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Neg 12_Distinct Negation of identity

Definition
Distinct Negation of identity is set to yes when the negation strategy used in such sentences differs from Standard Negation.

Definition of Predication of Identity

Th negation used in predications of identity can be established on the basis of sentences such as the following:

I am not Tom.
This man is not the doctor.

Example
Tahitian (Austronesian, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Polynesian, Nuclear, East), (Lazard and Peltzer, 1999: 155):

a. ‘o te taote terā ta’ata
PR ART doctor DEM man
‘This man is the doctor.’
(PR = presentative)

b. E’ere o’ te taote terā ta’ata
NEG PR ART doctor DEM man
‘This man is not the doctor.’

For the negation of verbal predications one has to use different negation markers, ‘aita/’aore or ‘eita/’eore and also a different syntactic construction. An example is shown below.

Example
Tahitian (Austronesian, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Polynesian, Nuclear, East), (Lazard and Peltzer, 1999: 155):

a. ‘ua reva te taote
TAM leave ART doctor
‘The doctor left.’

b. ‘aita te taote i reva
NEG ART doctor TAM leave
‘The doctor did not leave.’

The values for this property should be yes or no

Contributed by: Ljuba Veselinova
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Abaza No Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
   Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: ɨssu kasa aydälläm
  Gloss: he K. be.neg.3ms
  Translation: 'He is not Kasa'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi No Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
   Bulgarian No Ljuba Veselinova
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Chol Yes Jessica Coon
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Czech No Peter Kosta
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: Mimi si hiye mu-m-godza-ye. (Compare: Mino ni mimi mutu.)
  Gloss: 1SG NEG CL1.DEM 2PL-3SG(obj)-await-CL1.REL (1SG COP 1SG CL1.person)
  Translation: I am not he for whom you are waiting. (Compare: I am just a person.)
  Comment: The negative copula 'si' contrasts with the affirmative copula 'ni'.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Negated by a replacive copula verb
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Negated by a replacive copula verb
  Words: Jeee Kofi ji mi
  Gloss: NEG PN be 1SING
  Translation: I am not Kofi
  Comment: This negative particle is unique to identity expressions.
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: Jee Kofi
  Gloss: NEG PN
  Translation: It's not Kofi.
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Viola Schmitt
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek No Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hausa No Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
   Hindi No Gurprit Bains
   Hittite No Mattyas Huggard
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian Yes Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa It might depend on how to analyze a copula in Japanese.
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
+ Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
  Words: ka yáyá ko n'nganga
  Gloss: NEG brother NEG 1. doctor
  Translation: my brother is not the doctor
  Comment: n' : syllabic nasal, extra noun class morpheme must appear in this particular context.
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin No Timothy Ho
   Maori No Ray Harlow
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
   Middle Dutch No Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
  Words: ana ma.shii Tom
  Gloss: I NEG.NEG Tom
  Translation: I'm not Tom.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
   Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
   Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay Yes Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian No Oana Savescu
   Russian No Denis Paperno
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Sasak Yes Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Shan No Alif Silpachai
   Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Spanish No Michael A. Estrada
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tlingit No James Crippen
   Tocharian A No Bernhard Koller
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: nda itá ruã ixé
  Gloss: NEG stone NEG I
  Translation: I am not (a) stone/I am no stone
  Comment: The standard negation is nda...i. In order to negate noun predicates or nominalized predicates on uses nda...ruã.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Turkish Yes Murat Kural see note on negation in predicative context
  Words: Ahmet hasta değil
  Gloss: Ahmet sick NEG
  Translation: Ahmet is not sick
  Comment: "değil" is the negation marker that is used in negation in the predicative context, i.e., nominal or adjectival predicates, locational predicates, or otherwise any instance where the predicate is not a verb
  Contributor: Murat Kural
  Words: Ahmet öğrenci değil
  Gloss: Ahmet student NEG
  Translation: Ahmet is not a student
  Comment: See note above for negation in predicative context.
  Contributor: Murat Kural
  Words: Ahmet hasta değildi
  Gloss: Ahmet sick NEG-PST
  Translation: Ahmet was not sick
  Comment: This is how predicative negation behaves in past
  Contributor: Murat Kural
  Words: Ahmet öğrenci değildi
  Gloss: Ahmet student NEG-PST
  Translation: Ahmet was not a student
  Comment: Negation in predicative context in past tense
  Contributor: Murat Kural
  Words:  Ahmet hasta olmayacak
  Gloss: Ahmet sick be-NEG-FUT
  Translation: Ahmet will not be sick
  Comment: Predicative negation in future tense -- note that the verb "ol" is closer to "become" than "be" in Turkish. It's minimally ambiguous between the state and achievement, and generallly has the sense of "transition"
  Contributor: Murat Kural
  Words: Ahmet öğrenci olmayacak
  Gloss: Ahmet student be-NEG-FUT
  Translation: Ahmet will not be a student
  Comment: Predicative negation in the future tense. The present tense (which is more like present progressive in that it indicate "right now") also behaves this way, i.e., requires the verb "ol".
  Contributor: Murat Kural
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zamboageño Chabacano No Grace Gaspardo
   Zulu No Claire Halpert