A 02_Predicate Adjective Agreement

The property predicate Adjective Agreement has the value "Yes" when there is at least one predicate adjective that shows agreement with the subject noun phrase it is predicated of.

Definition of Predicate Adjective

NA (Not Applicable): NA for this property means that the language does not have predicate adjectives.

English is "No" for Predicate Adjective Agreement, since predicate adjectives show no agreement with the subject noun phrase.

The book is big.
The books are big.
The girl is big.
The girls are big.
The boy is big.
The boys are big.

Icelandic is "Yes" for Predicate Adjective Agreement, since predicate adjectives agree with the subject noun in number, case, and gender.

Bíll-inn er rauð-ur
Car-the.NOM.M.SG is red-NOM.M.SG
"The car is red".

Italian is "Yes" for Predicate Adjective Agreement, since predicate adjectives agree with the subject in number and gender:

quest-o libr-o è ross-o
this-M.SG book-M.SG is red-M.SG
"This book is red."

questi libr-i sono ross-i.
these-M.PL books are red-M.PL
"These books are red"

quest-a macchin-a è ross-a
this-F.SG car-F.SG is red-F.SG
"This car is red."

quest-e macchin-e sono ross-e.
these-F.PL car-F.PL are red-F.PL
"These cars are red"

Note: a large (but minority) class of adjectives (and nouns) in Italian show number alternation but no gender alternation, e.g. intelligente is singular for either gender and intelligenti is plural for either gender.
Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
  Words: gȍme -qà ’a m̀ kı́-ǃkà’a
  Gloss: cow -PL which REL PL-red
  Translation: “red cows” (Collins and Gruber: 143)
  Comment: “Most examples where an adjective modifies a noun in English, such as “a big house” or “an ugly man” are expressed inǂHȍã as relative clauses with a predicate adjective” (Collins and Gruber: 142). The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
  Words: ǂkı̆-sı̏ ǂhà“ma -nǀne kı́- ǃkà’a
  Gloss: bird-DIM wing -PL PL- red
  Translation: “The bird’s wings are red” (Collins and Gruber: 54).
  Comment: "We analyze these forms as predicate adjectives, despite the absence of a copular verb (cf., “I am happy.” in English), because they cannot be put into either the progressive or the perfective (which distinguishes them from verbs)" (Collins and Gruber: 55). The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Abaza No Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: kòfí́ lè klátà
  Gloss: Koffi Aux (avoir) livre
  Translation: Koffi a un livre.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: 1. Obaa no yɛ kɔkɔɔ. 2. M- maa no yɛ nkɔnkɔ nkɔnkɔɔ
  Gloss: 1. woman Def Cop red. 2. pl- woman Def Cop pl- red pl red
  Translation: 1. The lady is light-skinned. 2. ‘The ladies are light-skinned’
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: Ky libër është i kuq.
  Gloss:  this.NOM,M,SG book is agr(NOM,M,SG) red
  Translation: This book is red.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: lɨğğ-occ-u tɨlɨllɨk' n-aččäw
  Gloss: child-pl-def big.pl be-3pl
  Translation: 'The children are big'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: Hē thḗra kalḕ éstai
  Gloss: ART-NOM.F.SG hunt-NOM.SG nice-NOM.F.SG be-IND.FUT
  Translation: The hunt will be successful
  Comment: Xenophon, Cyropaedia, 2.4.20
  Contributor: Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Babanki No Pius Akumbu
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi No Claire Bowern
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: malaŋ má yé ma-kɛ́ŋí
  Gloss:  6 onoins 6SM be.PRES AGR-big
  Translation: ‘The onions are bigs’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
+ Bellinzonese Yes Chris Collins
  Words: La Maria l=è bèla
  Gloss: the Mary she=is pretty.F
  Translation: Mary is pretty.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
  Words: Al Mario l=è bèl
  Gloss:  the Mario he=be.PRS.3SG pretty.M.SG
  Translation:  Mario is handsome.
  Contributor: Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng Yes Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Priyanka Biswas
+ Bole Yes Alhaji Gimba
  Words: (1) gam ye siri (2) gamshine ye asse
  Gloss: (1) ram DEF big (2) ram (PL) the big (PL)
  Translation: (1) The ram is big (2) The rams are big
  Comment: Bole has no copula that links the Subject with the predicate.
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
+ Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
  Words: As montanhas são altas
  Gloss: The.F.PL mountain.F.PL be.PRS.3PL high.F.PL
  Translation: The mountains are high
  Contributor: Bruna Moreira
   Breton No Steve Hewitt
+ Bulgarian Yes Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: Dəshterja-ta na Irina e xubav-a
  Gloss: daughter-DEF.F.SG of Irina be.3.SG.PRS pretty-F.SG
  Translation: Irina's daughter is pretty
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: Deca-ta na Irina sa xubav-i
