01_Subject Verb

The property Subject Verb has the value "yes" when in a clause with an intransitive verb the order Subject Verb can be used in a neutral context. The clause in this property is an active (non- passive) declarative (non-interrogative) clause. In this property, the subject is not a pronoun. As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

Definition of Subject

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Subject Verb does not exclude a "yes" value for any other order of these categories.

NA (Not Applicable): All known languages have subjects in the defined sense, so this property is always defined and never has the value NA.


English is "yes" for Subject Verb:

John left.

Italian is "yes" for Subject Verb:

Gianni è arrivatoin ritardo.
John is arrived in late
"John arrived late"

Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
  Words: ǀqhà ’a kyxái
  Gloss: Women PROG dance
  Translation: ‘the women are dancing’ (Collins and Gruber:17).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Abaza Yes Brian O'Herin
+ Acehnese Yes Julie Legate
  Words: Ureueng agam nyan geu-plueng
  Gloss: person male that 3(Polite)-run
  Translation: The man is running.
  Contributor: Julie Legate
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: Die studente lees
  Gloss: the student.PL read
  Translation: The students are reading
  Comment: This is the required order in main clauses, which are necessarily V2. It is also the order found in unmodified embedded clauses (i.e. dat die studente lees). Where modifiers are present, main and embedded clauses differ, though (Die studente lees gretig vs dat die studente gretig lees, where "gretig" means "eagerly").
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: kòfí à wá
  Gloss: Koffi Accompli arriver
  Translation: « Koffi est arrivé. »
  Comment: Suivant la structure de cette phrase, nous avons sujet+verbe
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: kòfí bá
  Gloss: Koffi arriver
  Translation: « Koffi arrive. »
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: blɛ̀ mɛ̰́ nzùé má̰ mɛ̰́ nɔ̰̀
  Gloss: apporter 1sg water pour 1sg boire
  Translation: Apporte-moi de l’eau à boire.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: kòfí tɛ́ pá
  Gloss: Koffi laid degré
  Translation: Koffi est très laid
  Comment: Deux morphèmes permettent de rendre compte de l’expression des degrés : [pì] et [pá] « très, trop ». Comme tous les degrés, ils permettent d’exagérer un trait, défaut, un fait ou une qualité. Cependant, le degré ne précède jamais l’adjectif. Cela dit, au sein d’un syntagme adjectival, voici l’ordre requis : N+Adj+Deg.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: Kofi kɔ sukuu.
  Gloss: Kofi go school
  Translation: Kofi goes to school
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
  Words: Kofi nni kraman bi.
  Gloss: Kofi Neg.have dog BI
  Translation: There is a ceratin dog that Kofie does not have
  Comment: dog BI > neg
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: Beni iku.
  Gloss: Ben.the left
  Translation: Ben left.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner JOHN DANCE
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: kasa mät't'a
  Gloss: K. come.PFV.3mss
  Translation: 'Kasa came'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: Kúklo:ps hód’ érkhetai
  Gloss: Cyclops-NOM DEM-NOM.M come-PRS.3SG
  Translation: Here comes the Cyclops
  Comment: litt. 'Cyclops this comes' (Euripides, Cyclops, 193)
  Contributor: Richard Faure
  Words: Aristó:numos Methudrieùs érkhetai
  Gloss: A-NOM M-NOM come-PRS.3SG
  Translation: Aristonumos of Methydrion is coming
  Comment: érkhetai:historical present (Xenophon, Anabasis, 4.6.20)
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: Ahmed naam badri
  Gloss: Ahmed sleep.PST early
  Translation: Ahmed slept early
  Contributor: Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: Ahmed negah lean-ah sha6er
  Gloss: Ahmed pass.PST because--3SGM hard worker
  Translation: Ahmed passed because he is hard worker
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
  Words: he6alt-i al-ketab? heh
  Gloss: find.PST-2SGF DET-book? yes
  Translation: did you find the book? yes
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
  Words: th-thala defater 3la t-tawlah
  Gloss: DET-three notebooks on DET-table
  Translation: the three notebooks on the table
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
  Words: th-thala defater 3la t-tawlah
  Gloss: DET-three notebooks on DET-table
  Translation: the three notebooks on the table
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
+ Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
  Words: Ani-n mekn-ets
  Gloss: Ani-DET leave-3SG.PST
  Translation: Ani left
  Contributor: Sona Haroutyunian
   Atayal (Squliq) No Sihwei Chen
   Aymara Yes Matt Coler
+ Babanki Yes Pius Akumbu
  Words: wùwì yí kúˀ lí
