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Neg 01_Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb

Definition
Standard Negation is a Particle that Precedes the Verb is set to yes if the negation marker has the following characteristics

• It precedes the verb it negates (precedes to be understood broadly not as 'immediately' precedes).
• It appears as a free form for the negation of a simple declarative clause.
• It does not admit any morphological marking typically associated with verbs in the language.

Definition of Standard Negation

Example:
Bulgarian (Indo-European, South Slavic), (own data)
a. Maria pe-e
Maria sing-3.SG.PRS
‘Maria sings.’

b. Maria ne pe-e
Maria NEG sing-3.SG.PRS
‘Maria does not sing.’

Bulgarian is also "Yes" because the negation 'ne' is separated from the verb by clitics (Marina Pantcheva, p.c.)

Maria ne ja pee tazi peseń.
Maria NEG her sings this song.
`Maria is not singing this song.'

This contrasts with negation in Czech (see below)

2.
English is also "Yes" for "Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb" as "not" precedes the lexical verb.

3. Czech is 'no' for this property, as the negation 'ne' always immediately precedes the verb. (Pavel Caha pers. comm.)_

1.Marie zpívá.
Marie sings
`Mary is singing'

2. Marie ne-zpívá.
Marie neg-sings
`Mary is not singing'

3. Marie (ji) ne-(*ji)-zpívá.
Mar her neg-her-sings
`Marie is not singing it (the song).'

Unlike English 'not', the verb cannot be separated from the negation in questions:

4. (Ne)zazpívá Marie (*ne) tu písničku?
neg.sing.3sg Marie.nom neg the song.acc
`Won't Mary sing the song?

NB: Czech negation can bear contrastive stress: this shows that this criteria cannot be used to make a distinction between particles and prefixes.

When in doubt about the particle/prefix distinction, please contact the property author or email us at linguisticexplorer@gmail.com.

Should any contracted forms of the particle occur, please give examples. If possible, specify the conditions where such contractions occur in the comment field.

