Extra Examples

Examples that are associated with this property are not associated with any other property in the database.
Contributed by: Chris Collins
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
   Afrikaans NA Theresa Biberauer
   Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
   Amharic NA Cristina Guardiano
   Ancient Greek NA Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) NA Cristina Guardiano
   Bafut NA Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
   Bambara No Hilda Koopman
   Bandial NA Cristina Guardiano
   Bardi Yes Chris Collins
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
   Bellinzonese Yes Chris Collins
   Beng No Denis Paperno
+ Bole No Alhaji Gimba
  Words: gam ama siri
  Gloss: ram that big
  Translation: That ram is big
  Comment: When the demonstrative precedes the adjective, the adjective is a PREDICATE adjective. Note that Bole has no copula to mark lexical predicate.
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
+ Brazilian Portuguese Yes Chris Collins
  Words: João não gost-a d-ele.
  Gloss: João NEG like-PRS.3SG of-him.GEN
  Translation: João does not like him.
  Contributor: ---
  Words: Minhas irmãs
  Gloss: My.1SG.POSS.F.PL sister.F.PL
  Translation: My sisters
  Contributor: Bruna Moreira
  Words: Est-á n-a hora de dizer-mos tchau.
  Gloss: be-3SG on-DEF.F hour of say.INF-1PL bye
  Translation: It's time (for us) to say good-bye.
  Comment: The inflected infinitive is optional here.
  Contributor: ---
   Breton Yes Chris Collins
   Bulgarian Yes Iliana Krapova
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
  Words: En Joan diu que vindrà demà
  Gloss: the.SG.M John say.3SG that come.3SG.FUT tomorrow
  Translation: John says that he will come tomorrow
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: El noi el=veu-ré demà
  Gloss: the.SG.M boy ACC.3SG.M=see-1SG.FUT tomorrow
  Translation: I will see the boy tomorrow
  Comment: the object clitic has to obligatorily precede the finite verb
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: El noi el=veu-ré demà
  Gloss: the.SG.M boy ACC.3SG.M=see-1SG.FUT tomorrow
  Translation: I will see the boy tomorrow
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: el noi i la noia
  Gloss: the.SG.M boy and the.SG.F girl
  Translation: the boy and the girl
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Que vin-dràs demà?
  Gloss: Q come-2SG.FUT tomorrow
  Translation: Will you come tomorrow?
  Comment: The particle is optional in Catalan, but its use is widespread
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: En Joan pregunta que qui ha vingut
  Gloss: the.SG.M John ask.3SG that who have.PRS.3SG come.PTCP
  Translation: John asks who has come?
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: dos nois i dues noies
  Gloss: two boy.PL and two.F girl.PL
  Translation: two boys and two girls
  Comment: agreement is limited to one and two
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: *Avui menjarà la noia les pomes
  Gloss: today eat.FUT.3SG the.SG girl the.PL apples
  Translation: Today the girl will eat the apples
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Un noi
  Gloss: INDF boy
  Translation: a boy
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Un noi i una noia
  Gloss: INDF.M boy and INDF.F girl
  Translation: a boy and a girl
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Compra si vols comprar
  Gloss: buy.IMP.2SG if want.PRS.2SG buy.INF
  Translation: buy if you want to buy
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Saps si en Joan ha vingut
  Gloss: know.PRS.2SG if the John has come
  Translation: Do you know if John has come?