  Gloss: woman DET climbed P1
  Translation: The woman has gone up/ climbed
  Contributor: Pius Akumbu
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: mfɔ̀ wá bwíì
  Gloss: Chief the sleep
  Translation: The chief is sleeping
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
+ Bambara Yes Bryan Villa
  Words: Ne taara
  Gloss: I go.PAST
  Translation: I went
  Comment: from TNBG pg 39
  Contributor: Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
+ baoulé - faafouê de kokumbo Yes kouakou koffi salomon kofi jo
  Words: kofi jo
  Gloss: koffi faire
  Translation: koffi fait
  Contributor: kouakou koffi salomon
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: maŋgɛ́ a- bí- pↄ́t
  Gloss: 1child 1SM- PST2- talk
  Translation: The child talked
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
   baule-kôdeh Yes Andréa ALLA
+ Bellinzonese Yes Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: Al Gianni u= va via duman
  Gloss: the Gianni he=go.PRS.3SG away tomorrow
  Translation: Gianni leaves tomorrow.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng Yes Denis Paperno
+ Bengali Yes Satarupa Das
  Words: ami eshe-ch-i
  Gloss: 1.SG.NOM come.PRF-PRS-1
  Translation: I have come
  Contributor: Satarupa Das
+ Bole Yes Alhaji Gimba
  Words: Bamoi ma-wo
  Gloss: Bamoi return (pfvf)
  Translation: Bamoi went back
  Comment: -wo is a zero object marker with perfective verb stems
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
  Words: Bamoi ma-wo
  Gloss: Bamoi return (pfv)
  Translation: Bamoi went back
  Comment: -wo is a zero object marker with perfective verb stems
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
+ Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
  Words: Denise lê o jornal
  Gloss: Denise read.PRS.3SG o.ART.M.SG newspaper.SG
  Translation: Denise reads the newspaper
  Contributor: Bruna Moreira
  Words: Denise chegou cedo
  Gloss: Denise arrive.PST.3SG early
  Translation: Denise arrived early
  Contributor: Bruna Moreira
+ Breton Yes Mélanie Jouitteau
  Words: Maite a gomz brav
  Gloss: Maite C speaks well
  Translation: Maite speaks well
  Comment: neutral, especially in the gwenedeg dialect
  Contributor: Mélanie Jouitteau
+ Bulgarian Yes Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: Nikola pristig-na
  Gloss: Nikola arrive-3.SG.AOR
  Translation: Nikola arrived
  Comment: AOR=aorist, not in the Leipzig glossing rules
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burgenland-Romani Yes Michelle McComb
+ Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
  Words: thu le' cou: thwa: te
  Gloss: he hand break go RLS
  Translation: his hand broke
  Comment: RLS = realis marker
  Contributor: Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: houdo jan zau-zo
  Gloss: many people leave-PFV
  Translation: Many people left.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
+ Chalcatongo Mixtec Yes Jess Combs
  Words: Spexó táʔu
  Gloss: Espejo break
  Translation: “The mirror breaks/is broken”
  Contributor: Jess Combs
+ Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
  Words: mkangó u-ku-séka
  Gloss: lion 3SM-pres-laugh
  Translation: the lion is laughing
  Comment: 3 is for the noun class of the subject mkango
  Contributor: Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
   Chol No Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: O Kostas irten arga.
  Gloss: the Kostas arrived late.
  Translation: Kostas arrived late.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Pavel Caha
  Words: Petr spí.
  Gloss: Petr.nom sleep.3sg
  Translation: Petr is sleeping.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: Petr píše dopis.
  Gloss: Petr.nom write.3sg something.acc
  Translation: Petr is writing something.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
+ Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
  Words: Dakoraa zoro la
  Gloss: Dakoraa run.IMP foc
  Translation: Dakoraa is running
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
  Words: Dakoraa zoro la
  Gloss: Dakoraa zo.IMP foc
  Translation: Dakoraa is running
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
+ Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Den lille sover
  Gloss: The baby sleep.PRS
  Translation: The baby sleeps/is asleep.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby ALS4 workshop 2016
  Words: mu̍kɔ̀ búdō
  Gloss: Moko wash.IMPF
  Translation: Moko washes himself
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: mu̍kɔ̀ búdō
  Gloss: Moko wash.IMPF
  Translation: Moko washes himself
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: Simba wa-fwa
  Gloss: CL1a.lion 3SG.PST-die
  Translation: The lion died
  Comment: Canonical order; the lion is a switch topic.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic Yes David Erschler
  Words: fidɐ ɐ=kust-mɐ rand-ɐj
  Gloss: father POSS.3SG=work-ALL go.PST-PST.3SG
  Translation: Father went to his work.
