13_Adjective Noun

Definition: The property Adjective Noun has the value "yes" when an adjective can precede the noun it modifies in a neutral context. This definition concerns attributive adjectives that modify a noun such as "big ball", not predicate adjectives such as "big" in the sentence "The ball is big." The noun should be a common noun such as "book", "person", "house", etc. (as opposed to a proper noun, pronoun, or quantificational expressions like "something"). As with all word order properties, we restrict our attention to productive word order patterns.

General Note on Word Order Properties: A "yes" value for Adjective Noun does not exclude a "yes" value for Noun Adjective. In other words, a language could allow both orders in a neutral context.

NA (Not Applicable): NA for this property means that the language has either no nouns or no adjectives.

1. English is "yes" for the property Adjective Noun:

It is a red ball.
2. English is also "yes" for the property Noun Adjective because of a substantial number of examples such as:

The people present,
The students involved,
The man responsible

In other words, English is "yes" for both the property Adjective Noun and the property Noun Adjective.

3. French is "yes" for the property Adjective Noun since there is a class of adjectives that precede the noun:

Une belle maison
a.F beautiful.F house
"A beautiful house"

4. French is also "yes" for the property Noun Adjective, since there are adjectives that follow the noun in French:

Un homme intéressant
a.M man interesting.M
"An interesting man"

In other words, French is "yes" for both the property Adjective Noun and the property Noun Adjective.

