: Binh Ngo
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian No Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
+ Warlpiri Yes Margit Bowler
  Words: Ya-nu=pala wati-jarra.
  Gloss: go-PST=3DU:SBJ man-two
  Translation: The two men have left. (Warlpiri Dictionary Project)
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
   Welsh Yes David Willis
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
+ Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
  Words: Ku-fik-e u-Thole
  Gloss: EXPL-arrive-Prf 1a.Thole
  Translation: THOLE arrived/has arrived
  Comment: In the subject-verb inversion construction, there is a focus falling on the postverbal subject.
  Contributor: Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
   Yiddish No Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Ya sale si Jose.
  Gloss: PST leave DET Jose
  Translation: Jose left.
  Comment: This order can be used in a neutral context as well as in an answer to a wh-question such as ‘what happened?’, but not 'who left?' which would yield SV order.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
   Zulu Yes Claire Halpert