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Neg 05_Standard Negation is Negative Auxiliary verb

Definition
Standard Negation negative auxiliary verb is set to yes if it is expressed by an auxiliary that takes at least some of the inflectional categories or syntax typically associated with verbs in the language. In addition, negation by a negative auxiliary usually has an effect on the lexical verb in that it loses at least some its finite properties under negation.

Definition of Standard Negation

Example
Evenki (Altaic, Tungustic) (Nedyalkov, 1994)

a. nuŋan min-du purta-va bū-che-n
he I-DAT knife-ACC give-PST-3.SG
‘He gave me the knife.’

b. nuŋan min-du purta-va e-che-n bū-re
he I-DAT knife-ACC NEG-PST-3.SG give-PTCP
‘He didn’t give me the knife.’

Most languages with negative auxiliaries behave like Evenki above in that at least some of the morphological marking associated with verb is taken over by the negative auxiliary. However, there are languages like Estonian (below) where the negative auxiliary ei has no morphological marking. It can still be defined as a verb since it takes the position of a verb occupies in an affirmative sentence; moreover, the lexical verb loses its person-number marking and is marked only for tense in the form of participle. Thus the lexical verb assumes a dependent form under negation.

Example
Estonian (Uralic, Finnic) (Miestamo p.c., see Harms, 1962: 131)

a. ma läk-si-n şin̉na
1SG go-PST.IND-1.SG there
‘I went there.’

b. ma ei läin-ut şin̉na
1SG NEG go-PST.PART there
‘I didn’t go there.’

Contributed by: Ljuba Veselinova
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Abaza No Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
   Adyghe No Yury Lander
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Not Yet Set Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
   Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
+ Bambara Yes Bryan Villa
  Words: Ne tè taa
  Gloss: I NEG go
  Translation: I am not going
  Comment: from TNBG pg 39
  Contributor: Bryan Villa
   Bandial No Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi NA Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
   Bengali No Priyanka Biswas 'be' and 'have' auxiliaries inflect with negation. For example, hOy 'is' vs. nOy 'is not', ache 'have' vs. nei 'doesn't have'.
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
   Bulgarian No Ljuba Veselinova
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro There are two forms of standard negation -- a prefix plus a suffix or a negative auxiliary. They do not cooccur.
   Chol No Jessica Coon
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Czech No Pavel Caha
+ Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
  Words: o kong di
  Gloss: 3SG NEG.FUT eat
  Translation: He will not eat
  Comment: The element 'kong' is future negative translating as 'not willing to'
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Digo No Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
   Egyptian Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Farsi No Natasha Schimka
+ Fijian Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Comment: see example Neg01
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: Minä e-n juo-0 kahvia. Minä e-n juo-nut kahvia
  Gloss: I.NOM NEG-1SG drink coffee. I.NOM NEG-1SG drink-PST.PTCP coffee
  Translation: I don't drink coffee. I didn't drink coffee.
  Comment: In the past tense, the main verb has the PST PRTC form. In the present it looks like the present tense stem, but actually ends in a null consonant (taking the value of the following consonant or else is a glottal stop).
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu only in subjunctive and imperative
  Words: Kofi á-ká-ba
  Gloss: Kofi SBJV-NEG.SBJV-come
  Translation: Kofi is not to come
  Comment: the prefixed a- and the high tone on ka both mark the following verb as subjunctive. The verb ba 'come' remains fully finite.
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Viola Schmitt
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek No Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hausa No Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo The negative adverb "levilti" is used almost exlcusively as the special negative of infinitive construct
   Hindi Yes Anoop Mahajan
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa Not quite sure.
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi No Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
+ Korean Yes Chung-hye Han
  Words: Chelswu-ka nolayha-ci anh-ass-ta.
  Gloss: Chelswu-NOM sing-CONN NEG-PST-DECL
  Translation: Chelswu did not sing.
  Comment: This property applies to long negation in Korean. An alternative view is that long negation is a particle cliticized to 'ha'.
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Koyo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic No Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian No Felix Thies
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman For the Past and n-tense: an indiclinable auxiliary (eitu) occurs, which precedes the present tense form. (Tucker and Mpaayei, p.67.).
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin Yes Timothy Ho
   Maori No Ray Harlow
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
   Middle Dutch No Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   N|u No Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: à bɛ̀ tógə́dá búrúgù
  Gloss: he not-perf attach-perf goat+cm(go)
  Translation: ‘he has not attached a goat’ (46).
  Comment: The negation particle is given a tense, thus behaving like an auxiliary verb. All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
+ Nkore-Kiga Yes Hilda Koopman
  Comment: Taylor suggest ti is a contraction of the prefix ta+affirmative copula ni. This makes standard negation basically a negative auxiliary.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One No Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Oana Savescu
   Russian No Denis Paperno
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
+ San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec Yes George Aaron Broadwell
  Words: Ííty Juáàny ní-gù' bzyàá lè'èny bòòls.
  Gloss:  neg Juan neg-put beans in bag
  Translation: ‘Juan didn't put the beans in the bag.'
  Comment:  If the verb to be negated is in the negative or potential aspect, then ííty seems to act like a raising verb and the following clause is in SVO order. The =tì' clitic does not appear in this case.
  Contributor: George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Shan No Alif Silpachai
   Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Spanish No Michael A. Estrada
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: Hindi d<um>ating ang babae.
  Gloss: not <Intr.Perf>arrive Abs woman
  Translation: The woman did not arrive.
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tlingit No James Crippen
   Tocharian A No Bernhard Koller
   Tocharian B No Bernhard Koller
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan Yes Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural
   Tuvan No Mark Donohue
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
+ Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: n nÍ saká li
  Gloss: 1s NEG rice eat-PERF
  Translation: I did not eat rice
  Comment: negative perfective is an auxiliary in T, with a mid high tone (raises to high after mid high in certain environments). Perfective aspect is marked on the main verb (root and a tonal pattern), which follows objects, adverbs, particles, but precedes tensed complement clauses (introduced by a light verb "say" na). see Koopman, 1984 for discussion )
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
+ Warlpiri Yes Margit Bowler The negated auxiliary may occur clause-initially, and can be preceded only by a nominal (not a verb). This contrasts with monosyllabic auxiliaries, which occur in second position.
  Words: Kula=rna=ngku yi-nyi miyi=ji.
  Gloss: AUX:NEG=1SG:SBJ=2SG:NSBJ give-NPST food=TOP
  Translation: I'm not going to give you food. (Hale 1959:27)
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zulu No Claire Halpert