  Comment: POSS.1/2/3 are possessive proclitics/prefixes. The sentence from Aghuzarti, Agube. 2008. Zin cardi qæpxæn. Dzæugighæw.
  Contributor: David Erschler
  Words: mɐ=χɐʣarɐ
  Gloss: POSS.1SG=house
  Translation: my house
  Contributor: David Erschler
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Marie bouwt veel mooie huizen
  Gloss: Mary builds many nice.AGR house.PL
  Translation: Mary builds a lot of nice houses
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Nnụnụ ojii atọ ndị ahụ
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
   Egyptian Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: A Ana gosta de batatas.
  Gloss: the.F Ana like.PRES.3SG of potato.PL
  Translation: Ana likes potatoes.
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe Yes Chris Collins
+ Farefari Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: Bia la diti mɛ
  Gloss: child DEF eat.IPFV PRT
  Translation: the child is eating
  Comment: the final particle is sensitive to transitivity and aspect
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
+ Faroese Yes Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
  Contributor: Hjalmar Páll Petersen
+ Farsi Yes Natasha Schimka
  Words: Ketâb xub ast
  Gloss: Book good be.3SG.PRS
  Translation: The book is good / Books are good
  Contributor: Natasha Schimka
+ Fijian Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: era ā dabe tiko
  Gloss: 3P PT sit CNT
  Translation: 'they were sitting'
  Comment: only with pronominal subject
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: o cēī ā dabe tiko?
  Gloss: PRP who PT sit CNT
  Translation: 'who was sitting?'
  Comment: question
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
  Words: Juna tule-e
  Gloss: train.NOM come-PRS.3SG
  Translation: The train is coming.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Marc mange.
  Gloss: Marc eat-PRS
  Translation: “Marc eats.”
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   French (Ivorian) Yes Akpoué Josué
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: nuu ba
  Gloss: man AOR.come
  Translation: the man came
  Comment: aorist aspect is not phonetically expressed except under very restricted conditions. The definite marker (the) is only used when the referent has already been mentioned
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: Kòfí sèlè
  Gloss: Kofi swim
  Translation: Kofi swam
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna No Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   george test language Yes George Collier
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German Yes Chris Collins
+ Ghɔmáĺá' Yes Francine Moguo
  Words: hà bèm
  Gloss: verb 1PL
  Translation: Give me
  Contributor: Francine Moguo
+ Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: þu witeis.
  Gloss: you.NOM.SG see.PRS.2.SG
  Translation: You see.
  Comment: Matthew 27:4
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: I Eleni tragudhai sto banio.
  Gloss: the Eleni sings in.the bathroom
  Translation: Eleni is singing in the shower.
  Comment: This order is grammatical with a neutral reading, only if some element follows the verb (e.g., 'in the shower').
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: ito cel oɣlan cimiʝe to pelit aɣatʃ apkato (Dawkins 1916: 372)
  Gloss: DEM.PROX.SG.NOM bald boy.SG.NOM sleep.PST.3SG ART.DEF.SG.ACC poplar tree.SG.ACC under
  Translation: the scalhead slept under the plane tree
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
+ Greenlandic, West (Kalaallisut) Yes Stephen Mayeaux
  Words: Anda sini-ppoq
  Gloss: Anda-ABS sleep-3s.IND
  Contributor: Stephen Mayeaux
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
+ Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh Order in neutral clauses
  Words: àsíbá wá
  Gloss: Asiba come
  Translation: Asiba came
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene Yes Samuel Atintono
   Haitian Yes Michel DeGraff
   Hakka Yes Iris Wu
+ Hanga Yes Geoffrey Hunt
  Words: saa taya
  Gloss: rain came
  Translation: it rained
  Contributor: Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa Yes Russell Schuh
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: Gabi yaSen
  Gloss: Gabi sleep-M.S.PRS
  Translation: Gabi is sleeping
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: Yhwh malak (Ps 92,1)
  Gloss: God.SBJ be.king.PRF.3SG
  Translation: God is king
  Comment: Usual order is Verb Subject. The Subject may precede the verb on account of emphasis, at the beginning of a statement and other particular cases.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: sheloshet hassallim, sheloshet yamim hem (Gen 40,18)
  Gloss: three the baskets.MPL three days they
  Translation: The three baskets are three days
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: hayeda'ttem 'et-laban (Gen 29,5)
  Gloss: Do you know.Q(ha)+PFV Laban.NOTA ACCUSATIVI-NOUN
  Translation: Do you know Laban?