  Gloss: children-DEF.PL of Irina be.3.PL.PRS pretty-PL
  Translation: Irina's children are pretty
  Comment: Note that only gender and number are copied on to the predicate adjective from the subject; definiteness is not.
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burgenland-Romani Yes Michelle McComb
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
   Chalcatongo Mixtec No Jess Combs
   Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw NA Pam Munro Chickasaw does not have adjectives, per se, only stative verbs. Some adjectival stative verbs partially or fully supplete for number.
   Chol Yes Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: To vivli-on en prasin-on.
  Gloss: the.NEUT.NOM.SG book-NEUT.NOM.SG is green-NEUT.NOM.SG
  Translation: The book is green.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Pavel Caha
  Words: Ta žena byla unavená.
  Gloss: woman.nom was.fem tired.nom.fem.sg
  Translation: The woman was tired
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: Ty ženy byly unavený.
  Gloss: The women were tired.nom.pl
  Translation: The women were tired
  Comment: Set against the first example, we observe variation of the adjective depending on the number of the subject. Note that the particular agreement ending (-ý) is colloquial. The literary language would have -é on its place.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: Ten chlap byl unavenej.
  Gloss: the guy.nom was tired.nom.sg.masc
  Translation: The guy was tired
  Comment: Set aginst the first example, this example shows gender agreement. The particular ending (-ej) is colloquial; the literary language would have -ý on its place.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
+ Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
  Words: a miri e la wogi BUT a mie e la wogiri
  Gloss: def rope be foc long but def rope.PL be foc long.PL
  Translation: The rope is long BUT the ropes are long
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
   Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: chitabu ni chi-ziho, meza ni n-ziho
  Gloss: CL7.book COP CL7-heavy, CL9.table COP CL9-heavy
  Translation: the book is heavy, the table is heavy
  Comment: The copula can also agree with the noun class to describe temporary states: chitabu chi tayari (the book is ready), meza i tayari (the table is ready). NB 'tayari' (ready) is an invariable adjective.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
   Egyptian Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   Estonian Yes Mark Norris
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: Os meus filhos são felizes.
  Gloss: the.M.PL my.M.PL son.PL be-indiv-level.PRES.3PL happy.PL
  Translation: My children are happy.
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese Yes Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Fijian No Zhenyu Sun
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: Talo-t ovat iso-t.
  Gloss: house-NOM.PL are big-NOM.PL
  Translation: The houses are big.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Chris Collins
  Words: La fille sont belles.
  Gloss: DEF-DET.F.SG girl-F.SG be-PRS beautiful-F.SG
  Translation: The girl is beautiful.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna Yes Pam Munro
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German No Martin Haspelmath
   Ghɔmáĺá' No Francine Moguo
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: I Eleni ine adinati.
  Gloss: the-NOM.F.SG Eleni-NOM.F.SG is slim-NOM.F.SG
  Translation: Eleni is slim.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greek (Pontic) Yes Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hanga No Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa Yes Russell Schuh
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: ha-dgalim hay-u 'adum-im
  Gloss: the-flag-M.PL be-PST red-M.PL
  Translation: The flags were red
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: hannachash haya 'arum (Gen 3,1)
  Gloss: the serpent-M.SG be-PST subtil-M.SG
  Translation: the serpent was (more) subtil
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi Yes Anoop Mahajan
   Hittite Yes Mattyas Huggard
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Ez-ek a fekete kalap-ok rondá-k.
  Gloss: this-PL[NOM] the black hat-PL[NOM] ugly-PL
  Translation: `These black hats are ugly'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
+ Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
  Words: Hann er spennt-ur
  Gloss: 3SG.M be.3SG.PRS excited.SG.M
  Translation: He is excited.
  Contributor: Jim Wood
  Words: bíllinn er rauð-ur
  Gloss: car.the.SG.M.NOM be.3SG red-SG.M.NOM
  Translation: The car is red
  Contributor: Jim Wood
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   Ilokano No Jeremy Rafal
+ imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
  Words: wasi-kuna-ka jatun-guna-mi
  Gloss: house-pl-top big-pl-foc
  Translation: 'The houses are big'