5. Japanese is "yes" for the property Adjective Noun:

ookina ie
big house
"a big house"
Contributed by: Andrea Cattaneo, Chris Collins, Jim Wood
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: 'n groot oorwinning
  Gloss: a big victory
  Translation: a big victory
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
   Agni indénié No Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO Limité à un seul exemple ( àsàsί ɲà̰mί̰à̰ : Grâce Dieu 'Dieu de grâce'
  Words:  ∗ Fitaa ntoma
  Gloss: *white cloth
  Comment: Only nationality adjectives precede the noun.
  Contributor: AUGUSTINA OWUSU
+ Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
  Words: #e shpejta makinë
  Gloss: agr fast-the car
  Translation: the fast car
  Comment: this order is always marked in Albanian
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner BLUE BOOK
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: tɨnɨš lɨğğ
  Gloss: small child
  Translation: 'a small child'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: ho agathòs anḕr
  Gloss: art-NOM.M.SG good-NOM.M.SG man-NOM.SG
  Translation: ‘the good man’
  Comment: Plato Protagoras, 345b. NB: definite NP
  Contributor: Richard Faure
  Words: díkaios anḕr
  Gloss: fair-NOM.M.SG man-NOM.SG
  Translation: ‘A fair man’
  Comment: Plato Philebus, 39e. NB: indefinite NP
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: * Ahmed shaaf al-helw-ah al-bent
  Gloss: Ahmed see.PST-3SGF DET-beautiful DET-girl
  Translation: Ahmed saw the beautiful girl
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Aymara Yes Matt Coler
   Babanki Yes Pius Akumbu
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: mámù’ù ndâ
  Gloss: big house
  Translation: (very) big house
  Comment: There is a restriction on which adjectives can precede the noun and which cannot. See Tamanji (2009) for detailed description of adjectives.
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bajau, West Coast No Mark Miller
   Bambara No Bryan Villa
   Bandial No Wolfgang Berndt
+ Bardi Yes Claire Bowern
  Words: gorna aamba
  Gloss: good man
  Translation: a good man
  Contributor: Claire Bowern
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Ewas a- ǹ- núŋúl bíkoyóp bí mátówa
  Gloss: 1Ewas 1SM- PST1- sell 5red GEN 6car
  Translation:  ‘Ewas has sold red cars’
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Basque Yes Karlos Arregi
   baule-kôdeh No Andréa ALLA
   Bellinzonese Yes Andrea Cattaneo
   Beng No Denis Paperno
+ Bengali Yes Satarupa Das
  Words: lomba chele
  Gloss: tall boy
  Translation: tall boy
  Contributor: Satarupa Das
   Bole No Alhaji Gimba
+ Brazilian Portuguese Yes Bruna Moreira
  Words: Uma bela casa
  Gloss: a.F beautiful.F.SG house
  Translation: a beautiful house
  Contributor: Bruna Moreira
+ Breton No Steve Hewitt
  Words: ur c'hozh ti
  Gloss: an old house
  Translation: a miserable shack
  Comment: expressive; an old house = un ti kozh
  Contributor: Steve Hewitt
+ Bulgarian Yes Iliana Krapova
  Words: novata kola
  Gloss: new-ART car
  Translation: the new car
  Contributor: Iliana Krapova
  Words: xubav-o dete
  Gloss: pretty-3.N.sg child
  Translation: pretty child
  Contributor: Ljuba Veselinova
   Burgenland-Romani Yes Michelle McComb
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
+ Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
  Words: hajə purtwatə na *grɔssa makəna
  Gloss: have.1SG driven a.F.SG bigFSG carFSG
  Translation: I have driven a big car
  Comment: Only a closed list of very few adjectives can precede N ('good', 'beautiful')
  Contributor: Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: jat go hou jan
  Gloss: one CLF good person
  Translation: a good person
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Txuss Martin
   Chalcatongo Mixtec No Jess Combs
   Chichewa No Sam Mchombo
   Chickasaw NA Pam Munro Chickasaw does not have adjectives, per se, only stative verbs.
   Chol Yes Jessica Coon
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: O oreos pinakas.
  Gloss: the beautiful painting
  Translation: The beautiful painting.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Peter Kosta
  Words: inteligentní profesor
  Gloss:  intelligent-NOM.S.M professor-NOM.S.M
  Translation: inteligent professor
  Comment: the inverse order is not common in Czech
  Contributor: Peter Kosta
   Dagaare No Adams Bodomo
+ Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Et roligt sted
  Gloss: A quiet.N place
  Translation: A quiet place
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
+ Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby ALS4 workshop 2016
  Words: bà ŋɔ̰́
  Gloss: beautiful woman
  Translation: beautiful woman
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
  Words: bà ŋɔ̰̄
  Gloss: beautiful woman
  Translation: beautiful woman
  Contributor: Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Digo No Steve Nicolle
+ Digor Ossetic Yes David Erschler
  Words: saw tikis
  Gloss: black cat
  Translation: black cat
  Contributor: David Erschler
   Djambarrpuyŋu Yes Claire Bowern
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: grot-e huiz-en
  Gloss: big.AGR house.PL
  Translation: big houses.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
+ Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
  Words: Armen-a khelatsi mart eh
  Gloss: Armen smart person be.3SG
  Translation: Armen is a smart person
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Egyptian Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   English Yes Chris Collins
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
   Estonian Yes Mark Norris
+ European Portuguese Yes Salvador Mascarenhas
  Words: Tens um belo apartamento
  Gloss: have.2SG a pretty.M apartment
  Translation: You have a nice apartment.
  Contributor: Salvador Mascarenhas
   Ewe No Chris Collins
   Farefari No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
+ Faroese Yes Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
  Words: Hann keypti ein nýggjan bil
  Gloss: he.nom bought.3SG a.ACC new.M.SG.ACC car.ACC
  Translation: He bought a new car
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Fijian No Claire Bowern
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: iso talo
  Gloss: big house
  Translation: big house
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Chris Collins French has both AN and NA. See Cinque (2010) for the clusters of properties associated with prenominal and postnominal As in Romance, and how these map onto the two classes and orders in Germanic. This would be a good property to further develop! (cmnt added by hk)
  Words: le nouveau café
  Gloss: DEF-DET-M new-M cafe
  Translation: the new cafe
  Comment: French has a small class of adjectives that must be placed before the Noun. These categories include adjectives that describe beauty (beau/belle, age (vieux, jeune) , bon, mauvais, jeune,). Many adjectives take on a different meaning depending on their placement. See Cinque's The Syntax of Adjectives(2010) for recent synthesis, and analyses (comparative romance/ germanic).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
+ Garifuna Yes Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
  Words: ariha-tina funatu muna
  Gloss: see-1SG red house
  Translation: I see a red house
  Contributor: Teresa O'Neill (contributor till 2012)
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German Yes Martin Haspelmath
   Ghɔmáĺá' Yes Francine Moguo
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: To grigoro aftokinito
  Gloss: the fast car
  Translation: the fast car
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: to mikro to koriʃ (Dawkins 1916: 354)
  Translation: the young girl
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greek (Pontic) Yes Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Gurene No Samuel Atintono
   Haitian Yes Michel DeGraff
   Hakka Yes Iris Wu
   Hanga No Geoffrey Hunt
+ Hausa Yes Russell Schuh
  Words: fari-n dookìi
  Gloss: white-linker horse
  Translation: white horse
  Comment: gender sensitive linker required with prenominal adjective
  Contributor: Russell Schuh
+ Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
  Words: *adom degel
  Gloss: red flag
  Translation: red flag
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: 'eshlach lerabbim tsaiadim (Jer 3,6)
  Gloss: 'eshlach.IPFV.1.SG rabbim.ADJ tsaiadim.OBJ
  Translation: I will send for many hunters
  Comment: Normally the adjective stands after the substantive; the adjective rabbim "many" is sometimes placed before; other adjectives can stand before for the sake of emphasis
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
+ Hindi Yes Gurprit Bains
  Words: sundar laRkii
  Gloss: pretty girl
  Translation: pretty girl
  Contributor: Gurprit Bains
+ Hittite Yes Mattyas Huggard
  Words: pargauwas auriyas
  Gloss: high DAT PL watchtower DAT PL
  Translation: into the high watchtowers
  Comment: attributive adjectives precede head nouns
  Contributor: Mattyas Huggard
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: A fekete kutya ugat.
  Gloss: the black dog[NOM.SG] bark[3SG.PRS.IND]
  Translation: `The black dog barks / is barking'
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
+ Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
  Words: Þetta er rauður bolti
  Gloss: This is red.M.SG.NOM bolti.SG.NOM
  Translation: This is a red ball
  Contributor: Gunnar Hrafn Hrafnbjargarson
   Igala No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Igbo Yes Mary Amaechi
  Words: ajo mmadu
  Gloss: bad person
  Translation: 'a bad person'
  Comment: Only this adjective seems to occur before an NP. It also has a form that occurs postnominally.
  Contributor: Mary Amaechi
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   Ijo (Kaiama) Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Ilokano Yes Jeremy Rafal
  Words: nalabbaga a kotse
  Gloss: red LIG car
  Translation: red car
  Comment: The ligature is a common word in the Austronesian languages used to link two constituents.
  Contributor: Jeremy Rafal
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Irish Yes Bridget Nixdorf sometimes referred to as compounds
   Iron Ossetic Yes David Erschler
   Isbukun Bunun Yes Iris Wu
   Italian Yes Andrea Cattaneo
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English Yes Stephanie Durrleman
+ Japanese Yes Ken Hiraiwa
  Words: ookina ie
  Gloss: big house
  Translation: a/the big house
  Contributor: Ken Hiraiwa
   Jarawara No Alan Vogel
   Jingulu NA Rob Pensalfini
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
+ Kannada (Bengaluru-Mysore) Yes Amrit Amritavalli
  Words: doDDa naayi doDDa makkaLu
  Gloss: big dog big children
  Translation: : ‘a big dog’ ‘the older children’
  Contributor: Amrit Amritavalli
   Karachay Yes Steve Seegmiller
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   Kayan No Ken Manson
   Khasi No Gracious Temsen
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande No Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
   Kindendeule No Deo Ngonyani
   Kiswahili No Aggrey Wasike
   Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
+ Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
  Words: Eg akás a fÍ
  Gloss: an old AGR.7 hoe
  Translation: an old hoe
  Comment: (to add: class for hoe. gloss for Eg). akas (class 7) means "zink". In this context it has come to mean an old weapon, any old iron object. Akan controls the agreement morpheme preceding the noun.
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Konni No Michael Cahill
+ Korean Yes Chung-hye Han
  Words: ppalka-n kong
  Gloss: red-REL ball
  Translation: a/the red ball
  Contributor: Chung-hye Han
   Koyo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström marginal, only one adjective can occur here: tətak 'little'
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
+ Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
  Words: i. Ghana biig la ii. *Fiin biig la
  Gloss: i. Ghana child.NC DEF ii. small child Def
  Translation: i. 'The Ghanian child.' ii. 'The small child.'
  Comment: This order is only possible when we have nationality. All other adjectives are postnominal.
  Contributor: Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal NA Florian Lionnet
   Lango No Arwa Rangwala
   Lani No Mark Donohue
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
+ Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: magnae suspiciones
  Gloss: great.NOM.PL suspicion.NOM.PL
  Translation: great suspicions
  Comment: Cic. (att. 11,16,1)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Words: multos enim sanctos monachos
  Gloss: many:ACC in_fact holy:ACC monks:ACC
  Translation: in fact, many holy monks
  Comment: (Itin. Eg. 13.1) General distribution in the Itin. Eg: AN orders: 284 / 567 = 50% (Gianollo 2005: 176). Itin. Eg. = Itinerarium Egeriae, 4th cent. CE, electronic LLT-A edition (=CCSL 175, P. Geyer / O. Cuntz, 1965, p. 37-90).
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Lebanese Arabic No Lina Choueiri
+ Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
  Words: Nusipirkau naują knygą.
  Gloss: Buy.PST.1SG new.ACC.SG.F book.ACC.SG
  Translation: I bought a new book.
  Contributor: Felix Thies
+ Lubukusu No Aggrey Wasike
  Words: *omwiimbi omukhaana
  Gloss: short girl
  Translation: short girl
  Comment: the order Adjective-Noun is ungrammatical
  Contributor: Aggrey Wasike
+ Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman Two As, kiti (small) and kuti (few) can precede or follow the N. No other adjectives can precede the N. The word for 'other' can only precede N, but does not look like an A .
  Words: ayieu en-kiti alem (or: ayieu enk-alem kiti)
  Gloss: 1S.want SG.FEM-small knife (or 1A.want SG.FEM knife small)
  Translation: I want the small knife
  Comment: One A root (ki.ti 'fem.sg-small, young' and o-ti 'ms.sg-small' and ku-ti 'pl.few, a little' can either precede or follow N (yielding ART A N or Art N A)
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
+ Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: yi ge hao ren
  Gloss: one CLF good person
  Translation: a good person
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
   Maori No Ray Harlow
+ Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: *kileplep kuj
  Gloss: fat cat
  Translation: fat cat
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
   Masarak No Jessica Chen
   Mbuko No Richard Gravina
  Words: kə̀m mɛ̀n
  Gloss: short person
  Translation: A short person
+ Middle Dutch Yes Gertjan Postma
  Words: dien groten werken
  Gloss: the.DAT great.DATworks.DAT
  Translation: the great works
  Contributor: Gertjan Postma
+ Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
  Words: màgǝdza zúw
  Gloss: year-old sorghum.M
  Translation: 'year-old sorghum'
  Comment: This word order is only allowed for some; it is not the regular word order.
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
  Words: byàtlama piyám
  Gloss: unripe pumpkin.F
  Translation: 'unripe pumpkin'
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   N|u No Chris Collins
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Naki No Jeff Good
+ Nawdm No Hannah Kim
  Words: bɛ̀ːrè bóbɔ̀g bá
  Gloss: girls tall CM.PL
  Translation: ‘tall girls’ (9).
  Comment: All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
  Words: *bóbɔ̀g bɛ̀ːrè bá
  Gloss: *Tall girls CM
  Translation: *tall girls
  Comment: All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
+ nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam and Bertille Baron ALS4 workshop 2016
  Words: ŋgə hə fə pusi
  Gloss: 1SG have white cat
  Translation: ‘I have a white cat.’
  Contributor: Bertille Baron
   Ndut No Daniel Morgan
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Nez Perce Yes Amy Rose Deal
+ Nkore-Kiga No Hilda Koopman
  Words: ny-ine ezi-ndi nte
  Gloss: I-have OTHER cows (e.zi-ndi)
  Translation: I have óther cows as well
  Comment: Taylor (211). A few nondescriptive As ("other") precede the N when strongly emphasized, in which case the N does not have its initial vowel (same for prenominal (emphatic) demonstratives). With prenominal emphatic possessive pronouns the N does have its initial vowel (i.e. augment). buri and i bara, both meaning each/every' always precede the N.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: *Dzuru eci
  Gloss: red yam
  Translation: red yam
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Occitan Yes Patrick Sauzet
   Okinawan Yes Ken Hiraiwa
   Old English Yes Steve Seegmiller
+ Old French Yes Heather Burnett
  Words: En grant effrei erent amdui
  Gloss: In great fright were they-two