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
  Comment: Biblical Hebrew syntax would admit answer by auxiliary, but it isn't found in the Hebrew Bible
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: wayyabe' lo yayin (Gen 27,25)
  Gloss: and-he brought.CONJ.IMPFV him.PREP+SUFF wine.
  Translation: and he brought him wine
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: wa'esa' 'et hayyayin (Neh 2,1)
  Gloss: and I took up. CONJ+IPFV ACC ('et) the wine.ART+NOUN
  Translation: and I took up the wine
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi Yes Anoop Mahajan
   Hittite Yes Mattyas Huggard
+ Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
  Words: amna n-omok-no
  Gloss: 1+3 3SBJ-come-IMMEDPST
  Translation: We (exclusive) came.
  Comment: Hixkaryana is canonically OVS. The pronoun "amna", however, as a subject, must appear left-adjacent to the verb. Subjects can also appear before the verb when they are focused. Otherwise subjects are post-verbal. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 9) Note that all examples in this database for Hixkaryana come from Derbyshire (1986), Hixkaryana and linguistic typology. Dallas, TX: Summer Institute of Linguistics.
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Kati szalad.
  Gloss: Kati[NOM] run[3SG.PRS.IND]
  Translation: `Kati is running'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
+ Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
  Words: Ami m- me- nyong, sia anye m- mi- di- ghe
  Gloss: I AGR- tns- leave, since he/she AGR-tns come -not
  Translation: I am leaving since he/she is not here
  Comment: tones are ommited
  Contributor: Willie Willie
+ Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
  Words: Nokkrir stúdentar sáu þessa mynd.
  Gloss: Some.NOM.M.PL student.NOM.M.PL see.3PL.PST this.ACC.F.SG film.ACC.F.SG
  Translation: Several students saw this film.
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:24).
  Contributor: Jim Wood
   Igala Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Igbo Yes Mary Amaechi
  Words: Obi gara.
  Gloss: Obi go.PST
  Translation: ‘Obi went.’
  Contributor: Mary Amaechi
  Words: Obi bia-ra.
  Gloss: Obi come-PST
  Translation: 'Obi came.'
  Contributor: Mary Amaechi
   Iha Yes Mark Donohue
   Ijo (Kaiama) Yes Hilda Koopman
   Ilokano No Jeremy Rafal
+ imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
  Contributor: UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian Yes Mark Donohue
   Irish No Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic Yes David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun No Iris Wu
   Italian Yes Chris Collins
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English Yes Tonjes Veenstra
+ Japanese Yes Chris Collins
  Words: dareka-ga ki-ta.
  Gloss: someone-NOM come-PST
  Translation: Someone came
  Contributor: Ken Hiraiwa
  Words: dareka-ga hasit-ta.
  Gloss: someone-NOM run-PST
  Translation: someone ran
  Contributor: Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara Yes Alan Vogel
   Jingulu Yes Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
+ Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) Yes Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: Raama bidd-anu
  Gloss: Rama.NOM fall.Past-3sg.m.
  Translation: Rama fell
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: Raama band-anu
  Gloss: Rama.NOM. come.Past-3sg.m.
  Translation: ‘Rama came.’
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   Karachay Yes Steve Seegmiller
+ Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
  Words: hayu cahno-inna
  Gloss: dog bark-AUR.EVID
  Translation: (I heard) the dog bark
  Comment: Most examples are taken from Robert Oswalt's dissertation "A Kashaya Grammar" (1961). Some examples are culled from the fieldnotes of Gene Buckley (UPenn) and John Gluckman (UCLA). Morpheme breakdowns and forms follow the analysis given in Buckley (1994). The glosses are given in the standard orthography, where /·/ represents a long vowel; /c/ is a palatal affricate; /ṭ/ is an alveo-palatal stop. In the glosses "VB" is a neutral term for a verbal suffix otherwise. In the Americanist tradition, this is t
  Contributor: John Gluckman
   Kayan Yes Ken Manson
   Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande Yes Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kindendeule Yes Deo Ngonyani
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
   Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
   Konni Yes Michael Cahill
+ Korean Yes Chung-hye Han
  Words: Toli-ka ttena-ss-ta.
  Gloss: Toli-NOM leave-PST-DECL
  Translation: Toli left.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Koyo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Kuot No Eva Lindström Subject (or object or an adverbial) can be fronted, but the unmarked order is VSO
  Words: I-sik mikana lə təle u-me ubi.
  Gloss: 3M-DEM man RELR NEG 3M.SBJ-HAB work
  Translation: That man didn't use to work.