  Comment: not clear that this is not 'The houses are big ones'....
  Contributor: UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Irish No Bridget Nixdorf
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun No Iris Wu
   Italian Yes Chris Collins
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Tonjes Veenstra
   Japanese No Chris Collins
   Jingulu NA Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
+ Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) Yes Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: mane doDDa-du // mane doDDa-d-aagi ide
  Gloss: house big-3n.sg. // house big-3n.sg.-AAGI be pres.3n.sg.
  Translation: The house is big; the house is (as) big
  Comment: A bit tricky to set. See also see properties (14, 20, 22): Adj is marked for agreement (NG, fixed 3P) in predicative contexts in copular constructions with non overt copula [ signifying individual level predication]. This agreement is also a nominalizer (derives gerunds). Copular constructions with overt copula signify stage level predication (not demonstrated here: demonstrable for predicates be true, be correct), and nominalized (agreeing) adjective is marked with –aagi, lit. ‘having been/ become.
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   Karachay No Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
+ Kinande Yes Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
  Words: á-ba-aná ni ba-búya
  Gloss: AUG-2-child be 2-beautiful
  Translation: 'The children are beautiful.'
  Comment: The predicate adjective agrees in class with the subject. This copula is an invariant form
  Contributor: Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kindendeule Yes Deo Ngonyani
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
+ Kom No Richard Kwamong
  Words: afol a n- jof- a
  Gloss: cap AGR n-nice-a
  Translation: The cap is nice
  Comment: Nice has verbal morphology (n and a), and does not agree with the subject. be good is "sI- jòf' 'sI be" to be bad, but bI: 'bad', sI musI 'to get old, but mu"old".
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Konni No Michael Cahill
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: i. Yir la ɛ tita’ada ii. Ya la ɛ tita’da
  Gloss: i. house.NC Def is big ii. House.pl.NC DEF are big.pl.ADJ
  Translation: i. ‘the house is big’ ii. 'the houses are big'
  Comment: Predicative adjectives also agree in number with the noun they modify.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal NA Florian Lionnet
+ Lango Yes Arwa Rangwala There is certainly reason to set up adjectives as a class separate from verbs even though they have many characteristics in common with verbs, more certainly than their English counterparts (Noonan 1992: 105).
  Words: ɲə̀ŋ dwôŋ
  Gloss: crocodile large.SG
  Translation: The crocodile is large (Noonan 1992: 104 ex. 3.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: ómɪ̀ttò dɔ̀kɔ̀ bɛ̀r
  Gloss: 1P.want.PROG become.INFIN good
  Translation: we want to be good (Noonan 1992: 105 ex. 4)
  Comment: Embedded under the want infinitive, the plural form bècò cannot be used, suggesting the presence of a singular PRO.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Lani Yes Mark Donohue
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Words: locus autem ipse satis gratus est
  Gloss: place:NOM then that:NOM quite pleasant:NOM is
  Translation: 'that place is quite pleasant'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 7.8) - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
+ Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
  Words: Ši knyga yra nuobodi.
  Gloss: DEM.NOM.SG.F book.NOM.SG be.PRS.3 boring.NOM.SG.F
  Translation: This book is boring.
  Contributor: Felix Thies
  Words: Šis filmas yra nuobodus.
  Gloss: DEM.NOM.SG.M film.NOM.SG be.PRS.3 boring.NOM.SG.M
  Translation: This film is boring.
  Contributor: Felix Thies
   Lubukusu Yes Aggrey Wasike
+ Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: torrono emuny
  Gloss: bad.acc.sg sg.fem.rhino.nom
  Translation: lit. A rhino is (in general) bad. Rhinos are mean.
  Comment: when used predicatively the case form (realized as a tonal pattern) is the unmarked accusative. This sentence can only have a generic reading.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Mandarin No Arthur Wang
   Maori Yes Ray Harlow
   Marshallese NA Heather Willson Sturman
+ Masarak Yes Jessica Chen
  Words: indʒe-r kədi-dʒer je
  Gloss: dogs-PL big-PL COP
  Translation: ‘The three dogs are big’
  Contributor: Jessica Chen
   Middle Dutch No Gertjan Postma
   Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: il.moganniiy.a mashhour.a
  Gloss: DEF.singer.F famous.F
  Translation: The singer is famous.
  Comment: The copula is unpronounced in the present tense.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
+ Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
  Words: akostik-eh ne chichi-meh