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Ell menja avui i ella menjarà demà
  Gloss: he eat.PRS.3SG today and she eat.FUT.3SG tomorrow
  Translation: He eats today and she will eat tomorrow
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: De nen anava a escola cada dia
  Gloss: of child, he go.PST.IPFV.3SG to school each day
  Translation: As a child, I used to go to school every day
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Vaig a viure a Barcelona
  Gloss: go.PRS.1SG to live.INF to Barcelona
  Translation: I'm going to live in Barcelona
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Amb la Maria
  Gloss: with the Mary
  Translation: With Mary
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: El meu pare i la meva mare
  Gloss: the.SG.M POSS.SG.M father and the.SG.F POSS.SG.F mother
  Translation: my father and my mother
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Les tres noies
  Gloss: the.PL.F three girl.PL
  Translation: the three girls
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: si arrib-es tard, truca=m
  Gloss: COND arrive-PRS.2SG late, call=me
  Translation: if you arrive late, call me
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: menja-r-em
  Gloss: eat-FUT-1PL
  Translation: we will eat
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: A la Maria, li=dona-ré el llibre
  Gloss: to the.SG.F Mary DAT.SG=give.FUT.1SG the.SG.M book
  Translation: I will give the book to Mary
  Comment: This is a case of clitic left-dislocation
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: *La=veu-rem a la noi-a
  Gloss: ACC.3SG.F=see.FUT.1PL to the.SG.FEM girl
  Translation: We will see the girl
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: La Maria i la Marta hi=aniran i ens=trucaran
  Gloss: the.SG.F Mary and the.SG.F Marta LOC=go.FUT.3PL and ACC.PL=call.FUT.3PL
  Translation: Mary and Marta will go there and will call us
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Vingué
  Gloss: come.PST.3SG
  Translation: he came
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Ani-ré amb en Pere i amb la Maria
  Gloss: Go-FUT.1SG with the.SG.M Peter and with the.SG.F Mary
  Translation: I will go with Peter and Mary
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Vingué
  Gloss: come.PST.3SG
  Translation: he came
  Comment: expresses an action finished
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: estic menjant
  Gloss: be.1SG eat.PTCP.PROG
  Translation: I am eating
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: El=vull trencar
  Gloss: ACC.3SG.M=want.PRS.1SG break.INF
  Translation: I want to break it
  Comment: this is a case of clitic climbing
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: En Joan ha marxat / La Maria ha marxat
  Gloss: the.SG.M John have.3SG leave.PTCP / the.SG.F Mary have.3SG leave.PTCP
  Translation: John has left / Mary has left
  Comment: Passives are not considered past participles
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Qui ha vingut?
  Gloss: who have.3SG come.PTCP?
  Translation: Who has come?
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: El llibre se-rà editat la setmana vinent
  Gloss: the.SG.M book.SG.M be-3SG.FUT publish.PTCP the.SG.F week.SG.F next
  Translation: The book will be published next week
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: A Barcelona, hi=aniré demà
  Gloss: to Barcelona, LOC=go.1SG.FUT tomorrow
  Translation: I'll go to Barcelona tomorrow
  Comment: This is a case of clitic left-dislocation
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: De llibre-s, en=vull tres
  Gloss: of book-PL PART=want.1SG.PRS three
  Translation: I want three books
  Comment: PART = Partitive. This is a case of clitic left-dislocation
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Li=diré a la Maria que vingui
  Gloss: DAT.3SG=tell.1SG.FUT to the.SG.F Mary that come.3SG.SBJV
  Translation: I'll tell Mary to come
  Comment: Colloquial catalan, unlike normative Catalan, shows dative doubling with full DPs. It never shows accusative doubling
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
  Words: Que vin-drà en Joan demà?
  Gloss: Q come-3SG.FUT the.SG.M John tomorrow
  Translation: Will John come tomorrow?
  Contributor: Txuss Martin
+ Chalcatongo Mixtec Yes Jess Combs Plural marking is always optional, though when nominal plurality is marked, it is expressed with a free plural morhpeme which follows the head noun and/or a verbal prefix.
  Words: Káisiokú táa=rí xináʔa
  Gloss: Be.here.PL parents=1 plural
  Translation: ‘My parents are here.’
  Contributor: Jess Combs
   Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Chol Yes Chris Collins
   Cypriot Greek NA Cristina Guardiano
   Czech No Pavel Caha
+ Dagaare Yes Chris Collins
  Words: N ngmE o la
  Gloss: 1SG beat 3SG FOC
  Translation: I beat him
  Comment: Like French, Dagaare has weak and strong pronouns eg o /he/him' and onO 'HE/HIM'
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
  Words: a dOO
  Gloss: DEF man
  Translation: The man
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
  Words: a dOO but also a pOgO
  Gloss: DEF man DEF woman
  Translation: the man the woman
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
  Words: a bie gbiree la bee
  Gloss: DEF child sleep.PERF FOC PARTICLE
  Translation: Is the child asleep?
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
  Words: a bie waE la bee (o ba wa)
  Gloss: def child come.PERF PART (def NEG come)
  Translation: Has the child come or (he has not come)
  Comment: Yes/no questions resemble thus resemble choice quesions in Chinese and in either clause the subject preceeds the finite verb
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
  Words: Bong la ka fo dire
  Gloss: what FOC COMP 2SG eat.IMP
  Translation: What are you eating
  Comment: But like echo questions in English, we can have in-situ structures such as: fo dire la bong?