  Comment: Basic word order is VSO but subject (or object or adverbial) can be fronted, marked by the relator, lə.
  Contributor: Eva Lindström
  Comment: same as the existential negator (karuk)
  Contributor: Eva Lindström
+ Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
  Words: Hiwa rošt-Ø
  Gloss: Hiwa go.PST-3SG
  Translation: Hiwa went.
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
  Words: bra-ka-t na-chu bo Paris? ba, chu
  Gloss: brother-DEF-2SG NEG-went to Paris? yes, went.he
  Translation: Did yor brother not go to Paris? Yes, He did.
  Comment: Ye
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: i. Asibi sa di-ya ii. Asibi sa di sous iii. Asibi sa di mui sous
  Gloss: i. Asibi PRT eat-UCC.marker ii. Asibi PRT eat yesterday iii. Asibi PRT eat rice yesterday
  Translation: i. ‘Asibi has eaten yesterday’ ii. ‘Asibi ate yesterday’ iii. ‘Asibi ate rice yesterday'
  Comment: Asibi is a proper noun. The /-ya/ morpheme occurs in unaccusaive positions after the verb. It does not surface anytime a noun or an adverb follows the verb.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal Yes Florian Lionnet
+ Lango Yes Arwa Rangwala Noonan, Michael. 1992. A Grammar of Lango., Mouton de Gruyter.
  Words: lócə̀ə̀ àɔ́lɔ̂
  Gloss: man 3S.cough.PROG
  Translation: the man is coughing (Noonan 1992: 126 ex 2b.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Lani Yes Mark Donohue
+ Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
  Words: kham kin laew
  Gloss: Kham eat already
  Translation: Kham has eaten
  Contributor: Alif Silpachai
+ Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Amor crescit
  Gloss: love grow.3SG.PRS
  Translation: Love grows
  Comment: Cicero (Catil. 2,1)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ Latin (Late) Yes Giovanni Pairotti statistically dominant
  Words: omnis populus intrat in Martyrium
  Gloss: all: NOM the people:NOM get: PRS: 3SG into the Martyrium
  Translation: 'all the people get into the Martyrium'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 43.7). 61,2% (my own data) of the main active declarative clauses in the sample show this pattern – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
+ Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
  Words: Layla fall-it bakkir
  Gloss: Layla left-3FSG early
  Translation: Layla left early
  Contributor: Lina Choueiri
+ Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
  Words: Petras miega.
  Gloss: Peter.NOM.SG sleep.PRS.3
  Translation: Peter sleeps.
  Contributor: Felix Thies
   Lubukusu Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
   Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
+ Mankanya Yes Tim Gaved
  Words: nawaap ade
  Gloss: CL2-sell 3SG-eat
  Translation: The seller is eating
  Contributor: Tim Gaved
+ Maori Yes Ray Harlow
  Words: (I) kore ia i paatai
  Gloss: T/A neg IIIsg T/A ask
  Translation: ‘He didn’t ask...’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: Ajri ro re=j tutu.
  Gloss: child the.PL.HUMAN 3PL.AGR=PRS swim
  Translation: The children are swimming.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
+ Masarak Yes Jessica Chen
  Words: daʊd t-iɲɑn-ɑ
  Gloss: Daowd 3SG-ate-PST
  Translation: 'Daowd ate'
  Contributor: Jessica Chen
   Mbuko Yes Richard Gravina
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: Ghi sijt noch ionc ende behoeft sere te wassen
  Gloss: You are.2pl still young and need much to grow
  Translation: you are still young and still need to grow a lot
  Comment: also with full NPs
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
  Words: Kásham təka s-áy
  Translation: Kasham accompanied.
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: Sakina maat.et
  Gloss: Sakina die.3SG.F.PST
  Translation: Sakina died.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore References: Bebey Théodore, (2010), Le movement des syntagmes Qu en Muyang. Université de Yaoundé Bebey Théodore, (in progress), The Cartographic Syntax of Muyang: a Chadic Language Spoken in Northern Cameroon. Ph.D Dissertation, University of Yaoundé 1.
  Words: Lawan á zlapáy
  Gloss: Lawan á zlapáy
  Translation: Lawan talks
  Comment: Muyang belongs to Afro-asiatic languages (Central Chadic A, the Biu-Mandara branch and the Wandala-Mafa-Sukur sub-branch) (see Dieu and al.: 1983, Barreteau and al.: 1984, Boutrais and al.: 2000, Seignobos: 2000, Smith: 2006, Gravina and Smith: 2010 and Bebey: 2010). Muyang is the name given both to the language and its approx 30,000 speakers who live in a village called Mouyengue situated in the southern area of Lake Chad, more particularly in the Far North Region of the Republic of Cameroon, division May
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Kra á zláh
  Gloss: Dog 3sg bow
  Translation: A dog bows.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
  Words: Ahay á adaɗáy
  Gloss: house 3sg shake
  Translation: A house shakes.”