[updated by hk: 10/15/2011; 2/4/2012]
Contributed by: Ljuba Veselinova
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
  Words: Titi ǀhȍ’õ ’a ’ám ǁkà“e
  Gloss: Titi NEG PROG eat meat
  Translation: “Titi is not eating meat” (Collins and Gruber: 20).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ Acehnese Yes Julie Legate
  Words: Gopnyan hana geu-poh aseé nyan baroe.
  Gloss: 3(polite) NEG 3(polite)-hit dog that yesterday
  Translation: He didn't hit the dog yesterday.
  Comment: alternation between hana and han; possible that hana is segmentable into ha+na where na is a marker of existence.
  Contributor: Julie Legate
   Adyghe No Yury Lander
+ Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
  Words: Ek het nie daardie argument verstaan nie
  Gloss: I have not that argument understood NEG
  Translation: I didn't understand that argument
  Comment: Since Afrikaans is a Verb Second (V2) language, with the finite verb systematically undergoing movement to clause-second position in main clauses, there are cases where the Standard Negation marker (clause-internal "nie") will surface before the lexical verb, i.e. those in which the lexical verb is non-finite. This is also always the case in embedded clauses, where all verbal elements surface in a clause-final cluster.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO La négation est exprimée par la consonne [N] précédant le verbe. Il arrive que cette négation soit exprimée par un morphème discontinu [N…má̰]. Ce qu'il convient de noter, c'est sans doute le fait que la deuxième particule postposée au verbe, c'est-à-dire [má̰] soit facultative.
  Words: kòfí N dí (má̰) bɛ̀dɛ̀ bɛ̀dɛ̀
  Gloss: Koffi Part manger Nég manioc
  Translation: Koffi ne mange pas du manioc.
  Comment: La négation se caractérise par un morphème discontinu [N… má̰] qui encadre de part et d’autres le verbe, d’où la structure [N __verbe__ má̰]. Mais, il arrive que dans un énoncé, seul la particule [N] ne soit retenue.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
   Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: Nuk fola. / S’fola.
  Gloss: not spoke.1S / not’spoke.1S
  Translation:  I did not speak.
  Comment: The negative particles nuk and/or s’ are used when the verb is in Indicative and Admirative mood. Mos is used with Subjunctives, Imperatives, Optatives. Pa is used with Gerunds.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: emè ekeínē hē arkhḕ ouk exéplēxen
  Gloss: I-ACC DEM-NOM.M.SG ART-NOM.F.SG government-NOM.F.SG NEG frighten-PST.3SG
  Translation: That government did not frighten me
  Comment: Plato, Apologia Socratis, 32d4
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: Ahmed maa qaraa al-ketab
  Gloss: Ahmed NEG read.PST DET-book
  Translation: Ahmed didnt read the book
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: Kàá màŋgyè wá kɨ̀ wá’á mɨ́kúú lɨ́gə̂
  Gloss: Neg woman the PST Neg beans cultivate
  Translation: The woman did not cultivate beans
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
+ Bulgarian Yes Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: Todor ne praznuv-a Nov-a Godina
  Gloss: Todor NEG party.IPFV-3.SG.PRS New-F.SG Year.F.SG
  Translation: Todor does not party at/for New Year's
  Comment: used in sentences with non-future time reference
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
+ Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
  Words: Tinhpei a=ye' ma-thau' hpu:
  Gloss: Tinpe liquor NEG-drink NEG
  Translation: Tinpe doesn't drink.
  Contributor: Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: ngo m heoi
  Gloss: I NEG go
  Translation: I don’t go.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
  Words: m leng
  Gloss: NEG beautiful
  Translation: not beautiful
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Victoria Mateu
   Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Chol Yes Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: En erkete ekso.
  Gloss: not come-3SG outside
  Translation: He is not coming outside.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Czech No Pavel Caha
+ Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
  Words: N ba nyuuro daa
  Gloss: 1SG NEG drink.IMP alcohol
  Translation: I dont drink alcohol
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
   Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Digo No Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic Yes David Erschler The negative markers are mood-dependent proclitics to the verb. They can only be separated from the verb by enclitics.
  Words: Mɐdinɐ Soslan-i nɐ=warz-uj
  Gloss: Madina Soslan-OBL NEG=love-PRS.3SG
  Translation: Madina doesn't love Soslan
  Contributor: David Erschler
  Words: nɐ=j warz-un
  Gloss: NEG=ACC.3SG love-PRS.1SG
  Translation: I don't love him/her/it
  Contributor: David Erschler
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: ik denk dat Marie gisteren niet met Jan over het weer heeft gepraat
  Gloss: I think that Marie yesterday NEG with John about the weather has talked