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
  Words: bie kanga
  Gloss: child INDEF
  Translation: a certain child
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
  Words: o mang waE GyerEbaa daa
  Gloss: def habit come Jirapa market
  Translation: He habitually/usually/always comes to Jirapa market
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
  Words: A bie gange la a die poO
  Gloss: DEF child lie FOC DEF inside
  Translation: The child is lying inside the room
  Comment: poO, Postp, 'inside' is related to poO, N, 'stomach'
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
   Dida Lakota (diéko) NA Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Digo NA Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No Hilda Koopman
   Dutch Yes Chris Collins
+ English Yes Chris Collins
  Words: I saw him
  Gloss: 1sg.NOM see.PST 3sg
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: the man left
  Gloss: DEF man leave.PST
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: John did-n't see, Mary
  Gloss: John do.PST-NEG see Mary
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: did John leave
  Gloss: do.PST John leave
  Translation: Did John leave?
  Comment: There is only subject-aux inversion, no separate particle.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   European Portuguese Yes Chris Collins
+ Ewe Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Kofi kpO-E
  Gloss: Kofi see.past-3sg
  Translation: Kofi saw him/her/it.
  Comment: Capital 'O' and capital 'E' stand for symbols in Ewe that require a specific font to produced in a word processor.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: Ntsu la me va haDe o
  Gloss: man the Neg1 come yet Neg2
  Translation: The man has not yet come.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: Kofi me kpO Ama o
  Gloss: Kofi Neg1 see.past Ama Neg2
  Translation: Kofi didn't see Ama.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: e Du nu a
  Gloss: 2sg eat.past thing Q
  Translation: Did you eat?
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: Kofi gblO be Ama le ha dzi
  Gloss: Kofi say.past Compl Ama Prog song sing.prog
  Translation: Kofi said that Ama is singing.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
   Farefari Yes Chris Collins
   Faroese Yes Chris Collins
   Finnish No Hilda Koopman
+ French Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Paul me voit
  Gloss: Paul 1sg see.pres.3sg
  Translation: Paul sees me.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: le professeur chante
  Gloss: Def professor sing.pres.3sg
  Translation: The professor sings
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: la femme est arrive.e en retard
  Gloss: Def woman be.3sg.pres arrive.part.fem late
  Translation: The woman arrived late.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: Je ne sais pas
  Gloss: 1sg Neg1 know.1sg.pres Neg2
  Translation: I don't know.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
  Words: Jean dit que Marie chante
  Gloss: Jean say.pres.3sg Compl Marie sing.pres.3sg
  Translation: Jean says that Marie sings.
  Contributor: Chris Collins
   Frisian (West Frisian) NA Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician NA Cristina Guardiano
   Garifuna No Hilda Koopman
   georgian NA Cristina Guardiano
   German Yes Chris Collins
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek Yes Chris Collins
   Greek (Cappadocian) NA Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) NA Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) NA Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Pontic) NA Cristina Guardiano
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Hilda Koopman
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hanga NA Geoffrey Hunt
   Hausa No Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
   Hindi Yes Chris Collins
+ Hixkaryana NA Laura Kalin
  Words: okomkurusu biryekomo heno y-osk-eko
  Gloss: bushmaster.snake child dead 3SBJ.3OBJ-bite-RECPST.COMPLETIVE
  Translation: It was a bushmaster snake that bit the child.
  Comment: This is an example with a focused subject, in which case the subject gets fronted before the object. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 74)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   Hungarian Yes Chris Collins
   Ibibio No Hilda Koopman
+ Icelandic Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Dó hann?
  Gloss: Die.3SG.PST 3SG.M
  Translation: Did he die?
  Contributor: Jim Wood
  Words: Ég er búinn að fara þangað
  Gloss: 1SG be.1SG finished.M.SG.NOM to go there.to
  Translation: I´ve already gone there.
  Comment: According to Thráinsson 2007 (pp. 12), has a resultative reading, and is often odd with words like 'never'.