  Comment: See Bebey (2010) for arguments that 3sg is an agreement maker
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N|u Yes Chris Collins
+ Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
  Words: Maria zaniloa
  Gloss: Maria speaks
  Translation: "Maria speaks
  Comment: Language consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Naki Yes Jeff Good
   Navajo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: taŋ.go hɛdege dɔːre tiŋga
  Gloss: stone+CM(go) roll-perf hill+cm(de) down/below+cm(ga)
  Translation: “A stone slid down the hill" (19).
  Comment: All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
   Ndut Yes Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Niuean No Diane Massam
+ Nkore-Kiga Yes Arwa Rangwala Data from Charles Taylor, 1985, Nkore-Kiga, (Croom Helms Descriptive Grammars). Taylor descrives Nkore-Kiga as two dialects variantss (Bantu: E13-14)
  Words: ogw'embaata na Iva-kami gu-f[eer]a aho
  Gloss: of duck and Mr-Rabbit it-die-on there
  Translation: Friendship between Duck and Brer Rabbit finished at that point. Friendship between Duck and Brer Rabbit finished at that point. (Omitted noun: omukago, 'friendship) Taylor
  Comment: General background about the language and the source of the data will appear under Description after migration to terraling. Taylor's original transciption and glosses are generally maintained. Comment on example: It is diffcult to find an unaccusative verb with a lexical subject. In the example abovem there is in Taylor's words "an omitted noun: omukago, 'friendship', the reflex of which can be seen in the noun class marker.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Northern Thai Yes Alif Silpachai
  Words: xaa-caw han laew
  Gloss: 1SGF see already
  Translation: I have seen it
  Contributor: Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Elugi fu
  Gloss: bird fly
  Translation: The bird flew.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Ngba Musa gi bise
  Gloss: Q Musa eat hen
  Translation: 'Did Musa eat the hen?'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Occitan Yes Patrick Sauzet
   Odia (Oriya) Yes Rajat Mohanty
   Okinawan Yes Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English Yes Steve Seegmiller
+ Old French Yes Heather Burnett
  Words: Une musteile vint curant
  Gloss: A weasel came running
  Translation: A weasel came running
  Comment: Marie de France. (1180). 187.3815
  Contributor: Heather Burnett
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: Iohannes quam an liudeo lioht
  Gloss: John came to people.GEN light
  Translation: John came into the world
  Comment: (Heliand 198-199)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ Oluwanga Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: omu-satsa ye-mbanga
  Gloss: 1-man 1-sing
  Translation: The man sings.
  Contributor: Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: Naliaka y-a-lira
  Gloss: Naliaka 3sg.SA-PST-cry.FV
  Translation: Naliaka cried
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah ALS4 SSWL workshop 2016.
  Words: Naliaka y-a-tsia
  Gloss: Naliaka 3sg.SA-PST-go
  Translation: Naliaka went
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   Palue Yes Mark Donohue
+ panjabi Yes Gurprit Bains
  Words:  jeet ne eh kitaab nahin parhee
  Gloss: Jeet erg this book not read
  Translation: Jeet did not read this book
  Comment:  The negation element used in imperatives is 'na'-do'nt.
  Contributor: Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay Yes Mark Donohue
+ Pashto Yes Taylor Roberts
  Words: laylaa gadd-ég-i
  Gloss: Layla dance-INTR-3SG.PRES
  Translation: Layla is dancing.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Piotr śpi.
  Gloss: Piotr.nom sleep.3sg
  Translation: Piotr is sleeping.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Piotr pisze list.
  Gloss: Piotr.nom write.3sg list.acc
  Translation: Piotr is writing a a letter.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: zwyczajny professor
  Gloss: ordinary-nom.s.m professor-nom.s.m
  Translation: an ordinary professor
  Comment: pre-nominal adjectives are typically "qualifying"
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: klon zwyczajny
  Gloss: maple-nom.s.m ordinary-nom.s.m
  Translation: Norway Maple
  Comment: postonominal adjectives are common (but not exclusive) in the taxonomic names of species
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: A co z tymi dwiema paczkami?
  Gloss: and what with those.ins two.ins packages.ins.pl
  Translation: And what about the two packages?
