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Neg 07_Standard Negation is Tone

Definition
Standard Negation is Tone is set to yes if the negation marker has the following characteristics:

• There is a tone not present in the affirmative verb form that has to be used on the verb when it is negated
• Change of this tone is obligatory under negation
• Change of tone has to be the sole marker of negation

Definition of Standard Negation

Example
No known examples of negation by tone only yet.

Contributed by: Ljuba Veselinova
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Abaza No Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
   Adyghe No Yury Lander
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: kòfí́ le+B [lè] klátà
  Gloss: Koffi Aux (avoir) livre
  Translation: Koffi a un livre.
  Comment: Cette phrase est une assertion affirmative.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: kòfí́ le+H [lé] klátà
  Gloss: Koffi Aux (avoir)+Nég livre
  Translation: Koffi n'a pas de livre.
  Comment: Le passage d'une assertion affirmative à une assertion négative tonale élève le ton de l'auxiliaire.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
   Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language NA Natasha Abner
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa
   Bandial No Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi NA Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Priyanka Biswas
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
   Bulgarian No Ljuba Veselinova
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Chol No Jessica Coon
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Czech No Pavel Caha
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
   Digo No Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
   Egyptian Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Farsi No Natasha Schimka
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Viola Schmitt
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek No Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hausa No Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Anoop Mahajan
   Hittite No Mattyas Huggard
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun No Iris Wu
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi No Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic NA Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian No Felix Thies
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin No Timothy Ho
   Maori No Ray Harlow
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
   Middle Dutch No Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   N|u No Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
   Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa e (/) ba nakan a.
  Gloss: Musa PRS NEG cut meat NEG
  Translation: 'Musa isn't cutting the meat.'
  Comment: Negation is a two-part morpheme in Nupe. The pre-verbal morpheme is tonal (surfacing as a floating High tone), while the post-VP piece is the Low tone-bearing morpheme 'a'.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French NA Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One No Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Oana Savescu
   Russian No Denis Paperno
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Senaya No Laura McPherson
   Shan No Alif Silpachai
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Slovenian No Franc Marušič
   Spanish No Michael A. Estrada
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Titan NA Claire Bowern
   Tiwa No Virginia Dawson
   Tlingit No James Crippen
   Tocharian A No Bernhard Koller
   Tocharian B No Bernhard Koller
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala Yes George Aaron Broadwell Standard negation is a preverbal particle plus a tone shift on the verb. See Neg 01 for example and discussion.
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural
   Tuvan No Mark Donohue
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata Yes Hilda Koopman the form of negaton varies with mood and aspect. In imperfective forms, negation is a high tone sandwiched between the subject and the verb in T. Perhaps there is a negative mora. (S NEG T (Adv) O ...). Since the verb is no lonfer in the imperfective, perhaps this value should be set to NO..
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
   Warlpiri No Margit Bowler
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu No Claire Bowern
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zamboageño Chabacano No Grace Gaspardo
   Zulu No Claire Halpert