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Neg 03_Standard Negation is Prefix

Definition
Standard Negation is Prefix is set to yes if the negation marker has the characteristics of a prefix.

Definition of Standard Negation

Example
In Slovak (West Slavonic), standard negation is expressed by a prefix ne- (Short, 1993: 577)

a. Mysl-ím
think-1.SG.PRES
‘I think’

b. Ne-mysl-ím
NEG-think-1.SG.PRES
’I do not think’


Contributed by: Ljuba Veselinova
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Abaza Yes Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
   Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: kasa al-mät't'a-m
  Gloss: K. neg-come.PFV.3mss-neg
  Translation: 'Kasa did not come'
  Comment: Amharic has negative concord. However, it is the pre-verbal negative marker that asserts negation. The post-verbal negative marker is not found in subordinate clauses.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
+ Bambara Yes Bryan Villa or perhaps aux with future inflection
  Words: Ne tèna taa
  Gloss: I NEG.FUTURE go
  Translation: I will not go
  Comment: Treated as an aux because it is in complementary distribution with the positive auxillaries. from TNBG 39
  Contributor: Bryan Villa
   Bandial No Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi No Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Priyanka Biswas Negating prefixes (mostly derived from Sanskrit) exist in nouns and adjectives, for example, na-raj 'unwilling', a-niyam 'disorder', nir-upay 'helpless'.
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
   Bulgarian No Ljuba Veselinova
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro There are two forms of standard negation -- a prefix plus a suffix or a negative auxiliary. They do not cooccur.
   Chol No Jessica Coon
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Peter Kosta
  Words: Ne-pracuju ne-chci ne-musím, ne-jsem
  Gloss: Neg-work1SGPRS, Neg_want1SGPRS Neg-must1SGPRS Neg-am1SGPRS
  Translation: I don't work, I don't want, I don't need, I am not
  Comment: cf. work on Negation by Peter Kosta (2003), (2004), (2005)
  Contributor: Peter Kosta
  Words: {*ne} Petr {ne}-publikuje {*ne} články {*ne}.
  Gloss: {neg} Petr {neg}-publish.3sg {neg} articles {neg}
  Translation: Peter doesn't publish articles.
  Comment: The example shows that in the SOV order, the negation comes between the subject and the verb (and only there). One reason to classify it as a prefix (as opposed to a particle) is that it obligatorily moves with the verb (the host of the prefix):
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: Petr {*ne} články {ne}-píše
  Gloss: Petr neg articles neg-writes
  Translation: Petr doesn't write articles.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: A: Píše Petr články? B: Ne
  Gloss: A: writes Petr articles? B: Neg
  Translation: A: Does Peter write articles? B: No
  Comment: However, this example shows that a morpheme homophonous to the negative prefix "ne" can occur on its own in short replies. This is impossible for aspectual verbal prefixes (and is an unexpected behavior of an affix in general, or at least according to the definition given.)
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: br-á-t či ne-br-a-t? (*ne-br-á-t)
  Gloss: take-th-inf or neg-take-th-inf vs. neg-take-th-inf
  Translation: to take or not to take?
  Comment: This example shows that the negation has an influence on the length of the thematic vowel (glossed TH): long vowel (á) without the negation, short vowel (a) with the negation. This speaks in favor of its prefixal status. This is because the thematic vowel "a" is "regularly" short, and lengthens only with roots that have no vowel (plausibly to produce a bi-moraic "minimal word"). The fact that the "a" is short in the negated infinitive shows that the negation counts as a part of the "prosodic word."
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: Vyo kpweli mino si-nda-kpwenda-angamika ko Nairobi?
  Gloss: how truly 1SG(emphatic) 1SG.NEG-FUT-ITIVE-get_lost DEM Place_Name
  Translation: Now surely will I not get lost there in Nairobi?
  Comment: The prefix 'si-' is a portmanteau form combining negation and the 1SG subject marker.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
  Words: Dze ku-nda-nwa chai rero?
  Gloss: Q 2SG.NEG-FUT-drink tea today
  Translation: Won't you drink tea (have breakfast) today?
  Comment: The prefix 'ku-' is a portmanteau form combining negation and the 2SG subject marker.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
  Words: mara nyinji simba ka-nyendeka macheye-macheye
  Gloss: CL6.times CL6.many CL1a.lion 3sg.NEG-walk alone-alone
  Translation: usually a lion does not walk alone
  Comment: The prefix 'ka-' is a portmanteau form combining negation and the 3SG subject marker.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
  Words: Lakini Mwiya, ta-a-mu-on-ere.
  Gloss: but Proper_Name NEG-3PL-3SG(object)-see-PFV
  Translation: But they did not find Mwiya.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
   Egyptian Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
+ Farsi Yes Natasha Schimka
  Words: Na-xarid-am.
  Gloss: NEG-buy-1SG.PST
  Translation: I didn't buy it.
  Contributor: Natasha Schimka
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna Yes Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Viola Schmitt
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek No Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hausa No Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo The negation 'ain / 'en, used in nominal clauses, when in construct state ('en), may be joined to pronominal suffixes
   Hindi No Anoop Mahajan
   Hittite No Mattyas Huggard
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande Yes Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic No Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
   Lubukusu Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman It difficult to determine if negation of the present is a prefix or a particle.
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin No Timothy Ho
   Maori No Ray Harlow
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
   Medumba No KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: Hem en roeket wiet deerde
  Gloss: him NEG matter who-it harmed.3sg
  Translation: It did not matter to him to whom it did harm
  Comment: The negative pre-verbal clictic is always reinforced with other negative constituent, unless in the presence of an NPI (like 'roeken' in the example
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   N|u No Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Nawdm No Hannah Kim
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
+ Nkore-Kiga Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: ti-ba-giire Mbarara
  Gloss: not-they-Y-go Mbarara
  Translation: They did not go to Mbarara (Taylor, 163e)
  Comment: Taylor: Basically the negative particle is ti, the negative copula. This form is also a prefix in verbs, ti-, with a corresponding infix form -ta-. [only for negative imperatives. (163f) o-ta-gura ebitakuri you-not-buy potatoes 'Don't buy potatoes.' ]
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words:  ti-n-diku-manya na kakye
  Gloss: not-I-PC-know at all
  Translation: 'I have no idea at all.'
  Comment: Taylor (167).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: a-nyweire/ t-a-nyweire
  Gloss: he-Y-drink/ not-he-Y-drink
  Translation: he drank / he didn't drink
  Comment: (164a) (164b). In the 'yesterday' tense used in (164a/b) both tense infixes are alike, but in the remote past tense the tense marker and the verb form change under negation (see next example).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden I have treated ni as a prefix, since it immediately precedes the verb and contracts with the form "is". For details of negation in Old Saxon see Breitbarth, Anne (2013). Negation in the history of Low German and Dutch. In David Willis, Christopher Lucas and Anne Breitbarth (eds.), The history of negation in the languages of Europe and the Mediterranean, vol. 1: Case studies, 190-238. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  Words: huand gi mi ni hulpun
  Gloss: because you me NEG helped
  Translation: because you did not help me
  Comment: (Heliand 4423)
  Contributor: George Walkden
  Words: huuand imu nis biholan neouuiht
  Gloss: because him.DAT NEG-is concealed nothing
  Translation: because nothing is concealed to him
  Comment: (Heliand 1577)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Maria si -y -a -shina tawe
  Gloss: Maria NEG-3sg.SA PST-dance NEG
  Translation: Maria didn't dance
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   One No Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto Yes Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Oana Savescu
   Russian Yes Nina Radkevich
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Senaya Yes Laura McPherson
   Shan No Alif Silpachai
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
   Spanish No Michael A. Estrada
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
+ Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: ‘awtobus ‘i’ala
  Gloss: autobus not-was
  Translation: ‘there was no bus’
  Comment: standard negation is by prefix ( ‘i- )
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: ‘ala
  Gloss: ‘was’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: halla
  Gloss: ‘is’
  Translation: ‘is’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: ‘alabu
  Gloss: ‘is not’
  Translation: ‘is not’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tiwa No Virginia Dawson
   Tlingit Yes James Crippen
   Tocharian A No Bernhard Koller
   Tocharian B No Bernhard Koller
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural
+ Twi Yes Cansada Martin
  Words: Kofi an-kɔ Amerika.
  Gloss: Kofi NEG.PST-go America
  Translation: Kofi didn't go to America.
  Contributor: Cansada Martin
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: U nas nemaje televizora
  Gloss: in us NEG.have.3SG TV
  Translation: We don't have a TV
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
   Warlpiri No Margit Bowler
   West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman en- is one of the elements implicated in sentential negation. en- is opitional, always precedes the finite verb (in main and embedded clauses), and must coocur with a negative constituent. see (Haegeman (1998a,b, 2000, 2002).
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
+ Wolane Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: ʔəšɛ sɛnɛf tɛmāri ʔal-nɛr-t
  Gloss: 3sf lazy student NEG-AUX:P-3sf
  Translation: 'she was not a lazy student' (281).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu No Claire Bowern
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zamboageño Chabacano No Grace Gaspardo