  Comment: follow up on previous context
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi NB: The name will be changed to Portuguese (Brazilian) once we migrate to Terraling
  Words: Marcos chegou
  Gloss: M. arrive.PST
  Translation: Mark arrived
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Q'eqchi' Yes Ava Berinstein The neutral word order for an intransitive is Verb-Subject; subjects can topicalize
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: Maria a sosit.
  Gloss: Mary have.AUX.3 arrived
  Translation: Mary has arrived.
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
+ Russian Yes Stephanie Harves
  Words: Ivan spit.
  Gloss: Ivan.NOM sleeps
  Translation: Ivan is sleeping.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua Yes Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Saramaccan Yes Tonjes Veenstra
+ Sasak Not Yet Set Eli Asikin-Garmager
  Words: aku tepu kon Sukadana
  Gloss: 1 live place Sukadana
  Translation: 'I live in Sukadana'
  Comment: Sukadana, North Lombok
  Contributor:  Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Saweru Yes Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Senaya Yes Laura McPherson
   Serbian Yes Miloje Despic
   Shan Yes Alif Silpachai
+ Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: njam te
  Gloss: horse run.away.PST
  Translation: a horse ran away
  Comment: Recent Past
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: ngeret sente
  Gloss: glass break-PST
  Translation: The glass broke
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: mon lije
  Gloss: child sleep.past
  Translation: The child slept
  Comment: The subject "mon" as a bare noun is interpreted as definite
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: Gjovànni partìu
  Gloss: John left
  Translation: John left
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: Gjovànni arrivàu tàrdu
  Gloss: John arrived late
  Translation: John arrived late
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
+ Spanish Yes Chris Collins
  Words: María regresó
  Gloss: M. return.PST.3SG
  Translation: María came back
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Desapareció mi cartera
  Gloss: dissapear.PST.3SG my wallet
  Translation: My wallet dissapeared
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
  Words: Hunden sover.
  Gloss: dog.DEF sleeps
  Translation: The dog is sleeping
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
+ Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: juchí mimi kawi-h-ti
  Gloss: 1.SG.POSS brother get.drunk-PFV-3
  Translation: 'My brother got drunk'
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
   Telugu Yes Rahul Balusu
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: Mariə arrivó tardə
  Gloss: Mary arrived late
  Translation: Mary arrived late
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so maɲatə tre pizzə
  Gloss: I.am eaten three pizzaMP
  Translation: I ate three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Thai Yes Peter Jenks
  Words: khaw khian nangsuu set laew
  Gloss: 3 write book COMPL COMPL
  Translation: He finished writing a book
  Contributor: Alif Silpachai
  Words: Nít glàp bâan lɛ́ɛw
  Gloss: Nit return home already
  Translation: 'Nit already went back home.'
  Contributor: Peter Jenks
+ Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: worot 'ənās məsəl nəwā-yu wa-s̩ewa-hu 'ət qišot 'ala.
  Gloss: one man with his cattle and his family in small village was.
  Translation: ‘A man lived with his family and his cattle in a hamlet.’
  Comment: Tigre grammar and texts / by Shlomo Raz. P94
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern
   Tiwa Yes Virginia Dawson
+ Tlingit Yes James Crippen
  Words: wé shaawát sha-ka-w-0-dzi-yaa
  Gloss: DEM.MDIST woman head-horiz.surface-PFV-3.A-CLF[+D,s,+I]-comb
  Translation: the woman combed her hair
  Comment: Lit. "the woman hair-combed".
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ Tocharian A Yes Bernhard Koller
  Words: cesäs wu akṣaräsyo
  Gloss: these two syllables.INS
  Translation: with these two syllables
  Comment: source: A 333 a7
  Contributor: Bernhard Koller
+ Tocharian B Yes Bernhard Koller
  Words: snai epiṅkte bramnikte kārpa
  Gloss: without interval brahma-god descended
  Translation: Instantly the god Brahma descended.
  Comment: THT 107 a8
  Contributor: Bernhard Koller
+ Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
  Words: Mòòmíyó=gɛ ɲ̀jó=gɛ=nɛ mànd-áa=ỳ.
  Gloss: scorpion=DEF mat=DEF=OBL disappear-PFV=COP
  Translation: ‘The scorpion disappeared under the mat’ (251: 434b).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
+ Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
  Words: Ca-taj 'u̱nj rihaan nij soj nij nana̱ nihánj
  Gloss: compl-say I to pl you(pl) pl word this
  Translation: I have said these words to you
  Comment: This example shows V Subj PP Obj order. V Subj Obj PP is also available, but this word places some emphasis on the object
  Contributor: George Aaron Broadwell
+ Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: Te kalambe iso no-mai-mo
  Gloss: CORE girl yon 3R-come-PF
  Translation: 'That girl has come.'
