22_Noun Pronominal Possessor

The property Noun Pronominal Possessor has the value "yes" when at least one pronominal possessor can follow the noun it modifies in a neutral context.

Good contexts to set this property are given below. In these contexts, the noun phrase is definite or has been previously mentioned.
Furthermore, possession is restricted to alienable possession where there is no contrastive focus on the possessor. These contexts should be tested with possessors of all person, number and gender values.

What are you painting? My house.
What is Bill reading? His book.

The term pronominal is used in the broadest sense and includes what linguists or grammars might call clitics, weak pronouns, strong pronouns, pronominal agreement markers [add link] affixes, or adjectival possessors. What matters is whether the pronominal possessor follows the possessed noun, not if the pronominal possessor forms a tight unit with the noun or is written as a single word with the noun.

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Noun Pronominal Possessor does not exclude a "yes" value for Pronominal Possessor Noun.

NA (Not Applicable): Since all known languages have pronominal possessors and nouns, this property is always defined.

1. Malagasy is “yes” for this property, as pronominal possessors follow the noun:

ny trano-ko (trano=house, ko=1SG.gen)
DET house-1SG.GEN
’My house’

ny trano-nao
DET house-2SG.GEN
‘Your house’

ny trano-ny
DET house-3SG
‘His/her house’

Comment: The 3rd singular possessor is homophonous with the definite determiner. Pronominal possessors form a tight unit with the noun, but do not cause stress shift.

2. Wolof is “yes” for this property, as 3rd person pronominal possessors follow the noun in a neutral context.

kër – am
house - 3SG
‘His/her house’

book- 3SG
‘His/her book’

Comment: Third person singular pronominal possessors follow the noun and agree in ATR harmony, first and second pronominal possessors precede the N, as do 3rd person plural possessors.

3. English is “no” for this property: although pronominal possessors can follow the N in some contexts, it cannot be used as a definite NP.

Q(uestion): Who build your house? A(nswer): John build *a/the house of mine
Q(uestion): What color is your house? A(nswer) *A house of mine is white.

4. Japanese is “no” for this property, as pronominal possessors cannot follow the noun.

*ie kare-ra- no
house 3- PL.GEN
‘Their house’

*ie watasi-no
house 1st - GEN
‘My house’

5. French is “no” for this property. Pronominal possessors must precede noun.
*Maison sa
house.FEM 3SG.FEM
‘His/her house’

*La maison à lui\ *la maison de lui
The house to/at him\ the house of him

Some pronominal possessors can follow the noun, preceded by the preposition à:

ma maison à moi
1SG.FEM house.FEM to/at me
‘my house’

Such examples must be understood with some focus on the possessor (my house as opposed to someone else’s). As this is not a neutral context, this is not sufficient to yield a “yes” value. (Note also that such forms must be doubled with a ‘weak’ prenominal possessive form. ‘Sa maison à Jean ‘lit. his house to/at John’ John’s house)

