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V2 01_Declarative Verb-Second

Definition
The property Declarative Verb Second has the value “yes” when the language allows one and only one constituent to precede the finite verb in declarative main clauses.

Definition of Finite Verb


In order to determine whether a given language has the value “yes”, it is important to test counterparts of the (Swedish) examples in (a-c), in order to make sure that various parts of speech may precede the finite verb, and it is also important to test the counterpart of the (Swedish) example in (d), to make sure that only one constituent may precede the finite verb. We restrict our attention to examples without auxiliaries.

a. Johan äter ett äpple varje dag.
Johan eats an apple every day
‘Johan eats an apple every day.’

b. Ett äpple äter Johan varje dag.
an apple eats Johan every day
‘An apple, Johan eats every day.’

c. Varje dag äter Johan ett äpple.
every day eats Johan an apple
‘Every day Johan eats an apple.’

d. * Varje dag Johan äter ett äpple.
every day Johan eats an apple
‘Every day Johan eats an apple.’

NA (Not Applicable): A language has the value NA for this property if the finite verb cannot be determined.

Examples:

1. English is ‘no’ for the property Declarative Verb Second since more than one constituent may precede the finite verb in declarative main clauses.

John eats an apple every day.
Every day John eats an apple.

2. Swedish is ‘yes’ for the property Declarative Verb Second. This also holds when the finite verb is an auxiliary.

Johan har ätit ett äpple nu.
Johan has eaten an apple now
‘Johan has eaten an apple now.’

Nu har Johan ätit ett äpple.
now has Johan eaten an apple
‘Now Johan has eaten an apple.’

* Nu Johan har ätit ett äpple.
now Johan has eaten an apple

3. Kashmiri is ‘yes’ for the property Declarative Verb Second.

Me dits Mohnas yi kəmi:z ba:gas mans.
I.ERG gave Mohan.DAT this shirt garden in
‘I gave Mohan this shirt in the garden.’

yi kəmi:z dits me Mohnas ba:gas mans.
this shirt gave I.ERG Mohan.DAT garden in
‘This shirt I gave Mohan in the garden.’

* yi kəmi:z me dits Mohnas ba:gas mans.
this shirt I.ERG gave Mohan.DAT garden in
‘This shirt I gave Mohan in the garden.’

kaNhtshaa oosuyi tse tshaanDaan
someone.NOM was you.DAT look.NONPERFECTIVE
‘Someone was looking for you.’

tse oosuyi kaNhtshaa tshaanDaan
you.DAT was someone.NOM look.NONPERFECTIVE
‘It was you that someone was looking for.’

4. Northern Sami is ‘no’ for the property Declarative Verb Second, since more than one constituent may precede the finite verb in declarative main clauses.