  Contributor: Jim Wood
+ Ilokano Yes Jeremy Rafal
  Contributor: Jeremy Rafal
  Words: Ni Juan ti g~imm~atang iti ayayam
  Gloss: PN Juan DET ACTVOC.PFV~bought OBL toy
  Translation: It was John who bought a toy.
  Comment: focus construction (pseudocleft)
  Contributor: Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua NA UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian Yes Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic No Hilda Koopman
   Italian Yes Chris Collins
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) NA Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Reggiano) NA Cristina Guardiano
   Japanese Yes Chris Collins
   Jingulu Yes Chris Collins
   K'iche' NA Cristina Guardiano
   Karachay Yes Steve Seegmiller Gender does not exist as a grammatical category. There is no case or number agreement a head and its modifiers.
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Korean Yes Chung-hye Han
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) NA Cristina Guardiano
   Kusunda NA Cristina Guardiano
   Laal NA Florian Lionnet
   Lani Yes Mark Donohue
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) NA Cristina Guardiano
   Lebanese Arabic No Lina Choueiri
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
+ Malagasy Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: Misy zazakely betsaka ao an-trano
  Gloss: PRES.AT.exist child many THERE LOC-house
  Translation: There are many children in the house
  Comment: This is an example of an existential.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
+ Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: ni chi le ma
  Gloss: 2sg eat Perf Q
  Translation: Did you eat?
  Comment: .ma. occurs whenever the sentence is a yes-no question. .Perf. stands for perfective aspect.
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
  Words: Lisi shuo Zhangsan zai changge
  Gloss: Lisi say Zhangsan Prog sing.song
  Translation: Lisi says that Zhangsan is singing.
  Comment: Nothing between the matrix verb and the embedded clause.
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
   Maori Yes Chris Collins
   Marshallese NA Heather Willson Sturman
   Middle Dutch NA Gertjan Postma
   Miya NA Michael A. Estrada
   Moroccan Arabic NA Cristina Guardiano
   Muyang NA Bebey Théodore
   N|u Yes Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) NA Cristina Guardiano
   Naki No Jeff Good
   nda'nda' No Christelle Niguieu Toukam
   Neapolitan NA Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali NA Cristina Guardiano
   Norwegian No Hilda Koopman
   Nupe Yes Chris Collins
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Oevdalian Yes Chris Collins
   Old English NA Willem Koopman
   Old French NA Heather Burnett
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden These examples illustrate the rare but possible option of null subjects in Old Saxon, particularly in main clauses and in the third person. See section 5.2.5 of Walkden, George (2014). Syntactic Reconstruction and Proto-Germanic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  Words: Giuuitun im thô eft te Hierusalem iro sunu sôkean
  Gloss: went REFL.DAT to Jerusalem their son seek.INF
  Translation: They then went to Jerusalem to seek their son
  Comment: (Heliand 806-807)
  Contributor: George Walkden
  Words: lîbes uueldi ina bilôsien, of he mahti gilêstien sô
  Gloss: life.GEN would him take if he could achieve so
  Translation: he would take his life if he could
  Comment: (Heliand 1142)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Chris Collins
   Palue Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Pashto Yes Chris Collins
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al NA Cristina Guardiano
+ Romanian Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Maria ne vede
  Gloss: Mary us sees
  Translation: Mary sees us
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
  Words: Copilul a venit.
  Gloss: child.the have.3SG come.PST.PTCP
  Translation: The child came.
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
+ Russian Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Kto prišël?
  Gloss: who come.3SG.PST
  Translation: Who came?
  Contributor: Jillian Kozyra
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
+ Shupamem Yes Jillian Kozyra
  Words: a yun Njoya matwa
  Gloss: it buy.PST Njoya car
  Translation: NJOYA bought a car.
  Comment: The verb precedes the subject when the subject is focussed.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian NA Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Chris Collins
   Spanish Yes Chris Collins
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Chris Collins
   Tagalog NA Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
   Tarascan Yes Chris Collins
   Teramano NA Cristina Guardiano
   Thai NA Cristina Guardiano
   Titan Yes Chris Collins
   Tlingit Yes Chris Collins
   Tommo-So NA Cristina Guardiano
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Tukang Besi Yes Chris Collins
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Hilda Koopman
   Twi Yes Chris Collins
   Ukrainian NA Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian NA Zvjezdana Vrzic
   West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolof NA Harold Torrence
   Yémba NA Elsie Mawamba
   Yiddish NA Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori