21_Pronominal Possessor Noun

The property Pronominal Possessor Noun has the value "yes" when at least one pronominal possessor can precede the noun it modifies in a neutral context.

Good contexts to set this property are given below. In these contexts, the noun phrase is definite or has been previously mentioned. Furthermore, possession is restricted to alienable possession where there is no contrastive focus on the possessor. These contexts should be tested with possessors of all person, number and gender values.

What are you painting? My house.
What is Bill reading? His book.

The term pronominal is used in the broadest sense and includes what linguists or grammars might call clitics, weak pronouns, strong pronouns, pronominal agreement markers [add link], affixes, or adjectival possessors. What matters is whether the pronominal possessor precedes the possessed noun, not if the pronominal possessor forms a tight unit with the noun or is written as a single word with the noun.

General Note on Word Order Properties:
A "yes" value for Pronominal Possessor Noun does not exclude a "yes" value for Noun Pronominal Possessor.

NA (Not Applicable): Since all known languages have pronominal possessors and nouns, this property is always defined.


1. Japanese is “yes” for this property, as pronominal possessors precede the noun:

watasi-no ie
1sg- GEN house
My house

watasi.tachi-no ie
I. PL- GEN house
‘Our house’

kare.ra- no ie
he. PL- GEN house
‘Their house’

2. Wolof is “yes” for this property, as all personal pronominal possessors precede the noun in a neutral context, except for 3rd person singular pronouns.

Sa-ma kër
1SG house
'my house'

Sama y/i kër
1SG PL house
'my houses'

3. French is “yes” for this property, as pronominal possessors precede the noun in a neutral context.

sa maison / son livre
3SG.FEM house / 3SG MASC book
‘his/her house/ his/her book’

Leur maison
Their house
‘Their house’

Comment: the possessor agrees with the gender and number of the possessed noun.

4. Hindi is “yes” for this property, as pronominal possessors precede the noun:

me- rī kitāb
‘my book’

us kī kitāb
‘his/her book’

-rī is first/second person possessor and SG.FEM possessed noun;
-rā is first/second person possessor and SG.MASC possessed noun;
-re (long e) is first/second person possessor and PL.MASC possessed noun;
-kī is 3rd person possessor or noun phrase and SG.MASC possessed noun.
-ke (long e) is 3rd person possessor or noun phrase and PL.MASC possessed noun.

