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Neg 04_Standard Negation is Suffix

Definition
Standard Negation is Suffix is set to yes if the negation marker has the characteristics of a suffix.

Definition of Standard Negation

Example
In Turkish (Altaic), SN is expressed by a suffix -me (Van Schaaik, 1994: 38, 39):

a. Gel-ecek
come-FUT
‘(She) will come.’

b. Gel-me-yecek
come-NEG-FUT
‘(She) will not come.’


2. English is 'yes; for this property as 'n't' immediately follows the modal, the finite forms of 'be', and the perfect auxiliary 'have'. It can never follow a lexical verb, but will follow a dummy auxiliary 'do' instead.

a. Mary hasn't left

b. Hasn't Mary left?
c. *Has Mary n't left?

d. Didn't they leave?
e. *leftn't they?

[updated by hk: 2/4/2012]
Contributed by: Ljuba Veselinova
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Abaza Yes Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language NA Natasha Abner
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: kasa wädä-bet al-hed-ä-m
  Gloss: K. to-house neg-go.PFV-3ms-Neg
  Translation: 'Kasa did not go to home'
  Comment: Amharic has negative concord. However, it is the pre-verbal negative marker that asserts negation. The post-verbal negative marker is also found along with negative polarity items.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi No Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Priyanka Biswas Negating suffixes exist, e.g., bhasha-hin 'speechless'.
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
   Bulgarian No Ljuba Veselinova
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro There are two forms of standard negation -- a prefix plus a suffix or a negative auxiliary. They do not cooccur.
   Chol No Jessica Coon
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Czech No Pavel Caha
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
   Digo No Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
   Egyptian Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Farsi No Natasha Schimka
   Fijian No Zhenyu Sun
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Viola Schmitt
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek No Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hausa No Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Anoop Mahajan
   Hittite No Mattyas Huggard
+ Hixkaryana Yes Laura Kalin
  Words: apaytara y-ar-hira n-exe-ye wekoko
  Gloss: chicken 3OBJ-take-NEG 3SBJ-be-DISTPST.COMPLETIVE hawk
  Translation: The hawk didn't take the chicken. (Literally: The hawk wasn't taking of the chicken.)
  Comment: Negation is always a suffix to a verb, but makes the verb it attaches to nonfinite. As such, it must be embedded somehow, in this case, under the copula 'be'. 'Be' thus takes the tense and aspect marking for the clause. See the other example for this property to see the non-negated counterpart of this sentence. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 138)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
  Words: apaytara y-ari-ye wekoko
  Gloss: chicken 3SBJ.3OBJ-take-DISTPST.COMPLETIVE hawk
  Translation: The hawk took the chicken.
  Comment: This is the non-negated version of the other example sentence for this property. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 138)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo Yes Mary Amaechi
   Iha No Mark Donohue There is no standard negation for verbs
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara Yes Alan Vogel Dixon 2004:245f
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi No Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic No Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian No Felix Thies
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin No Timothy Ho
   Maori No Ray Harlow
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
   Medumba No KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
   Middle Dutch No Gertjan Postma
   Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada The second negation (Neg2) is a weak morpheme that follows either an object, indirect object or other predicate element.
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   N|u No Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
   Nawdm No Hannah Kim
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
   Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One No Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Oana Savescu
   Russian No Denis Paperno
   Salasaca Quichua Yes Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Senaya No Laura McPherson
   Shan No Alif Silpachai
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Slovenian No Franc Marušič
   Spanish No Michael A. Estrada
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tlingit Yes James Crippen
   Tocharian A No Bernhard Koller
   Tocharian B No Bernhard Koller
+ Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
  Words: mí bàbèL nàmá tɛ̀m-éélè=gɛ
  Gloss: 1SG.PRO uncle meat eat-NEG.IMPF=DEF
  Translation: ‘my uncle who doesn’t eat meat’ (133: 178a).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Murat Kural
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
+ Warlpiri Yes Margit Bowler
  Words: Kuyu-wangu ka nyina.
  Gloss: meat-NEG AUX sit
  Translation: He has no meat. (Warlpiri Dictionary Project)
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof Yes Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu No Claire Bowern
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zamboageño Chabacano No Grace Gaspardo