Contributed by: Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Abaza No Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese Yes Julie Legate
   Adyghe No Yury Lander
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: libri im/yt …
  Gloss: book-the my/your ...
  Translation: my/your book
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner Not a neutral word order; postnominal pronominal possessors have distinct prosodic properties and felicity conditions on use.
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: bet-e
  Gloss: house-my/1sPOSS
  Translation: 'my house'
  Comment: The suffix genitive pronouns can be considered as agreement elements but are incompatible with the possessor. The same elements appear in nominal clauses in identification to a genitive subject but in such cases we do not see incompatibility between the suffix genitive pronouns and the subject that they agree with.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: ho patḕr ho emós
  Gloss: ART-NOM.SG father-NOM.SG ART-NOM.SG my-NOM.SG
  Translation: 'My father'
  Comment: Isaeus 5.5. Note that the repetition of the article is required for the 1st and 2nd sg./pl. adjective possessors and the reflexive possessor pronouns of the six persons. This repetition is excluded with non-reflexive possessor pronouns (see the other example and the PRONOMINAL POSSESSOR NOUN section).
  Contributor: Richard Faure
  Words: ho patḗr mou
  Gloss: ART-NOM.SG father-NOM.SG me-GEN
  Translation: ‘My father’
  Comment: Isocrate 17.4. See the other example and the comment under the PRONOMINAL POSSESSOR NOUN section.
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: Ahmed qaraa ketab-i
  Gloss: Ahmed read.PST book-my
  Translation: Ahmed read my book
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Babanki Yes Pius Akumbu
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: mbû yà
  Gloss: dog 1SG
  Translation: My dog
  Comment: This order is used in the neutral context. Pronominal possessor must agree with noun in class and number
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast Yes Mark Miller
   Bambara No Hilda Koopman
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: màn wɛ̀́m
  Gloss: 1child 1SG.POSS
  Translation: my child
  Comment: (still need to add an example with alienable noun). The order POSS N is only possible with focus on the possessor
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Bellinzonese No Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
   Bengali No Priyanka Biswas OK under kinship inversion.
+ Bole Yes Alhaji Gimba
  Words: (1) taka-no (2) taka-to (3) takinshe-su
  Gloss: (1) shoe-my (2) shoe-her (3) shoes-their
  Translation: (1) my shoe (2) her shoe (3) their shoes
  Comment: Possessive pronouns in Bole are clitics, suffixed to the possessed nouns.
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese No Bruna Moreira
+ Bulgarian No Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: kəshta moja
  Gloss: house.F 1.SG.POSS
  Translation: house my
  Comment: this is possible only in very marked styles such as poetry
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
+ Catalan Yes Victoria Mateu
  Words: anirem a casa teva
  Gloss: go.FUT.1PL to house.SG.FEM your.SG.FEM
  Translation: 'We'll go to your house'
  Comment: This order is especially frequent with 'house', although it can also be found with other nouns, e.g. 'amor meu' ('my love'). Notice that when the noun precedes the pronominal possessor the determiner is usually not realized.
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
   Chichewa Yes Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Chol Yes Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: To spitin mu/su/tu/tis/mas/sas/tus.
  Gloss: the house my/your/his/her/our/your/their
  Translation: My/your/his/her/our/your/their house.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Czech No Peter Kosta * dům můj jeho, náš, svůj
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) No Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: nyumba y-angu, nyumba y-ehu, nyumba-y-o, nyumba y-enu, nyumba-y-e, nyumba y-ao
  Gloss: CL9.house CL9-1SG.POS, CL9.house CL9-1PL.POS, CL9.house-CL9-2SG.POS, CL9.house CL9-2PL.POS, CL9.house-CL9-3SG.POS, CL9.house CL9-3PL.POS,
  Translation: my house, our house, your (sg) house, your (pl) house, her/his house, their house
  Comment: The 2SG and 3SG possessive pronouns are monosyllabic and appear as affixes on the head noun. Possessive pronouns always occur adjacent to the head noun or demonstrative.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler
+ Dutch No Lotte Hendriks not with definite noun phrases..Perhaps OK with specific indefinites
  Words: Wat ben je aan het lezen? Een boek van mij/*?het boek van mij
  Gloss: What are you at the read.INF? A book of me /*?the book of my
  Translation: What are you reading? A book of mine/the book of mine
  Comment: Postnominal genitives are pretty fine, as long as the noun phrase is indefinite;
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
   Egyptian Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
   English No Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   Estonian No Mark Norris
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen
+ Farsi Yes Natasha Schimka
  Words: Ketâb-e man
  Gloss: Book-ez I
  Translation: My book
  Contributor: Natasha Schimka
   Fijian No Zhenyu Sun
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: talo-ni
  Gloss: house-1SG.POSS
  Translation: my house
  Comment: The pronominal possessor is a clitic/inflection.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Frisian (West Frisian) No Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Ghɔmáĺá' Yes Francine Moguo
