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Neg 06_Standard Negation is Higher verb

Definition
Standard Negation is Higher Verb is set to yes if it is expressed as the sole predicate with a subordinate clause complement, (this would be comparable to: "(it) is.not [that Mary sang])"

Definition of Standard Negation

Examples
Tongan (Polynesian, Tongic):

a. Na’e kei kata ((‘)a) e ongo ki’i ta’ahiné
PAST still laugh ABS ART DU CLAS girl:DEF
‘The two little girls were still laughing.’
(Broschart, 1999: 97)

b. Na’e ‘ikai ke kata ‘a Pita
PAST NEG SUB laugh ABS Pita
‘Pita did not laugh.’ (literally:[it] was not that Pita laugh[ed])
(Broschart, 1999: 104)


Contributed by: Ljuba Veselinova
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Abaza No Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
   Adyghe No Yury Lander
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
   Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa
   Bandial No Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi NA Claire Bowern
+ Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: maŋgɛ́ a- ta- ɓéé (í)- jowa biséyá
  Gloss: 1child 1SM-be NEG (INF)- wash 8plates
  Translation: ‘The child is not washing the plates’
  Comment: When one of the arguments of the verb or the adjunct is negated negation can be higher than the verb. However movement takes place in the left periphery of the clause with obligatory focus marking. Note also that in the simple present tense the auxiliary ɓá ‘be’ is ‘ye’ in the affirmative form whereas it is realized as ta in the negative form. (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
  Words: biséyá ɓéé *(gwↄ́-n) maŋgɛ́ a- ye- (í)- jowa
  Gloss: 8plates NEG AGR-FOC 1child 1SM-be (INF)-wash
  Translation: ‘It is not the plates that the child is washing’
  Comment: When one of the arguments of the verb or the adjunct is negated negation can be higher than the verb. However movement takes place in the left periphery of the clause with obligatory focus marking. Note also that in the simple present tense the auxiliary ɓá ‘be’ is ‘ye’ in the affirmative form whereas it is realized as ta in the negative form. (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
  Words: maŋgɛ́ ɓéé *(nyɛ́- n) a- ye (í)- jowa biséyá
  Gloss: 1child NEG AGR-FOC 1SM-be (INF-)wash plates
  Translation: ‘It is not the child who is washing the plates’
  Comment: When one of the arguments of the verb or the adjunct is negated negation can be higher than the verb. However movement takes place in the left periphery of the clause with obligatory focus marking. Note also that in the simple present tense the auxiliary ɓá ‘be’ is ‘ye’ in the affirmative form whereas it is realized as ta in the negative form. (example entered for Paul Roger Bassong)
  Contributor: Hyo Shin
   Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Priyanka Biswas
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
+ Bulgarian Yes Ljuba Veselinova has to be used in sentences with future time reference
  Words: Todor i Dana njama da xod-jat na kino
  Gloss: Todor and Dana not.have.3.SG.PRS SUBORD go.3.PL:PRS to cinema
  Translation: Todor and Dana won't go to the movies
  Comment: SUBORD = subordinator
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Chol No Jessica Coon
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Czech No Pavel Caha
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
   Digo No Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
   Egyptian Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Farsi No Natasha Schimka
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Viola Schmitt
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek No Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hausa No Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Anoop Mahajan
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: nem-hogy, ne-hogy
  Gloss: not-COMP, ne[SBJV]-COMP
  Translation: not, don't
  Comment: The negative particles have a variant where they are compounded with the subordinating complementizer. My own (published) analysis is that this negation is extra-clausal, so there is a "null higher verb" here.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi No Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic No Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian No Felix Thies
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman the past tense uses an invariant verbal form/auxiliary taking the present tense form as its complement. This verb/auxiliary has invariant 3rd person inflection.
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin No Timothy Ho
+ Maori Yes Ray Harlow
  Words: Kāore rātou e haere ana
  Gloss: NEG 3-PL IPFV go IPFV
  Translation: They are not going
  Contributor: Ray Harlow
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
   Middle Dutch No Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   N|u No Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
   Nawdm No Hannah Kim
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
+ Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
  Words: y-aa-bur[w]a emboga z'okur[iis]a oburo
  Gloss: he-TP-lose-P of relish eating-with millet
  Translation: He had no relish to go with his millet.'
  Comment: (165) Negation can also be introduced in effect by choice of verb. This is not sufficient to yield a yes value (i.e. just as English lack or deny does not yield a yes value for this property either)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One No Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Oana Savescu
   Russian No Denis Paperno
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec Yes George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Spanish No Michael A. Estrada
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tiwa No Virginia Dawson
   Tlingit No James Crippen
   Tocharian A No Bernhard Koller
   Tocharian B No Bernhard Koller
   Tongan Yes Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural
   Tuvan No Mark Donohue
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Warlpiri No Margit Bowler
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zulu No Claire Halpert