5. Malagasy is “no” for this property, as no pronominal possessor can precede the noun:

*(ny) ko trano
DET 1SG house

Contributed by: Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
  Words: ’àm kı́- ǃkôa qaẽ
  Gloss: 1SG.GEN PL- house three
  Translation: “my three houses” (Collins and Gruber: 103).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Abaza Yes Brian O'Herin
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: sy boek
  Gloss: his book
  Translation: his book
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
  Words: Jan sy boek
  Gloss: John his book
  Translation: John's book
  Comment: This is a non-standard form in which a possessive pronoun rather than standard Afrikaans "se" - the possessive marker - follows the possessor NP.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
  Words: Sing sing hy!
  Gloss: sing sing he
  Translation: As for singing, he really sings!
  Comment: Unlike other West Germanic languages, Afrikaans permits predicate doubling in V2 contexts (and only in these contexts; embedded predicate doubling is not possible). Predicate doubing can involve either doubling of the finite verb or of a suitably contentful non-finite verb. It is also possible with adjectives, predicative nominals and phrasal predicates. Particle verbs may not double, however.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: mɛ̰́ cὺwá
  Gloss: Mon chien
  Translation: Mon chien
  Comment: Les adjectifs possessifs constituent une série variable en genre, en nombre et en personne. Leur forme dépend, d'une part, de la personne du possesseur, et du nombre du nom déterminé par le possessif d'autre part. Si le possesseur est la personne qui parle, la forme du possessif sera l'une des formes de première personne du singulier.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: mɛ̰́ cὺwá
  Gloss: Mon chien
  Translation: Mon chien
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: wɔ́ cὺwá
  Gloss: Ton chien
  Translation: Ton chien
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: jί cὺwá
  Gloss: Son chien
  Translation: Son chien
  Comment: Les adjectifs possessifs constituent une série variable en genre, en nombre et en personne. Leur forme dépend, d'une part, de la personne du possesseur, et du nombre du nom déterminé par le possessif d'autre part. Si le possesseur est la personne qui parle, la forme du possessif sera l'une des formes de première personne du singulier.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
+ Albanian No Dalina Kallulli this pattern is only productive with relational, human nouns
  Words:  im vëlla
  Gloss: my brother
  Translation: my brother
  Comment: this pattern is only productive with relational, human nouns
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner POSS-1 BOOK ("my book")
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: yä-ne bet
  Gloss: yä-I house
  Translation: 'my house'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: ho emòs patḗr
  Gloss: ART-NOM.SG my-NOM.SG father-NOM.SG
  Translation:  ‘My father’
  Comment: Antiphon 5.77. Note that this is only possible for the 1st and 2nd sg./pl. adjective possessors (the 3rd person does not have an adjective possessor) and the reflexive possessor pronouns of the six persons. For the non-reflexive possessor pronouns see the other example.
  Contributor: Richard Faure
  Words: apékteinen hēmôn tòn patéra
  Gloss: kill-PRET.3SG us-GEN ART-ACC.SG father-ACC.SG
  Translation: ‘She killed our father’
  Comment: Antiphon 1.26. The non-reflexive possessor pronoun is outside the DP and must precede the definite article.
  Contributor: Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Babanki Yes Pius Akumbu
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
   Bambara Yes Hilda Koopman
   Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Bellinzonese Yes Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng Yes Denis Paperno
+ Bengali Yes Priyanka Biswas
  Words: ta-r chele
  Gloss: s/he-GEN/POSS son
  Translation: his/her son
  Contributor: Priyanka Biswas
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
+ Bulgarian Yes Ljuba Veselinova
  Words: moja-ta kəshta
  Gloss: 1.SG.POSS.F-DEF.F house.F
  Translation: my house
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: ngo ge syu
  Gloss: gloss I POSS book
  Translation: my book
  Comment: ge is a possessor marker in Cantonese, resembling de in Mandarin
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
  Words: ngo bun syu
  Gloss: I CLF book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
+ Catalan Yes Victoria Mateu
  Words: la meva casa
  Gloss: the.SG.FEM my.SG.FEM house.SG.FEM
  Translation: 'My house'
  Contributor: Victoria Mateu
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro The pronominal possessor is a prefix.
   Chol No Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
  Words: *tu/tis to spitin
  Gloss: his/her the house
  Translation: His/her house.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Peter Kosta
  Words: můj dům
  Gloss: 1.POSS.M.S house.NOM.M.S
  Translation: my house
  Contributor: Peter Kosta
  Contributor: Peter Kosta
  Contributor: Peter Kosta
   Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
   Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby ALS4 workshop 2016
  Words: nā jú
  Gloss: my child
  Translation: my child
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: nā jú
  Gloss: my child
  Translation: My child
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: nā jú
  Gloss: POSS child
  Translation: My child
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Digo No Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic Yes David Erschler
  Words: mɐn χɐʣarɐ
  Gloss: I.OBL house
  Translation: my house
  Comment: The unmarked strategy is to use possessive prefixes/proclitics
  Contributor: David Erschler
+ Dutch Yes Lotte Hendriks
  Words: Wat lees je? M'n boek
  Gloss: What read 2SG? 1SG.POSS book
  Translation: What are you reading? My book
  Comment: 1SG: “mijn” (strong), “m’n” (weak); 1PL: “ons”, “onze”, (see additional example) 2SG: “jouw” (strong), “je” (weak); 2PL: “jullie”; 2.POL: “uw” 3SG MASC: “zijn” (strong), “z’n” (weak); 3SG.FEM “haar” (strong), “d’r” (weak); 3PL: “hun”.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Wat lezen jullie? Ons boek.
  Gloss: what read 2PL? Our book.sg
  Translation: What are you reading? Our book
  Comment: Two readings (at least): there is a single book being read together, or each reader is reading copies of the same book.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Wat lezen jullie? Onze boeken.
  Gloss: What are you reading? Our.pL book.PL
  Translation: what are you reading? our books
  Comment: multiple books. I am not sure it could be the same book, say a textbook. Dutch speakers out there, what do you think?
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
   Egyptian Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
   Estonian Yes Mark Norris
   Ewe Yes Chris Collins
+ Farefari Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: fu bia
  Gloss: 2SG.POSS child
  Translation: your child
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen In spoken FA the word order is Pronominal Poss + Noun; kinship terms have the word order Noun + Pronominal Possessor (pápi mín father-mine')
+ Fijian Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: no-mu i-talanoa ni kāveti
  Gloss: POS-2S story POS cabbage
  Translation: ‘your cabbage story’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
  Words: no-na manumanu
  Gloss: POS-3S animal
  Translation: ‘his animal’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: minu-n talo-ni
  Gloss: 1SG-GEN house-1SG.POSS
  Translation: my house
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Vincent Homer The pronominal agrees with the possessed noun in gender and number.
  Words: notre tante
  Gloss: POSS-1PL aunt
  Translation: Our aunt
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: mí-wòlò
  Gloss: 1SG.POSS-book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna Yes Pam Munro
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German Yes Viola Schmitt
   Ghɔmáĺá' No Francine Moguo
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek No Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greek (Pontic) Yes Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis Adjectival/agreeing possessives can only be prenominal. Instead, possessive clitics can only be postnominal.
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene Yes Samuel Atintono
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka Yes Iris Wu
   Hausa No Russell Schuh
   Hebrew No asaf bachrach
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
+ Hindi Yes Anoop Mahajan
  Words: us-kii kitaab
  Gloss: he.OBL-GEN.F book.F
  Translation: his book
  Contributor: Anoop Mahajan
   Hittite Yes Mattyas Huggard
+ Hixkaryana Yes Laura Kalin
  Words: noro hok-ru
  Gloss: 3 3.child-POSSN
  Translation: his child
  Comment: An overt pronominal possessor is only possible for third person and first person exclusive "amna". Otherwise the pronominal possessor must be null (i.e., for first person, second person, and first person inclusive). Just as with nominal possessors: the possessor always precedes the possessee. The possessee is marked for person agreement with the possessor (though in this case that agreement is null). Finally, the possessee carries a suffix indicating that it is possessed. (Derbyshire 1985:p. 9)
  Contributor: Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: a te kalap-od
  Gloss: the you-NOM hat-POSS.2sg
  Translation: your hat
  Comment: The definite article is obligatory. Because personal pronouns cannot have an article, we know that it belongs to the whole construction.
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
+ Icelandic No Jim Wood According to Thráinsson (2007:90) ("The Syntax of Icelandic" CUP), this order is only possible with contrastive focus.