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: to vivlio mu/tu/tis ...
  Gloss: the book my/his/her ...
  Translation: my/his/her book
  Comment: The pronominal possessor is a clitic.
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: ta aðelfça=m (Dawkins 1916: 428)
  Gloss: ART.DEF.PL.ACC brother.PL.ACC=1SG.GEN
  Translation: my brothers
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greek (Pontic) Yes Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis Adjectival/agreeing possessives can only be prenominal. Instead, possessive clitics can only be postnominal.
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
+ Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: àwù cè
  Gloss: shirt 1sgPoss
  Translation: my shirt
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene Yes Samuel Atintono
   Haitian Yes Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
   Hausa Yes Russell Schuh
   Hebrew Yes asaf bachrach
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: beti
  Gloss: house (bet)-1.SG
  Translation: my house
  Comment: Nouns with pronominal suffixes are in the so called construct state, meaning, in this example, "house of".
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Anoop Mahajan
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
+ Icelandic Yes Jim Wood According to Thráinsson (2007:90) ("The Syntax of Icelandic" CUP), this is the normal order in neutral situations. It often, but not always, requires the definite marker on the head noun.
  Words: bók-in mín
  Gloss: book-the my
  Translation: my book
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:90)
  Contributor: Jim Wood
   Igala Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Igbo Yes Mary Amaechi
   Iha Yes Mark Donohue
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian Yes Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese No Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Khasi Yes Gracious Temsen
+ KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
  Words: lwĭmbo lwăgé
  Gloss: 11song 11.his/her
  Translation: 'his/her song'
  Contributor: Kasangati Kinyalolo
+ Kinande Yes Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
  Words: e-ki-tábu ki-age
  Gloss: AUG-7-book 7-my
  Translation: 'my book'
  Comment: pronominal determiner agrees in class with the head noun
  Contributor: Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kiswahili Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka Yes Lukowa Kidima
+ Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
  Words: fItám fem fI'
  Gloss: 19.guava my 19.agr
  Translation: my guava
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Korean No Chung-hye Han
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal No Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: *ma m
  Gloss:  mother my
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal Yes Florian Lionnet
+ Lango Yes Arwa Rangwala Pronominal associatives have a number of peculiarities. First, though they too distinguish alienable from inalienable, both kinds are suffixes and do not use the associative particle. Instead, the difference is indicated by gemmination (alienable) and its lack (inalienable) (Noonan 1992: 158).
  Words: búkkə̀ à dwôŋ
  Gloss: book.1SPOSS ATT big
  Translation: my big book (Noonan 1992: 159 ex 1a.)
  Comment: Pronominal associatives can be suffixed to the head noun or the last element of the NP (Noonan 1992: 159).
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: búkk à dwóŋ'ŋə́
  Gloss: book ATT big.1SPOSS
  Translation: my big book (Noonan 1992: 159 ex 1b.)
  Comment: Pronominal associatives can be suffixed to the head noun or the last element of the NP (Noonan 1992: 159).
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: pyènə́
  Gloss: skin.1SG
  Translation: my skin (Noonan 1992: 158 ex 1.)
  Comment: This is an inalienable noun--note the lack of gemmination (see property value comment).
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: pyènnə́
  Gloss: skin.1SPOSS
  Translation: my (animal) hide (Noonan 1992: 158 ex 1.)
  Comment: This noun is alienable--note the gemmination signifying this (see property value comment).
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Words: in omni vita sua
  Gloss: in entire:ABL life:ABL his:ABL
  Translation: 'in his entire life'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 9.2) General distribution for phi-features-agreeing possessive adjectives in the Itin. Eg: N-PronominalPoss orders: 96 / 101 = 95% (Gianollo 2005: 175). This is the situation attested also in the Vulgata, cf. Gianollo 2011 - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic Yes Lina Choueiri
   Lubukusu Yes Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman
   Mada Yes Bebey Théodore
+ Malagasy Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: ny trano.ko
  Gloss: DET house.1SG.GEN
  Translation: ’My house’
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: ny trano.ny
  Gloss: Det house.3SG
  Translation: His/her house
  Comment: 3rd sg poss is homophonous with the determiner
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Malayalam No Mythili Menon
   Mandarin No Timothy Ho
   Maori No Ray Harlow
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: bok eo a-ō
  Gloss: book the.SG GENERAL.POSS.CLF-1SG.GEN
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: Waer es die evangelie dijn
  Gloss: where is the.F gospel.F your.ø
  Translation: Where is your gospel?
  Comment: in post-nominal position, the pronoun remains uninflected
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
  Words: tləpíy nuwun