  Translation: I think that Mary did not talk about the weather with John yesterday
  Comment: The negation niet is at the left edge of the "VP" ; specific non focused objects must precede niet. The folllowing follow niet: non focused, PPs, (directional, dative, instrumentals, commitatives, localitive, idiomatic PPs, small clause complements/separable particles, and the verb cluster (containing the finite verb in non root sentences, and the cluster minus the finite verb in root environments
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Ik denk dat Marie de brief gisteren niet op de post gedaan heeft
  Gloss: I think that Marie the letter yesterday NEG in de mail done has
  Translation: I think that Marie didn't put the letter in the mail yesterday
  Comment: NEG does not immediate precede V, but the verb phrase. (non focused definite objects must precede niet)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
   Egyptian Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: Não quero ir
  Gloss: not want.prs.ind.1sg go.inf
  Translation: I don't want to go
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe Yes Chris Collins
   Farefari Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Farsi No Natasha Schimka
+ Fijian Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: e sega ni tau-vi-mate
  Gloss: 3S not get-ill
  Translation: 'he's not ill'
  Comment: "sega ni" is 'not'
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: ka sega ni tāū-tau-vi-mate
  Gloss: and not often-get-ill
  Translation: 'and doesn't get sick very often'
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Vincent Homer Standard negation is formed using two particles, one that precedes, and one that follows, the finite verb (the main verb or the auxiliary if there is one). The particle that precedes is optional.
  Words: Je ne sais pas.
  Gloss: 1SG NEG know-PRS NEG.
  Translation: I do not know.
  Comment: ne is often pronounced (but sometimes just very reduced).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German Yes Viola Schmitt
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: Den evgala poles fotografies.
  Gloss: NEG took many pictures
  Translation: I did not take many pictures.
  Comment: The negative particle 'den' is used with Indicatives. 'Mi(n)' is used with Subjunctives and Gerunds.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: eci da fʃaxa ðen paremane, cimiθane so skoʎo (Dawkins 1916: 410)
  Gloss: DEM.DIST ART.DEF.PL.NOM child.PL.NOM NEG go.away.PST.3PL sleep.PST.3PL PREP.ART.DEF.SG.ACC school.SG.ACC
  Translation: those children did not go away, they slept at the school
  Comment: 'ðen' is the standard negator that is used in veridical contexts. 'mi/me' is the negator used in non-veridical contexts.
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
+ Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: ní à lìn ɖɔ̀ àsíbá ná dà mì bé à má bí kpálí
  Gloss: if 2sg think that Asiba Fut marry 1sg.Acc then 2sg Neg smart at.all
  Translation: If you think that Asiba will marry me, then you are really not smart.
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene Yes Samuel Atintono
   Haitian Yes Michel DeGraff
   Hakka Yes Iris Wu
   Hausa Yes Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: lo' yada'ti (hashomer 'achi 'anoki) (Gen 4,9)
  Gloss: not.NEG know.PFV1SG
  Translation: I know not: (Am I my brother's keeper?)
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Anoop Mahajan
   Hittite Yes Mattyas Huggard
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Kati nem szalad.
  Gloss: Kati[NOM] not run[3SG.PRS.IND]
  Translation: Kati isn't running
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha NA Mark Donohue There is no standard negation for verbs
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian Yes Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic Yes David Erschler
+ Italian Yes Adriana Belletti
  Words: Maria non parla (Cinese)
  Gloss: Maria not talks (Chinese)
  Translation: Maria does not talk (Chinese)
  Contributor: Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi Negation is constructed with a pre-verbal clitic =(e/a)n= and a post-verbal word, mia. The clitic is prone to falling due to phonotactical constraints; the post-verbal word can be substituted by other negative polarity items such as "never", "nobody" etc.
   Jamaican Creole English Yes Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Kayan Yes Ken Manson
   Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kindendeule No Deo Ngonyani
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
+ Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
  Words: ma bÍ ndù
  Gloss: I NEG go
  Translation: I have not gone
  Comment:  ‘bI' is also an adverb meaning still. When the negation has a sense of no longer ‘bI co-occurs with ‘wí'.
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
+ Korean Yes Chung-hye Han
  Words: Chelswu-ka an nolayha-yess-ta.
  Gloss: Chelswu-NOM NEG sing-PST-DECL
  Translation: Chelsswu did not sing.
  Comment: This property applies to short negation in Korean.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
