Neg 11_Distinct Negation of Class/Property

Distinct Negation of Class/Property is set to yes when the strategy used for the negation of predications of class inclusion and property assignments differs from Standard Negation (i.e. the negation used with the equivalent of verbs like sing: Mary did not sing).

Definition of Predication of Class/Property

The negation strategy used in predications of class/property can be established on the basis of sentences such as the following:

Tom is not normal
This man is not a doctor

In Tahitian, the inclusive particle e which introduces predications of class inclusion cannot occur under negation. It is replaced by the negation marker ‘ere and the word order of the negated predication changes.

Tahitian (Austronesian, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Polynesian, Nuclear, East), (Lazard and Peltzer, 1999: 155):
a. E faehau terā ta’ata
INC soldier DEM man
’This man is a soldier.’
(INC = Inclusive particle, indicating inclusion or existence in a category)

b. E’ere terā ta’ata i te faechau
NEG DEM man PREP ART soldier
’This man is not a soldier.’

For the negation of verbal predications one has to use different negation markers, ‘aita/’aore or ‘eita/’eore and also a different syntactic construction.

(Tahitian (Austronesian, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Polynesian, Nuclear, East), (Lazard and Peltzer, 1999: 155):

a. ‘ua reva te taote
TAM leave ART doctor
‘The doctor left.'

b. ‘aita te taote i reva
NEG ART doctor TAM leave
‘The doctor did not leave.’

The values for this property should be yes or no

Contributed by: Ljuba Veselinova
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Abaza No Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
   Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: kasa astämari aydälläm
  Gloss: K. teacher be.neg.3ms
  Translation: 'Kasa is not a teacher'
  Comment: Although the a--m in aydälläm are identical with the negative markers in the imperfective verb, aydälläm is a suppletive form for the copula näw 'he is not' and the stem *-däll- is unproductive.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
+ Bambara Yes Bryan Villa There is distinct negation for adjectives
  Words: a man kènè
  Gloss: he not well
  Translation: He is not well
  Comment: from TNBG 23
  Contributor: Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi No Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
   Bulgarian No Ljuba Veselinova
+ Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
  Words: thuhka ka na-me=co dayai'ta ma-hou' hpu
  Gloss: Thuka SBJ famous director NEG-true NEG
  Translation: Thuka is not a famous director.
  Contributor: Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Chol No Jessica Coon
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Czech No Peter Kosta
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: si-we mutu wa handzo; u-kongo hinyo si-o wa ku-mu-rya; mino si dza atu a-njina
  Gloss: NEG-2SG CL1.person CL1.ASS CL10.lies; CL14-sickness CL14.DEM NEG-CL14 CL14.ASS INF-3SG(obj)-eat; 1SG(emphatic) NEG like CL2.people CL2.others
  Translation: you are not a liar; this sickness is not fatal; I am not like other people
  Comment: The copula in affirmative clauses is either 'ndi' plus a class marker, or the invariable copula 'ni'; both are negated using 'si' with or without a class
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
+ Dutch No Hilda Koopman It is a bit unclear to me how you want me to deal with geen. see the comments on the example; I set this to no: at least one of the context can have a distinct negation. But this is not dependent on type of predciate, but on the presence of an indefinite
  Words: Jan is niet normaal
  Gloss: John is NEG normal
  Translation: John is not normal
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Hij is geen dokter; Hij is niet normaal
  Gloss: He is NEG-INDEF doctor; He is NEG normal
  Translation: He is not a doctor/ He is not normal
  Comment: With adjectives, the standard Neg is used, but with predicative nouns, NEG is relalized as a negative determiner "g-een" with immediately adjacent indefinite. (g-indef N). Here the form *hij is niet een dokter with the regular negation niet seems excluded, unless een doctor is contrastively focused. On the other hand with predciative adjectives the standards negation occurs. I don't know how to set this property: it could be yes (as it would be done for lesser studied languages on the basis of class, or n
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Hij is geen dokter; Hij is niet normaal
  Gloss: He is NEG.INDEF doctor; He is NEG normal
  Translation: Hij isn't a doctor; He is not normal
  Comment: With adjectives, the standard Neg is used, but with predicative nouns, NEG is relalized as a negative determiner "g-een" . (g-indef N). The form #hij is niet een dokter' with the regular negation 'niet' seems rather bad, unless doctor is contrastive (or polarity is focused.)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
+ Fijian Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: tawa-yaga
  Gloss: NOT-useful
  Translation: ‘useless’
  Comment: “TAWA- is a negative prefix that occurs before some stative verbs.”
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: tawa- mudu
  Translation: ‘endless’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: tawa-macala
  Translation: ‘unclear’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: tawa-kilikili
  Translation: ‘inappropriate’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: tawa-kila-i
  Translation: ‘unknown’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: tabu-sili
  Translation: ‘unwashed’
  Comment: “tabu- as a prefix sometimes has a pejorative meaning”
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: tabu-teve
  Translation: ‘uncircumcised’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: tabu-lotu
  Translation: ‘irreligious’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Viola Schmitt
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek No Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
+ Haitian No Michel DeGraff
  Words: Jan pa nòmal / Jan pa doktè
  Gloss: John NEG nomal/ John NEG doctor
  Translation: John is not normal/ John is not a doctor
  Comment: There's no other negative form to use there, except that one can emphasize negation with a clause-final _non_ as in: Jan pa nòmal non Jan pa doktè non And we can also emphasize affirmation with a clause-final _wi_ as in: Jan nòmal wi Jan doktè wi
  Contributor: Michel DeGraff
   Hausa No Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Gurprit Bains
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa It might depend on how to analyze a copula in Japanese.
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
+ Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
  Words: yayá ka ngángá ko
  Gloss: brother NEG(=ka) H(BE) doctor NEG(=ko)
  Translation: My brother is not a doctor
  Comment: (H tone =be). ka...ko (=Neg).
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin No Timothy Ho
   Maori No Ray Harlow
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
   Middle Dutch No Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
  Words: huwwa ma.shii duktur
  Gloss: he NEG.NEG doctor
  Translation: He is not a doctor. (= He is not a thing that is a doctor.)
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
+ Old English Yes Willem Koopman
  Comment: words other than finite verbs are regularly negated by na/no. With finite verbs this is very rare, ne is used instead.
  Contributor: Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Denis Paperno
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Shan No Alif Silpachai
   Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Spanish No Michael A. Estrada
+ Swedish No fredrik heinat
  Words: Flickan är inte doktor.
  Gloss: girl.DEF is NEG doctor.
  Translation: The girl is not a doctor.
  Comment: Negation follows the finite copula.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tlingit No James Crippen
   Tocharian A No Bernhard Koller
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Itá endé / Nda itá ruã endé
  Gloss: stone you / NEG stone NEG you
  Translation: You are (a) stone / You are not a stone
  Comment: Nda...ruã... is used to negate when the predicate is a noun, pronoun or adverb. To negate a verb (1st and 2nd class indicative) the negation is nda/na...-i
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Murat Kural See note on negation in the predicative context
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zamboageño Chabacano No Grace Gaspardo
   Zulu No Claire Halpert