Jovnna borra eahppela juohke beaivvi.
Jovnna eats apple every day

Juohke beaivvi Jovnna borra eahppela.
every day Jovnna eats apple

Contributed by: Marit Julien and Gunlög Josefsson and Lars-Olof Delsing
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: Gister het Marie Londen besoek
  Gloss: yesterday has Mary London visit.PST.PTCP
  Translation: Yesterday Mary visited London
  Comment: Other than modal particles and the sentential negator, any XP may precede the finite verb in Afrikaans main clauses.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
   Akan-twi No AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa
   Bardi No Claire Bowern
   Basaa NA Paul Roger Bassong
   Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Priyanka Biswas
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
   Bulgarian No Ljuba Veselinova
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
  Words: Mary mui jat hai ukkei sik yat go pinggwo
  Gloss: Mary every day at home eat one CLF apple
  Translation: Mary eats an apple at home every day.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Chol No Jessica Coon
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
+ Czech No Peter Kosta
  Words: Pavel tu knihu koupil odpoledne
  Gloss: PavelNOM_Det_ book.ACC bought_in the afternoon
  Translation: ‘Pavel bought the book in the afternoon'
  Contributor: Peter Kosta
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
   Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
   Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Digo No Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler The constiuent order is relatively free, but verb-final clauses are statistically prevalent
+ Dutch Yes Lotte Hendriks
  Words: Jan eet elke dag een appel.
  Gloss: John eats every day an apple
  Translation: “John eats an apple every day.”
  Comment: The example holds as well for auxiliaries. Only the finite auxiliary is fronted.
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: Elke dag eet Jan een appel.
  Gloss: Every day eats John an apple
  Translation: “Every day John eats an apple.”
  Comment: The example holds as well for auxiliaries. Only the finite auxiliary is fronted.
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: Appel-tjes eet Jan elke dag.
  Gloss: Apple-DIM.PL eats John every day
  Translation: “Little apples, John eats every day.”
  Comment: The example holds as well for auxiliaries. Only the finite auxiliary is fronted.
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: Jan zal voortaan iedere dag om 7 uur naar huis fietsen.
  Gloss: John will henceforth every day at 7 o’clock to home cycle.
  Translation: “From now on John will cycle home every day at 7 o’clock.”
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: * Elke dag Jan /hij /'k eet een appel.
  Gloss: Every day John / he / I eat an apple
  Translation: “Every day John / he / I eat(s) an apple.” (* means ungrammatical)
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
  Words: * Jan zal eten elke dag een appel.
  Gloss: John will eat every day an apple
  Translation: “John will eat an apple every day.”
  Comment: Only the finite auxiliary can be fronted.
  Contributor: Lotte Hendriks
   Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   Estonian Yes Mark Norris
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen
+ Farsi No Natasha Schimka
  Words: Hassan pirhan-o barâ Nikta xar-id
  Gloss: Hassan shirt-RA for Nikta buy.3SG.PST
  Translation: Hassan bought a shirt for Nikta
  Comment: The typical word order is subject-PP-object-verb, but if the object has -ra (is specific/definite), the object obligatorily precedes the PP
  Contributor: Natasha Schimka
   Fijian No Zhenyu Sun
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German Yes Viola Schmitt
   Ghɔmáĺá' No Francine Moguo
+ Greek No Arhonto Terzi
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hausa No Michael A. Estrada
   Hebrew No asaf bachrach
   Hindi NA Gurprit Bains
   Hittite NA Mattyas Huggard
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
   Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler The constiuent order is relatively free, but verb-final clauses are statistically prevalent
   Isbukun Bunun No Iris Wu
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) No Giovanni Pairotti
  Words: tunc de ecclesia monazontes cum ymnis ducunt episcopum usque ad Anastasim
  Gloss: then from the church: ABL monazontes: NOM with hymns: ABL accompany: PRS: 3PL the bishop: ACC all the way to the Anastasis: ACC
  Translation: ‘then the monazontes accompany the bishop with hymns from the church to the Anastasis’
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 25.2) – Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Giovanni Pairotti
   Lebanese Arabic No Lina Choueiri
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Mandarin No Timothy Ho
   Maori No Ray Harlow
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
   Medumba No KEUPDJIO HERMANN SIDOINE
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: Bi ghenen twiuele noch bi ghenen onspoede en suldi laten doecht te werkene
  Gloss: Upon no doubt nor upon any misfortune NEG shall-you abstain virtue to work
  Translation: Under no circumstances shall you abstain from doing virtue
  Comment: V2 is the standard pattern. The preverbal negative clitic does not count for V2.
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
  Words: kulla nhar Tommy ka.ya.kul dejaj
  Gloss: every day Tommy PRES.M.eat.3SG chicken
  Translation: Every day Tommy eats chicken.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang No Bebey Théodore
  Words: gevi (nahma) Lawan á gráy
  Gloss: Play (Top) Lawan 3sg do
  Translation: “Play, Lawan does” (approximate translation: the activity of playing is important for Lawan)
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N|u No Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
   Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
+ Old English Yes Willem Koopman
  Comment: personal pronoun subjects generally precede the verb, nominal subjects usually follow, but there also examples where they precede and Verb-Second does not take place.
  Contributor: Willem Koopman
+ Old French Yes Heather Burnett
  Words: Mut est Lanval en grant esfreie
  Gloss: Much is Lanval in great fear
  Translation: Lanval is in very great fear!
  Comment: Marie de France. (1180). 78.1592
  Contributor: Heather Burnett
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden V2 is the dominant word order in Old Saxon main clauses. See section 3.2 of Walkden, George (2014). Syntactic Reconstruction and Proto-Germanic. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  Words: Mattheus uuas he hêtan
  Gloss: Matthew was he called
  Translation: He was called Matthew
  Comment: (Heliand 1192)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One No Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith There is a second person clitic complex of agreement, aspect, and modality.
+ Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Paweł tę książkę kupił po południu.
  Gloss: Paul.Nom this book.Acc bought after noon
  Translation: Paul bought this book in the afternoon.'
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian No Denis Paperno
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Spanish No Michael A. Estrada
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
  Comment: See property definition.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural
   Tuvan No Mark Donohue
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
  Words: Mổi ngày ảnh ăn tao.
  Gloss: Everyday he eat apple
  Translation: Everyday he eats apples.
  Contributor: Jimmy Nguyen
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
   Warlpiri No Margit Bowler Warlpiri has a second position auxiliary clitic. The auxiliary is phonologically null in the past tense.
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
  Words: Valère komt morgen were
  Gloss: Valère com-3sg tomorrow back
  Translation: 'Valère is coming back tomorrow.'
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolof No Hilda Koopman
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
   Yoruba NA Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zamboageño Chabacano No Grace Gaspardo
   Zulu No Claire Halpert