+ Lango Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: lócə̏ pé òbɪ́nô pàcó
  Gloss: man neg come.3SG.PRF home
  Translation: The man didn't come home (Noonan 1992: 122 ex. 2.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Words: tamen ipse labor non sentiebatur
  Gloss: however that:NOM effort:NOM not feel:IPFV.3SG.PASS
  Translation: 'however that effort was not felt'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 3.2) negative particle need not be adjacent to verb - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman In the present a prefix/particle m(I) precedes the present tensed verb (SA/O-V-appl)...
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Mandarin Yes Timothy Ho
  Words: ta bu xihuan wo
  Gloss: 3S NEG like 1S
  Translation: He doesn't like me.
  Contributor: Timothy Ho
  Words: wo bu qu
  Gloss: I NEG go
  Translation: I don’t go.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Maori No Ray Harlow
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: E-j jab maron̄ entak.
  Gloss: 3sg-prs neg can pick.green.coconuts.from.trees
  Translation: She can't pick green coconuts from trees.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
+ Medumba Yes KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
  Words: Nʉ̀mí kʉ̀? nɛ́ kʉ̀lɔ̀
  Gloss: Numi NEG cook banana
  Translation: Numi did not cook banana
  Contributor: KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
   Middle Dutch No Gertjan Postma
+ Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada Negation in Miya takes the form of two morphemes. The first is a particle that precedes the verb (as shown here) and the second NEG follows an object, indirect object or other predicate element.
  Words: fà ta bǝtá zhaak-uw
  Gloss: you (ms) Neg1 untie donkey-Neg2
  Translation: 'Don't untie the donkey' (p.280)
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala Negation has two parts that flank the finite verb: [ma V.T sh]
  Words: Mohammad ma kla.sh ma shreb.sh
  Gloss: Mohammad NEG eat.3SG.PST.M.NEG NEG drink.3SG.PST.M NEG
  Translation: Mohammad didn’t eat or drink.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   N|u Yes Chris Collins
+ Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
  Words: Axcanah qui-nequi ma ni-huetzca
  Gloss: NEG 3SG.O-want IMP 1SG.S-laugh
  Translation: ‘he/she doesn’t want me to laugh’
  Comment: Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: à bɛ̀ tógə́dá búrúgù
  Gloss: he not attach-perf goat+cm(go)
  Translation: ‘he has not attached a goat’ (46).
  Comment: special form for negation in perfective (low tone); it looks like the copula bE, and resembles do-support a bit. (it precedes the verb with perfective suffix, but the suffix is slightly different. All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce Yes Amy Rose Deal
+ Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
  Words: a-ka-nywa/t-a-ra-nyweire
  Gloss: he-RP-drink/ not-he-RP-drink.M
  Comment:  in the remote past tense (RP) the tense marker and the verb form change (from basic to modified form)under negation
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai Yes Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa e (/) ba nakan a.
  Gloss: Musa PRS NEG cut meat NEG
  Translation: 'Musa isn't cutting the meat.'
  Comment: (/) is the pre-verbal negative morpheme whose exponent is a floating High tone. The other negative particle, 'a', follows the verb+object and bears a Low tone.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
+ Old English Yes Willem Koopman
  Comment: contraction often before verbs beginning with a vowel, h or w: ne waes -> naes (was not), ne is -> nis (is not), ne haebbe -> naebbe (had not)
  Contributor: Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden Unclear from manuscripts whether ni is a particle or a prefix. I have treated it as prefixal as it immediately precedes the verb and contracts with the form "is".
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
+ panjabi Yes Gurprit Bains
  Words:  jeet ne eh kitaab nahin parhee
  Gloss: Jeet erg this book not read
  Translation: Jeet did not read this book
  Comment:  The negation element used in imperatives is 'na'-do'nt.
  Contributor: Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay Yes Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: nie pracuję, nie chcę, nie muszę, nie jestem
  Gloss: neg work.1sg, neg want.1sg, neg must.1sg, not am.1sg
  Translation: I don't work', 'I don't want', 'I don't have to', 'I'm not'
  Comment: Sentential negation is obligatorily preverbal in Polish, although it is not a prefix. Negation may not be separated from the verb even by reflexive or pronominal clitics (Błaszczak 2001, Migdalski 2006). The same particle "nie" is used for constituent negation, but sentential negation can be reliably distinguished by obligatory genitive case on the direct object (constituent negation has no effect on case). Sentential negation imposes stress shift on the verbal element that is negated so that it forms a p
