Neg 02_Standard Negation is Particle that Follows the verb


Standard Negation: the negation strategy used in simple declarative sentences with (the equivalent of) an overt verb predicate as in "Mary does not sing". The predicate should not be an existential ("there is someone in the room"), nor a copula/non verbal predicate as in "John (is) a doctor", "John (is) tall", "John (is) in the house".

Standard Negation is a Particle that Follows the Verb is set to "Yes" if the negation marker has the following characteristics:

• It follows the verb or finite auxiliary. ("follows" to be understood broadly, not as "immediately" follows)
• It appears as a free form for the negation of a simple declarative clause.
• It does not admit of any morphological marking typically associated with verbs in the language.

Definition of Standard Negation

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Negation is Particle that Follows the Verb does not exclude a "yes" value for Standard Negation is a Particle that precedes the Verb.

1. Swedish (Indo-European, North Germanic) (own data)

a. Maria sjung-er
Maria sing-PRS
‘Maria sings.’

b. Maria sjung-er inte
Maria sing-PRS NEG
‘Maria does not sing.’

2. English is "Yes" as 'not' follows the finite forms of 'do', 'be' and the perfect auxiliary 'have'.

a. Mary does not (always) sing
b. Mary is not going to the store
c. Mary has not (yet) gone to the store
d. Mary has not been going to the store

English is also "Yes" for "Standard Negation is Particle that Precedes the Verb" as "not" precedes the lexical verb.

Comment: The negation "not" can only follow finite verb forms of the auxiliary 'be', 'have (perfect), and a specific set of modals. With all other verbs, a finite form of "do" precedes negation, and the lexical verb follows. For English n't, see standard negation is a suffix.

Should any contracted forms of the particle occur, please give examples. If possible, specify the conditions where such contractions occur in the comment field.