  Words: * mín bók-in
  Gloss: my book-the
  Translation: my book
  Comment: From Thráinsson (2007:90)
  Contributor: Jim Wood
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha Yes Mark Donohue
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic Yes David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun Yes Iris Wu
+ Italian Yes Adriana Belletti
  Words: Il mio/tuo/suo/nostro/vostro/loro libro
  Gloss: the my/your/his,her,its/our/your/their book
  Translation: my/your/his,her,its/our/your/their book
  Contributor: Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese Yes Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara Yes Alan Vogel Dixon 2004:295ff, 310ff
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
   Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) Yes Amrit Amritavalli
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   Khasi No Gracious Temsen
+ KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
  Words: na mwăna na lwăgé lwĭmbo
  Gloss: DIST 1child SHARE 11.his/her 11song
  Translation: ‘To each child his/her song.’
  Comment: speicial case.
  Contributor: Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
+ Korean Yes Chung-hye Han
  Words: na-uy cip
  Gloss: 1SG-GEN house
  Translation: my house
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström rare but universally accepted
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: i. m ma ii. ᴐ bυυg iii. ti bυυs
  Gloss: i. 1 Pron. Poss mother ii. 3sg goat.NC iii. 2pl goat.NC
  Translation: i. ‘my mother’ ii. 'his goat' iii. 'our goat'
  Comment: "Pronominal possessors are identical to subject pronouns in Kusaal. Example : m/n ‘I’ fυ ‘you-2Sg’ ᴐ ‘3Sg- s/he’ ti ‘1pl-we’ ya ‘2pl.you’ ba 3pl-they "
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo residual
  Words: in suis monasteriis
  Gloss: in their:ABL monasteries:ABL
  Translation: 'in their monasteries'
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 5.66) residual - General distribution for phi-features-agreeing possessive adjectives in the Itin. Eg: PronominalPoss-N orders: 5 / 101 = 5% (Gianollo 2005: 175). This is the situation attested also in the Vulgata, cf. Gianollo 2011 - Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic No Lina Choueiri
   Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
   Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Hilda Koopman
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
+ Mandarin Yes Timothy Ho
  Words: wo de shu
  Gloss: 1 GEN book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Timothy Ho
+ Maori Yes Ray Harlow
  Words: tōku whare
  Gloss: SG-POSS-1-SG house
  Translation: my house
  Contributor: Ray Harlow
+ Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman It is unclear whether the pronominal attached to the possessive classifier is a clitic, affix or agreement marker.
  Words: *a-ō bok eo
  Gloss: GENERAL.POSS.CLF-1SG.GEN book the.SG
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Comment: see under 03
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
   Miya No Michael A. Estrada Property values and examples are drawn from Schuh, Russell G. 1988. A Grammar of Miya. University of California Press, vol 130, Berkeley, and were verified for accuracy by Schuh.
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang No Bebey Théodore
  Words: ⃰* Goru ahay
  Gloss: my house
  Comment: no prenominal possessors
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
   N|u Yes Chris Collins
+ Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
  Words: no-totol
  Gloss: 1SG.P-turkey
  Translation: "My turkey"
  Comment: Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Navajo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: mà bàːgá
  Gloss: my dog-cl
  Translation: 'my dog' (8).
  Comment: All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' No Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
   Neapolitan No Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce Yes Amy Rose Deal
   Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan Yes Ken Hiraiwa
+ Old English Yes Willem Koopman
  Contributor: Willem Koopman
  Words: hyre frumcennedan sunu
  Gloss: her firstborn ACC son ACC
  Translation: "her firstborn son"
  Contributor: Willem Koopman
  Words: his discipuli
  Translation: "his disciples"
  Contributor: Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
+ Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: þat er ekki mitt skap
  Translation: that is not my inclination
  Comment: This is not neutral context. There is emphasis on "my".
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden
  Words: oƀar is hôƀde
  Gloss: over 3SG.GEN head.DAT
  Translation: over his head
  Comment: (Heliand 5558)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One Yes Mark Donohue
+ panjabi Yes Gurprit Bains
  Words: mer-a bhar-a
  Gloss: my-M.S brother-M.S
  Translation: my brother
  Comment: The possessor agrees with the noun.