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Nós não gostamos de carne
  Gloss: we not like.PRS.1PL (of) meat
  Translation: We do not like meat
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
   Russian Yes Nina Radkevich
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan Yes Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Sasak Yes Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic Yes David Adger
   Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: Marìa nun kànta
  Gloss: Maria not sings
  Translation: Maria does not sing
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Spanish Yes Michael A. Estrada
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat V2 affects the order between lexical verb and negation.
  Words: Flickan har inte ätit glass.
  Gloss: girl.DEF has NEG eaten ice-cream
  Translation: The girl has not eaten ice-cream.
  Comment: The V2 property of Swedish makes the negation 'inte' precede the lexical verb if there is an auxiliary.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: Flickan kan inte ha ätit glass.
  Gloss: girl.DEF can NEG have eaten ice-cream
  Translation: The girl cannot have eaten ice-cream.
  Comment: Negation follows the finite verb and precedes all non-finite verbs in main clauses. In subordinate clauses negation precedes all verbs, even finite verbs
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: Inte har flickan ätit glass.
  Gloss: NEG has girl.DEF eaten ice-cream
  Translation: The girl has not eaten ice-cream.
  Comment: Negation can be topicalized.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: Lenə nun kutʃinə
  Gloss: Elena not cooks
  Translation: Elena does not cook
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
   Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern standard negation is a preverbal particle [ne] and a clause final particle [poen].
   Tiwa No Virginia Dawson
   Tlingit Yes James Crippen
   Tocharian A Yes Bernhard Koller
+ Tocharian B Yes Bernhard Koller
  Words: upanande mā wsā-ne
  Gloss: Upananda not gave-OBJ
  Translation: Upananda did not give it (back).
  Comment: source: THT 337 b1
  Contributor: Bernhard Koller
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala Yes George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) Yes Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi There are different kinds of negation in Tupi.
  Words: a-bebé / Nd' a-bebé-i / A-bebé-ne / Nd' a-bebé-i xó-é-ne
  Gloss: (1.SG) fly / NEG (1.SG) fly NEG /(1.SG) fly FUT /NEG (1.SG) fly NEG FUT NEG.FUT
  Translation: I fly/flew / I do/did not fly / I will fly /I will not fly
  Comment: There is a negative prefix which co-occurs with negative suffix. Template for negation in present past : Neg(nd)- 1S-V- Neg(i)). For the future negative, we use Neg(nd)- 1S-V- Neg(i)) and add xó-é-ne. Further, for other verb forms, there are other forms of negation.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural
   Tuvan No Mark Donohue
   Twi No Cansada Martin
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: Taras ne napysav dopovid'
  Gloss: Taras NEG wrote report
  Translation: Taras didn't write a/the report
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese Yes Jimmy Nguyen
  Words: Minh không đi làm.
  Gloss: Minh NEG go work
  Translation: Minh doesn't go to work.
  Contributor: Jimmy Nguyen
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman Negation niet (or another negative constituent) and (-en) precede the finite verb in non root contexts.
  Words: dat Valère dat niet weet
  Gloss: that Valère that not know-3sg
  Translation: 'that Valère doesn't know that'
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
  Words: dat Valère dat niet en-weet
  Gloss: that Valère that not en knows
  Translation: 'that Valère doesn't know that'
  Comment: the preverbal particle en is restricted to finite negative contexts but it cannot on its own express negation. It is optional and introduces a pragmatic value: the negative proposition is contrary to what would be inferrable from the discourse/situation.
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
   Yoruba Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: El mujer hinde ta munta su bisicleta.
  Gloss: the woman NEG PRES.PROG ride 3SG.POSS bicycle
  Translation: The woman is not riding her bike.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
  Words: El mujer el hinde munta su bisicleta.
  Gloss: the woman 3SG NEG ride 3SG.POSS bicycle
  Translation: The woman will not ride her bicycle.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Hinde yo sabe porcausa el libro.
  Gloss: NEG 1SG know about the book
  Translation: I don't know about the book.
  Comment: 'Hinde' can be used with a variety of predicates (statives, future, progressive, present). The negation for past tense seems to be 'nuay'.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Si Jose nuay le sale.
  Gloss: DET Jose NEG 3SG leave
  Translation: Jose did not leave.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
   Zulu No Claire Halpert