[updated by HK. 10/15/2011; 2/5/2012]
Contributed by: Ljuba Veselinova
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
   Adyghe No Yury Lander
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: Hy werk nie by die universiteit nie
  Gloss: he work not by the university NEG
  Translation: He doesn't work at the university
  Comment: Standard Negation in Afrikaans involves a bipartite structure, in which the "real" negator (glossed "not" to distinguish it from the concord element) occurs postverbally (in the sense of following the finite verb in main clauses) and a concord element surfaces clause-finally.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
  Words: Ek verstaan nie
  Gloss: I understand not
  Translation: I don't understand
  Comment: Although Standard Negation requires bipartite negation, neutral structures in which the two negation elements would have surfaced adjacent to one another do not feature two "nies"; in these cases, the second "nie" (the concord marker) undergoes haplology. As before, though, the "real" negation marker follows the finite verb.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
  Words: Ek het nie daardie argument verstaan nie
  Gloss: I have not that argument understood NEG
  Translation: I didn't understand that argument
  Comment: Since Afrikaans is a Verb Second (V2) language, with the finite verb systematically undergoing movement to clause-second position in main clauses, there are cases where the Standard Negation marker (clause-internal "nie") will surface before the lexical verb, i.e. those in which the lexical verb is non-finite. This is also always the case in embedded clauses, where all verbal elements surface in a clause-final cluster.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
   Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
   Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: * Ahmed qaraa maa al-ketab
  Gloss: Ahmed read.PST NEG DET-book
  Translation: Ahmed didnt read the book
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa
   Bandial No Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi No Claire Bowern
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: mɛ ń- jɛ́ ɓéé ínyuúlɛ́ mɛ ŋ́- kↄ̀n
  Gloss: I PRES-eat NEG because I PRES-be sick
  Translation: ‘I don’t eat because I am sick’
  Comment: (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
  Words: maŋgɛ́ a- gá- nɛd ɓéé mákeksɛ
  Gloss: 1child 1SM-FUT2-pass NEG 6 exams
  Translation: ‘The child will not pass the exams’
  Comment: (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
   Bellinzonese Yes Andrea Cattaneo
+ Bengali Yes Priyanka Biswas
  Words: ami ja-b-o na
  Gloss: I go-FUT-1 NEG
  Translation: I shall not go
  Comment: 'na' is the standard negation marker. The 'be' and 'have' auxiliaries inflect with negation.
  Contributor: Priyanka Biswas
+ Bole Yes Alhaji Gimba
  Words: gam ye dumpi-na sa
  Gloss: ram the butt (pfv)-me NEG
  Translation: the ram didn't butt me
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
   Bulgarian No Ljuba Veselinova
   Burmese Yes Timothy Ho Only in declaratives
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
+ Catalan Yes Victoria Mateu
  Words: no té pas gaire interès
  Gloss: NEG have.PRES.2SG much interest
  Translation: 'He doesn't have much interest'
  Comment: The particle 'pas' is optional and is frequently used to emphasize negation. The negative particle 'no' must always be present.
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Chol No Jessica Coon
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Czech No Pavel Caha
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
   Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
   Digo No Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
   Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman only when the main verb undergoes verb second in root clauses. XP Vf......Neg ......( V) CP
   Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
   Egyptian Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe Yes Chris Collins Ewe has double (bipartite) negation. One particle precedes the verb, and the other follows the verb and its complements.
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Farsi No Natasha Schimka
   Fijian No Zhenyu Sun
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Vincent Homer Standard negation is formed using two particles, one that precedes, and one that follows, the finite verb (the main verb or the auxiliary if there is one). The particle that precedes is optional.
  Words: Je ne fume pas.
  Gloss: 1SG NEG smoke-PRS NEG.
  Translation: “I do not smoke”
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German Yes Viola Schmitt
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek No Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hausa Yes Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Anoop Mahajan
   Hittite No Mattyas Huggard
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
   Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
   Igala Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha NA Mark Donohue There is no standard negation for verbs
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi Negation is constructed with a pre-verbal clitic =(e/a)n= and a post-verbal word, mia. The clitic is prone to falling due to phonotactical constraints; the post-verbal word can be substituted by other negative polarity items such as "never", "nobody" etc.
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese Yes Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi No Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kindendeule Yes Deo Ngonyani
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
+ Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
  Words: mÍ n-gvi wi
  Gloss: I n- come not
  Translation: I wont come
  Comment: Comment –wi is used for the present and future. ‘ Ka’ for imperative and ‘bI' for the past
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
+ Korean Yes Chung-hye Han
  Words: Chelswu-ka nolayha-ci anh-ass-ta.
  Gloss: Chelswu-NOM sing-CONN NEG-PST-DECL
  Translation: Chelswu did not sing.
  Comment: This property applies to long negation.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal Yes Florian Lionnet Clause final negation
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic No Lina Choueiri
   Lubukusu Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin No Timothy Ho
   Maori No Ray Harlow
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
   Middle Dutch No Gertjan Postma
   Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada In the Perfective, Miya has the particle follow the verb rather than precede.
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala Negation has two parts that flank the finite verb: [ma V.T sh]
  Words: Mohammad ma kla.sh ma shreb.sh
  Gloss: Mohammad NEG eat.3SG.PST.M.NEG NEG drink.3SG.PST.M NEG
  Translation: Mohammad didn’t eat or drink.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
  Words: Lawan ó zúm ɗaf do
  Gloss: Lawan 3sg eat food Neg
  Translation: Lawan does not eat food.
  Comment: Neg is clause final
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N|u No Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
   Nawdm No Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
   Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Musa e (/) ba nakan a.
  Gloss: Musa PRS Neg cut meat Neg
  Translation: 'Musa isn't cutting the meat.'
  Comment: (/) is the pre-verbal negative morpheme whose exponent is a floating High tone. The other negative particle, 'a', follows the verb+object and bears a Low tone.
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan Yes Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett Preverbal "ne" could be reinforced by a secondary marker (pas, point, mie etc.) possibly in certain discourse contexts (see Schwenter 2006; Hansen 2009)
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Maria si -y -a -shina tawe
  Gloss: Maria NEG-3sg.SA PST-dance NEG
  Translation: Mria didn't dance
  Comment: tawe is VP/clause final
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Maria si-y-a-rer-ire a-matsi asi itsuli tawe
  Gloss: Maria NEG-SA-PST-put-PST C6-water down morning NEG
  Translation: Maria did not put the water on the ground this morning
  Comment: tawe is clause final in simple sentences.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Maria si-y-a-tsia mu-mwalo tawe khubera ni ale
  Gloss:  NEG-SA-PST-go LOC-river NEG because is far
  Translation: Maria did not go to the river because it is far'.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Oana Savescu
   Russian No Denis Paperno
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
+ San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec Yes George Aaron Broadwell
  Words:  Ííty ù-lù'ù=tì' Juáàny bzyàá lè'èny bòòls.
  Gloss: neg com-put=neg Juan beans in bag
  Translation: ‘Juan didn't put the beans in the bag.'
  Comment: The clitic =tì' follows the first word/phrase after the negative word ííty. In the most neutral order, this is the verb. But if 'Juan' were focused the order would be ííty Juáàny=tì' ù-lù'ù .... Thus =tì' is not truly a verbal clitic, but a more general clitic that frequently appears on the verb.
  Contributor: George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Senaya No Laura McPherson
   Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: Marìa ankòra nunn'a kantàtu (*a nun kantàtu)
  Gloss: Maria yet not has sung (has not sung)
  Translation: Maria hasn't sung, yet
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Slovenian No Franc Marušič
   Spanish No Michael A. Estrada
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat V2 affects the order between lexical verb and negation.
  Words: Flickan äter inte glass.
  Gloss: girl.DEF eats NEG ice-cream
  Translation: The girl does not eat ice-cream.
  Comment: The V2 property of Swedish makes the finite verb precede the negation 'inte'.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
  Words: Flickan har inte ätit glass.
  Gloss: girl.DEF has NEG eaten ice-cream
  Translation: The girl has not eaten ice-cream.
  Comment: The V2 property of Swedish makes the finite verb precede the negation 'inte'.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: Lenə ankorə n-a kutʃinitə
  Gloss: Elena yet not-has cooked
  Translation: Elena did not cook yet
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern standard negation is a preverbal particle [ne] and a clause final particle [poen].
   Tlingit No James Crippen
   Tocharian B Not Yet Set Bernhard Koller
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
+ Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
  Words: ne qui-'ya̱j so' sayuun man=j ma'
  Gloss: neg com-cause he problem acc=1sg neg
  Translation: He didn't cause me problems
  Comment: Negation is the combination of the ne particle plus shifted tone register on the following verb. In this example, the normal tone for qui'yaj is high register. The negation causes the verb to appear in low register instead (marked by the underscore on the second vowel in the example.) Ma' is an optional sentence-final negation.
  Contributor: George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi This form of negation is very rare and far less used than the other form. It is only used for the indicative.
  Words: Nd' a-nhe'eng-e'ym
  Gloss: NEG (1.SG) speak NEG
  Translation: I did not speak
  Comment: The negative particle -e'ym is so rare in the indicative, that some descriptions of ancient Tupi do not even mention its use with the indicative.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Wan Yes Tatiana Nikitina
   West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu No Claire Bowern
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zamboageño Chabacano No Grace Gaspardo
   Zulu No Claire Halpert