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Neg 14_Distinct Negation of Location

Definition
Distinct Negation of Location is set to yes when the strategy used for the negation of predications of location differs from Standard Negation.

Definition of Predication of Location

The negation strategy used in predications of location can be established on the basis of sentences such as the following:

Tom is not at home.
The boys are not home.

Generally, it is very rare for a language to have a special strategy for the negation of locative predications only; however at least one such case is known (below). The negation strategy used for predications of location may be identical with the negation strategy used for predications of identity and/or class inclusion. Alternatively, the strategy used for negation of location may be identical with the strategy used for the negation of predications of existence.

Examples
In Kiowa, a Native American language, the particle hę́ is used as a free form to indicate temporary absence. Verbal predications in Kiowa are negated by inital negative particle hón and the negative suffix -(C) ó/-gú

(1) Kiowa (Tanoan), (Stassen, 1997: 94) citing Watkins (Watkins, 1980):

a. Gûyte Ø-t’ó
Other 3.SG-stay
‘Someone else is here.’

b. hę́ Ø-dó
gone 3SG-be
’He is not here.’

(2) Kiowa (Tanoan) (Miestamo, 2003/2005: 293) citing (Watkins, 1984: 204, 214):

a. k’yą́·hį· Ø-cán
man 3SG-arrive.PFV
‘The man came.’

b. hón máthɔ́n Ø-cą́·n-ɔ́· khí·dêl-gó’
NEG girl 3SG-arrive.PFV-NEG yesterday-since
‘The girl hasn’t come since yesterday’

In Turkish, a particle değil is used for the negation of predications of identity, property and location. Standard negation is expressed by a suffix -me-.

(3) Turkish (Altaic, Turkic)
a. Hasta yım
ill 1.SG
’I am ill.’

b. Hasta değil-im
ill NEG-1.SG
’I am not ill.'
(Van Schaaik, 1994: 41)

c. Ev-de-ydi-k
house-LOC-PST-1.PL
’We were at home.’

d. Ev-de değil-di-k
house-LOC NEG-PST-1.PL
’We were not at home.’
(Van Schaaik, 1994: 41)

e. Gel-ecek
come-FUT
'(she) will come.’

f. Gel-me-yecek
come-NEG-FUT
’(she) will not come.'
(Van Schaaik, 1994: 38, 39)

(4) Kuot (Isolate, Papua New Guinea/New Ireland), Eva Lindström, p.c. Standard negation is expressed by təle:

a. titsa-ieŋ Mary
teacher-3.F.SG.SUBJ Mary
‘Mary is a teacher.’

b. təle titsa-ieŋ M
NEG teacher-3.F.SG.SUBJ M
Mary is not a teacher.'

Negation of locative and existential predication is expressed by karuk

c. Mary uro
Mary u-to
Mary 3F-here
‘Mary is here’

d. Karuk o Mary tako
is.not of.3.F Mary here
‘Mary is not here’

e. Ame tomato-p mi-lə blu-meŋ
exist tomato-PL 3PL-RELR blue-3.PL.SUBJ
‘There are blue tomatoes’/
’Blue tomatoes exist’

f. Karuk ma tomato-p mi-lə blu-meŋ
is.not of.3.PL tomato-PL 3.PL-RELR blue-3.PL.SUBJ
‘There are no blue tomatoes.’/
’Blue tomatoes do not exist.’

The values for this property should be yes or no

Contributed by: Ljuba Veselinova
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
   Abaza No Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
   Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: kasa bet yälläm
  Gloss: K. house exist.neg.3mss
  Translation: 'Kasa is not in the house'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi No Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
+ Bulgarian Yes Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: Todor i Dana gi njama
  Gloss: Todor and Dana 3.PL.ACC not.have.3.SG.PRS
  Translation: Todor and Dana are not here
  Comment: may also mean Todor and Dana are dead. The special negator njama and the whole construction above cannot be used in constructions of contrastive negation such as Todor and Dana are not here but at work.
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Chol Yes Jessica Coon
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Czech No Peter Kosta
+ Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
  Words: BadEre kye yiri pUO
  Gloss: BadEre NEG.be house inside
  Translation: Spider is not at home
  Contributor: Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: Ligundzu che ta-ku=na magari barabara-ni. (Compare: Ligundzu che ku=na magari barabara-ni.)
  Gloss: morning HOD NEG-CL17=COM CL6.cars road-LOC
  Translation: This morning there were no cars on the road. (Compare: This morning there were cars on the road.)
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
+ Dutch No Hilda Koopman
  Words: Tom is niet in zijn kamer
  Gloss: Tom is not in his room
  Translation: Tom is not in his room
  Comment: with a definite subjet.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: er is niemand op straat
  Gloss:  there is noone in the street
  Translation: there is noone in the street
  Comment: With indefinite subjects, negation is realized as a negative determiner (n-ie-man-d). This is generally the case, and not dependent on the presence of an existential predicate, therefore this property is set to NO.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
   European Portuguese No Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu performed by a verb 'be absent', replacing the positive verb
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu Same replacive copula as for existence
  Words: Amɛ bɛ tsu lɛ mli
  Gloss: 3PL not.be room DEF inside
  Translation: They are not in the room
  Comment: Compare Distinct Negation of Existence
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Viola Schmitt
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek No Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hausa No Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
   Hindi No Gurprit Bains
   Hittite No Mattyas Huggard
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: Kati nincs itt.
  Gloss: Kati-NOM NEG.exist/loc.3sg here
  Translation: Kati isn't here
  Comment: "nincs(en)" is the same for existential and locative. 3pl is "nincsenek". In the 1st and 2nd persons the existential/locative verb takes standard negation ("nem vagyok" etc.), likewise in all persons in the past,
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun Yes Iris Wu
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese Yes Ken Hiraiwa Negation of inanimate verbs of location is expressed with the negation "na-i" alone (in standard Japanese).
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin No Timothy Ho
   Maori No Ray Harlow
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
   Middle Dutch No Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
  Words: Ahmed ma.shii fi.d.daar
  Gloss: Ahmed NEG.NEG in.DEF.house
  Translation: Ahmed is not at home.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: Ahmed ma.kayn.sh fi.d.daar
  Gloss: Ahmed NEG.exist.NEG in.DEF.house
  Translation: Ahmed is not at home.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
   nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
   Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Old English No Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One No Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian No Oana Savescu
   Russian No Denis Paperno
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Shan No Alif Silpachai
   Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Spanish No Michael A. Estrada
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: Wala dito ang babae.
  Gloss: not.exist here Abs woman
  Translation: The woman is not here.
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tlingit No James Crippen
   Tocharian A No Bernhard Koller
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Murat Kural see note on negation in predicative context
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zamboageño Chabacano No Grace Gaspardo