  Gloss: yellow-pl those dog-PL
  Translation: ‘those dogs are yellow’
  Comment: Certain predicate adjectives require pluralization (if they have a plural form) for number agreement. Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
   nda'nda' No Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
   Ndut Yes Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce Yes Amy Rose Deal
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
+ Old English Yes Steve Seegmiller
  Words: God hi gesceop ealle gode
  Gloss: God them ACC-PL created all ACC-PL good ACC-PL
  Translation: "God created all of them good
  Comment: In predicative use the adjective is not always declined
  Contributor: Willem Koopman
+ Old French Yes Heather Burnett
  Words: Un chevalier y ot mout sage, riches estoit,
  Gloss: A knight there was very wise, rich.NOM was,
  Translation: There was a very wise knight, he was rich
  Comment:  Anonymous [1150], Roman de Thèbes. p.110
  Contributor: Heather Burnett
  Words: Un chevalier y ot mout sage, riches estoit,
  Gloss: A knight there was very wise, rich.NOM was,
  Translation: There was a very wise knight, he was rich
  Comment:  Anonymous [1150], Roman de Thèbes. p.110. (The -s on riches is the agreement)
  Contributor: Heather Burnett
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden Some gender neutralization occurs. See Hock, Hans Henrich (2009). Default, animacy, avoidance. In Vit Bubenik, John Hewson & Sarah Rose (eds.), Grammatical Change in Indo-European Languages, 29–42. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
  Words: that thia muoder thes mendendia sind
  Gloss: that the.NOM.F.PL mothers.NOM.F.PL that.GEN glad.NOM.PL are
  Translation: that the mothers are glad of that
  Comment: (Heliand 5526)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: I-ngubo i-no ni i-mali
  Gloss: C9-dress Agr-this is Agr-black
  Translation: This dress is black
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Tsi-ngubo tsi-no ni tsi-mali
  Gloss: c10-dress 10-these are 10-black
  Translation: These dresses are black
  Comment: Black shows plural agreement/concord
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   Palue No Mark Donohue
   panjabi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
+ Pashto Yes Taylor Roberts
  Words: dee tégi alek khwla wétsha wa
  Gloss: POSS thirsty.M.OBL.SG boy.M.OBL.SG mouth.F.DIR.SG dry.F.DIR.SG be.PST.IPFV.3SG.F
  Translation: The thirsty boy's mouth was dry.
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 86. Adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in gender, number, and case.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
  Words: dee tégo alekáano khwlee wétshee wee
  Gloss: POSS thirsty.M.OBL.PL boy.M.OBL.PL mouth.F.DIR.PL dry.F.DIR.PL be.PST.IPFV.3PL.F
  Translation: The thirsty boys' mouths were dry.
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 86. Adjectives agree with the nouns they modify in gender, number, and case.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Książka jest czerwona.
  Gloss: book-nom.sg.f is red-nom.sg.f
  Translation: The book is red.
  Comment: agreement in number, gender, and case
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Książki są czerwone.
  Gloss: books-nom.pl.f sre red-nom.non-v.f
  Translation: The books are red.
  Comment: Polish has 3 genders in the singular (masculine, feminine, neuter) and 2 genders in the plural ('virile' for masculine human nouns, 'non-virile' for everything else).
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Os animais são doentes
  Gloss: the.M.PL animal.PL be.3SG.PL sick.PL
  Translation: The animals are sick
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: Fetele sunt inteligente.
  Gloss: girls-THE.PL.F be.PL intelligent.PL.F
  Translation: The girls are intelligent.
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
+ Russian Yes Stephanie Harves
  Words: Èti knigi interesnye.
  Gloss: these books.NOM.PL interesting.NOM.PL
  Translation: These books are interesting.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan Yes Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Saramaccan No Tonjes Veenstra
   Saweru Yes Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Senaya Yes Laura McPherson
   Serbian Yes Miloje Despic
+ Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: pon pa nda tam tam-shi
  Gloss: children copula very tall tall-plural agreement
  Translation: the children are very tall
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: sta màkina è bbèlla
  Gloss: this carFS is beutifulFS
  Translation: this car is beautiful
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: sti màkini su bbèlli
  Gloss: these carFP are beautiful FP
  Translation: these car are beautiful
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
+ Spanish Yes Chris Collins
  Words: María está enferm-a
  Gloss: M. be.PRS.3SG sick-F
  Translation: María is sick