  Comment: Pragmatically salient 'that girl'.
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) Yes Edmond Biloa
  Words: Putá a- banga- ḿ
  Gloss: Puta SM- cry- IND
  Translation: Puta is crying
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Abá o-syk
  Gloss: indian (3SG) come.PRS/PST
  Translation: The indian(s) come(s)/came closer (the indian(s) arrive(s)(d))
  Comment: No distinction between 3.SG and 3.PL. Although there is a way of expressing the plural, it is not required.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: O-s-epîak paranã Pindobusu
  Gloss: (3.SG) see.PST/PRS sea Pindobuçu
  Translation: Pindobuçu saw the sea
  Comment: Barbosa (1956: )
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Turkish Yes Ryan Caro
  Words: Kedi uy-uyor.
  Gloss: cat sleep-PROG
  Translation: The cat is sleeping.
  Contributor: Ryan Caro
  Words: Melda var-di Ankara'ya?
  Gloss: Melda arrive-PST Ankara-DAT
  Translation: Melda arrived in Ankara, (right)?
  Comment: Pitch rises on the last syllable to express that it is a polar question.
  Contributor: Deniz Ozyildiz
+ Tuvan Yes Brian Hsu
  Words: ulus keldi
  Gloss: people come-PAST
  Translation: some people came
  Contributor: Brian Hsu
+ Twi Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Ama a-ba.
  Gloss: Ama PRF-come.
  Translation: Ama has come.
  Contributor: Cansada Martin
   Udmurt Yes Orsolya Tanczos
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: Dity tanciujut'
  Gloss: Children dance
  Translation: The children are dancing.
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Uyghur Yes Travis Major
   Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese Yes Binh Ngo
  Words: Lan ngủ rồi.
  Gloss: Lan sleep already
  Translation: "Lan fell asleep."
  Contributor: Binh Ngo
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian Yes Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan Yes Tatiana Nikitina
+ Warlpiri Yes Margit Bowler
  Words: Kurdu ka yula-mi.
  Gloss: child AUX cry-NPST
  Translation: The child is crying.
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
   Welsh No David Willis
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
  Words: Valère komt morgen.
  Gloss: Valère come-1sg tomorrow
  Translation: 'Valère is coming tomorrow.'
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
+ Wolane Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: miš-y bɛ-fɛrɛz wɛrɛd-ɛ
  Gloss: man-DEF LOC-horse go_downwards:PV-3sm
  Translation: ‘The man dismounted from the horse’ (239).
  Comment: The setting and examples are based on the grammar by Meyer, Ronny. 2006. Wolane: Descriptive Grammar of an East Gurage Language (Ethiosemitic). Köln: Köppe.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ Wolof Yes Harold Torrence
  Words: jàng na-a a-y tééré
  Gloss: read FIN-1S indef-PL book
  Translation: I read books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano and Hilda Koopman
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
+ Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
  Words: U-Thole u-fik-ile.
  Gloss: 1a.Thole SM1-arrive-dis.prf
  Translation: Thole arrived/has arrived.
  Comment: Dis refer to the disjoint form.
  Contributor: Xiujie Ma
+ Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
  Words: mɔ́ ghɔ́
  Gloss: child T.go
  Translation: The child went
  Comment: The tense is marked by the high tone on the verb.
  Contributor: Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa Yes Mark Donohue
+ Yiddish Yes Shannon Mooney
  Words: Der man lejent dos bux.
  Gloss: the.M.SG.NOM man read.3SG the.M.ACC book.SG
  Translation: "The man is reading the book."
  Contributor: Shannon Mooney
+ Yoruba Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
  Words: Tádé ra ìwé
  Gloss: Tade buy book
  Translation: ‘Tade bought a book/ books.’
  Comment: 'Tade' here is the subject while 'rà' is the verb. The mid-toned 'ra' in the example is a product of a highly productive tone raising rule in the phonology of the language.
  Contributor: Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Si Jose ya sale.
  Gloss: DET Jose PST leave
  Translation: Jose left.
  Comment: All settings were based on data gathered from a 54 year old female native speaker of Chabacano.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
+ Zulu Yes Esther Park
  Words: U-Sipho u-hamb-ile.
  Gloss: 1a-Sipho 1a-leave-PRF
  Translation: 'Sipho has left.'
  Contributor: Esther Park