  Gloss: leaf.PL my.1SG.M
  Translation: 'my leaves'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: sayyarat.ee
  Gloss: car.1SPOSS
  Translation: my car
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
  Words: SaHeb-hum
  Gloss: friend.3PPOSS
  Translation: their friend
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
  Words: Wal gayak
  Gloss: Woman your
  Translation: your wife
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N|u No Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) No John Garcia
   Navajo No Hilda Koopman
   Nawdm No Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce No Amy Rose Deal
   Nkore-Kiga Yes Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai Yes Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: eci wun
  Gloss: yam 3.sg
  Translation: 'His/her yam'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
+ Old English Yes Willem Koopman
  Words: sunu min
  Gloss: son VOC my VOC
  Translation: "my son"
  Comment: this order is only really found in the vocative
  Contributor: Willem Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: uuilleon mînes
  Gloss: will 1SG.GEN
  Translation: my will
  Comment: (Heliand 3100)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: I- nzu ya-nje /I- nzu ya -o/ I- nzu ya -ye/ Tsi-nzu tsia-nje/10) I- nzu ya-bu
  Gloss: 9-house 9.a-1sg/9-house 9.a-2/9-house 9.a-3/10.house 10.a-1st/ 10.house 10.a-3rd
  Translation: My house/ your house/hishouse//my houses/their houses
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No Taylor Roberts
   Pima No Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: ojciec mój
  Gloss: father.nom 1sg.nom
  Translation: my father
  Comment: found with kinship nouns; slightly outdated
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Casa deles
  Gloss: house their
  Translation: Their house
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al No Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian Yes Denis Paperno
   Salasaca Quichua No Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec Yes George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
+ Sasak Yes Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
  Words: mata-ne
  Gloss: eye-3POSS
  Translation: 'His eyes'
  Comment: Pancor, Eastern Sasak
  Contributor:  Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Senaya Yes Laura McPherson
   Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: u lìbbru mìu
  Gloss: the bookMS myMS
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Slovenian No Franc Marušič
   Spanish Yes Michael A. Estrada
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: libro ko
  Gloss: book 1s.Gen
  Translation: my book
  Comment: Post-nominal pronominal possessors are clitics.
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: lu libr-a mi / lu librə mi
  Gloss: the book.M.SG-A my.SG / the book.M.SG my.SG
  Translation:  my book
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: la bambul-a mi / *la bambulə mi
  Gloss: the doll.F.SG-A my.SG / the doll.F.SG my.SG
  Translation: my doll
  Comment: The nature of the /a/ used in between the noun and the pronominal possessor is not completely explained yet, although there are prosodic theories available (Passino 2014 among others). It is optional in the case of a masculine noun preceding the pronominal possessor but it is obligatory in the case of a feminine noun preceding the pronominal possessor.
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
+ Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: 'abu-ha
  Gloss: father-her
  Translation: her father
  Comment: P91
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: aqqay-tu
  Gloss: soldier-his
  Translation: 'his soldiers'
  Comment: P18
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Titan Yes Claire Bowern
   Tiwa No Virginia Dawson
+ Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
  Words: ìsé ḿmɔ
  Gloss: dog 1sgPoss
  Translation: my dog
  Comment: post-nominal possessors do not interact tonally with the noun
  Contributor: Laura McPherson
   Tongan No Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala Yes George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) Yes Edmond Biloa
  Words: wutya wame
  Gloss: farm 1.POSS
  Translation: my farm
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Turkish Yes Volkan Tümer
  Contributor: Volkan Tümer
  Contributor: Volkan Tümer
   Tuvan No Mark Donohue
+ Twi No Cansada Martin
  Words: *nsa ne
  Gloss: hand.PL 3.SG.GEN
  Contributor: Cansada Martin
   Udmurt No Orsolya Tanczos
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese Yes Jimmy Nguyen
  Words: Chó anh đi bộ.
  Gloss: Dog my go walk
  Translation: My dog is walking.
  Contributor: Jimmy Nguyen
   Wan No Tatiana Nikitina
+ Warlpiri Yes Margit Bowler
  Words: Maliki nyuntu-nyangu ngurrju.
  Gloss: dog 2SG-POSS good
  Translation: Your dog is nice.
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
   Welsh Yes David Willis
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
+ Wolane Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: gār-hɛ
  Gloss: house-POSS:3sm
  Translation: ‘his house’ (229).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ Wolof Yes Hilda Koopman for 3rd person singular
  Words: kër – am
  Gloss: house - 3SG
  Translation: His/her house
  Comment: Third person singular pronominal possessors follow the noun and agree in ATR harmony, first and second pronominal possessors precede the N, as do 3rd person plural possessors.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
   Yoruba Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
   Zamboageño Chabacano No Grace Gaspardo
   Zulu Yes Claire Halpert