  Contributor: Gurprit Bains
  Contributor: Gurprit Bains
  Contributor: Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay Yes Mark Donohue
   Pashto Yes Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: mój dom
  Gloss: 1sg.nom house.nom
  Translation: my house
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Minha vida
  Gloss: my.F life
  Translation: My life
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian Yes Denis Paperno
   Salasaca Quichua Yes Pieter Muysken
+ Samoan Yes Vincent Homer The possessive pre-nominal pronominal is formed by using the article (e.g. "le", "se"), the possessive marker "a" (alienable possession) or "o" (inalienable possession) and a personal pronoun (in that order). In contrast to what happens with a singular definite possessor, the possessive morpheme ("a"/"o") is not necessary with dual or plural possessors.)
  Words: 'o l-o-u ulu
  Gloss: PRES ART-POSS-2 head
  Translation: your head
  Contributor: Vincent Homer
  Words: 'o l-a-'u peni
  Gloss: PRES ART-POSS-1 pen
  Translation: my pen
  Contributor: Vincent Homer
  Words: 'o le matou fale
  Gloss: PRES ART 1.PL house
  Translation: our house
  Contributor: Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic Yes David Adger
   Senaya No Laura McPherson
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: u mo’ lìbbru
  Gloss: the my book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
+ Spanish Yes Michael A. Estrada
  Words: Mi casa
  Gloss: my-1SG.POSS house
  Translation: My house
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
  Words: hennes glass
  Gloss: her ice-cream
  Translation: her ice-cream
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: akin-g libro
  Gloss: 1s-book
  Translation: my book
  Comment: Prenominal possession requires the non-clitic pronominal form.
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *lu mi librə
  Gloss: the my book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: *mi librə
  Gloss: my book
  Translation: my book
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Tigre No Zhenyu Sun
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tiwa Yes Virginia Dawson
+ Tocharian A Yes Bernhard Koller
  Words: ñi peke
  Gloss: my painting
  Translation: my painting
  Comment: source: A 9 b4
  Contributor: Bernhard Koller
   Tocharian B Yes Bernhard Koller
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
+ Tongan Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: 'oku 'ulu fuo lahi 'eku kulí/ 'ene kulí
  Gloss: PRES head big ABS. D. P(a). 1st dog.D/ Abs.D. P(a). 3rd Dog
  Translation: My/his dog has a big head
  Comment: Pronominal possessors follow the Case(P))/Ds, and a possessive/genitive P ( 'a); with specific forms showing contractions/phonological interactions. Ds:definite (h)e; indefinite (h)a , or si'a ( Churchward's 1953 'emotional' article (the poor, my poor); related to si'i 'little'.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa This ordering is only possible with contrastive focus.
  Words: ame okutu
  Gloss: my wife/woman
  Translation: MY wife
  Comment: The pronominal possessor can only precede the NP in cases of constrastive focus in discourse:
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Oré anama
  Gloss: Pronoun.1.PL.EXCL family
  Translation: Our family
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Turkish Yes Volkan Tümer
  Contributor: Volkan Tümer
   Tuvan Yes Mark Donohue
+ Twi Yes Cansada Martin
  Words: ne nsa
  Gloss: 3.SG.GEN hand.PL
  Translation: his/her hands
  Contributor: Cansada Martin
   Udmurt Yes Orsolya Tanczos
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: joho velosyped
  Gloss: his bicycle
  Translation: his bicycle
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Jimmy Nguyen
   Wan Yes Tatiana Nikitina
+ Warlpiri Yes Margit Bowler
  Words: Nyuntu-nyangu maliki ngurrju.
  Gloss: 2SG-POSS dog good
  Translation: Your dog is nice.
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
   Welsh Yes David Willis
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
  Words: euren boek
  Gloss: her-ms.sg book
  Translation: 'her book'
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolane No Hannah Kim
+ Wolof Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: Sa-ma kër
  Gloss: 1sg house
  Translation: my house
  Comment: 1st and person sg/pl precede N
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: Sama y/i kër
  Gloss: 1sg PL house
  Translation: my houses
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa Yes Mark Donohue
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Ya mira tu el mio bisicleta?
  Gloss: PST see you the my bicycle
  Translation: Did you see my bicycle?
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
  Words: A: Cosa tu quiere? B: Mi bisicleta.
  Gloss: A: what you want B: my bicycle
  Translation: A: What do you want? B: My bicycle.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
   Zulu No Claire Halpert