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: Juan está enferm-o
  Gloss: J. be.PRS.3SG sick-M
  Translation: Juan is sick
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
  Words: bilen är röd -- äpplet är rött
  Gloss: car.DEF is red.N-N.SG -- apple.DEF is red.N.SG
  Translation: the car is red -- the apple is red
  Comment: Predicative adjectives agree with the subject in gender and number. There is no agreement for definiteness, cf. property: A 01_Attributive Adjective Agreement
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: bilarna är röda -- äpplena är röda
  Gloss: car.PL.DEF are red.PL -- apple.PL.DEF are red.PL
  Translation: the cars are red -- the apples are red
  Comment: Predicative adjectives agree with the noun in gender and number. In plural, the forms look the same.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: Ma-ta-talino ang (mga) bata.
  Gloss: Pre-Red-smart Abs (Pl) child
  Translation: 'The children are smart.'
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
   Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: ʃtu timballə e bbonə
  Gloss: this timballo.M.SG is good.M.SG
  Translation: this timballo is good
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: ʃti timbillə e bbunə
  Gloss: these timballo.M.PL is good.M.PL
  Translation: these timballos are good
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Tigre NA Zhenyu Sun
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern predicate adjectives may receive person agreement.
   Tiwa No Virginia Dawson
   Tlingit No James Crippen
   Tocharian A Yes Bernhard Koller
   Tocharian B Yes Bernhard Koller
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan Yes Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
+ Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: Te ikita to-leama
  Gloss: CORE 1PL 1PL.R-good
  Translation: We're fine
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa In their predicative use, color adjectives themselves have additional morphology which makes them verbal: they show the regular subject agreement. Other adjectives cannot be used in this way but always modify a N
  Words: Putá a- mú akana okutu
  Gloss: Puta SM- is big woman
  Translation: Puta is a big woman
  Comment: The adjective agrees but it is not used predicatively
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words:  putá a-mú osya *(okutu)
  Gloss: Puta SM- MU beautiful woman
  Translation: Puta is beautiful
  Comment: Beautiful/ big etc. cannot be used predicatively: the head noun is oblgatory
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: onyeme ; wanga-(o+anga); orafa; ogira; opuma (etc)
  Gloss: to be beautiful; to be tall; to be black or dark; to be white (etc)
  Comment: Tuki also has some verbs that express ideas/notions that are semantically encoded by predicate adjectives
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: mwana wáá a- rafa-ḿ
  Gloss: child his/her SM tall-INC
  Translation: his/her child is tall
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: a. Putá a- mú fíítiti b. vakutu vá- mú fííititi
  Gloss: a. Puta SM-is back b. woman are black
  Translation: a. Puta is black b. the woman are black
  Comment: Color adjectives are postnominal, and never agree; they can be used predicatively (whereas the prenominal adjectives cannot not)
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: a.matúwa ódzú a- mú púú b. vamatúwa ava vá- mú púú
  Gloss:  a. this car is white b. cars these SM are white
  Translation: a. This car is white b. These cars are white
  Comment: white is invariant.
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Murat Kural
   Tuvan NA Brian Hsu
   Twi No Cansada Martin
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: cej portret harnyj
  Gloss: this.SG.M portrait.SG.M nice.SG.M
  Translation: this portrait is nice
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata NA Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian Yes Zvjezdana Vrzic
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
   Welsh No David Willis
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
+ Wolane Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: yɛ-ɛsɛ-gār-nim yɛgɛdɛrɛ-n
  Gloss: GEN-DSTR-house-POSS:3p big-COP:3sm
  Translation: 'the house of each of them is big' (153).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa Yes Mark Donohue
   Yiddish No Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano No Grace Gaspardo
  Words: El bisicleta colorao.
  Gloss: the bicycle red
  Translation: The bicycle is red.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
  Words: El maga bisicleta colorao.
  Gloss: the PL bicycle red
  Translation: The bicycles are red.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
+ Zulu Yes Esther Park
  Words: Um-gwaqo u-banzi.
  Gloss: 3-road 3-wide
  Translation: 'The road is wide.'
  Contributor: Esther Park