  Translation: Both of them were in great fright
  Comment: Marie de France. (1180). 20.359
  Contributor: Heather Burnett
+ Old Norse Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: hitt.N.SG milda.N.SG andlit.N.SG
  Translation: the mild face (Barl 187.13)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden This is the most frequent order.
  Words: ên ôdag man
  Gloss: a/one rich man
  Translation: a rich man
  Comment: (Heliand 3327)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
+ One Yes Mark Donohue
  Words: napo pala
  Gloss: big dog
  Translation: big dog
  Contributor: Mark Donohue
   Palue No Mark Donohue
   panjabi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
+ Pashto Yes Chris Collins
  Words: pindze khkwélee péeghlee
  Gloss: five pretty.F.DIR.PL girl.F.DIR.PL
  Translation: five pretty girls
  Comment: Tegey and Robson 1996: 85.
  Contributor: Taylor Roberts
   Pima Yes Marcus Smith
   Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Uma velha zebra mora na savana
  Gloss: a.F old.F zebra live.3SG.PRS in the.F savanna
  Translation: An old zebra lives in the savanna
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
+ Romanian Yes Oana Savescu
  Words: (un) celebru pianist
  Gloss: (a) famous pianist
  Translation: (a) famous pianist
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
  Words: (un) celebru pianist
  Gloss: (a) famous pianist
  Translation: (a) famous pianist
  Contributor: Oana Savescu
+ Russian Yes Stephanie Harves
  Words: Maša umnaja studentka
  Gloss: Maša.NOM smart.NOM.FEM.SG student.NOM.FEM.SG
  Translation: Maša is a smart student.
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
  Words: interesnaja kniga
  Gloss: interesting.NOM.F.SG book.NOM.F.SG
  Translation: interesting book
  Contributor: Stephanie Harves
   Salasaca Quichua Yes Pieter Muysken
   Samoan No Vincent Homer
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe No Helen Eaton
   Saramaccan Yes Tonjes Veenstra
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Saweru No Mark Donohue
   Scottish Gaelic No David Adger
   Senaya No Laura McPherson
   Serbian Yes Miloje Despic
   Shan No Alif Silpachai
+ Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: tam matwa me
  Gloss: long car arrive.PST
  Translation: A long car arrived.
  Comment: A bar noun can be either definite or indefinite.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: gbam pam run
  Gloss: big bag be.full
  Translation: The big bag is full
  Comment: "Full" in Shupamem is a verb.
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: ntam mbun
  Gloss: long coffen
  Translation: "a long coffen"
  Comment: May be interpreted as a definit NP as well
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: tam tam bun
  Gloss: long long coffens
  Translation: "Long coffens"
  Comment: May be interpreted as "the long coffens" as well
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: nda ngut gure
  Gloss: house big big
  Translation: "big houses"
  Comment: May be interpretated as "the big houses"
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: rane mon
  Gloss: smart child
  Translation: "A smart child"
  Comment:  May be also interpreted as "The smart child"
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
  Words: rane pon
  Gloss: smart children
  Translation: "Smart children"
  Comment: May be also be interpreted as "The smart children."
  Contributor: Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: mi ligghìi nu bbèllu lìbbru
  Gloss: to.me I.read a beautiful book
  Translation: I read a beautiful book
  Comment: A few adjectives only are allowed in the prenominal position (check Guardiano & Stavrou 2012)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou No Mark Donohue
   Slovenian Yes Franc Marušič
+ Spanish Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: La antigua capital estaba en la costa.
  Gloss: the.F ancient.F capital be.PST.IMPF.3SG on the.F coast
  Translation: The former capital (city) was on the coast.
  Comment: The adjective 'antiguo' can mean 'former' if it is prenominal but 'ancient' if it occurs after the noun.
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
   St'át'imcets Yes Lisa Matthewson
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
  Words: Det är en stor glass.
  Gloss: it is a big ice-cream
  Translation: It's a big ice-cream.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: maganda-ng babae
  Gloss: beautiful-Lk woman
  Translation: 'beautiful woman'
  Comment: The 'Lk' 'ng' is a linker which occurs between a modifier and the modified head.
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
+ Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: ang choa
  Gloss: red paper
  Translation: red paper
  Contributor: Arthur Wang
+ Tarascan Yes Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
  Words: indé turhipiti tsíkata thire-h-ti=ia
  Gloss: DEM black hen eat-PFV-3=ADV
  Translation: 'That black hen has already eaten'
  Comment: The adjective can precede the noun or be postposed to it without no attested change in meaning.
  Contributor: Violeta Vazquez-Rojas
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so maɲatə na bona paʃtə
  Gloss: I.am eaten a good pasta
  Translation: I ate nice pasta
  Comment: Only certain adjectives can precede a noun
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
+ Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: 'abbāy s̩ewabet
  Gloss: Large family
  Translation: large family
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
   Titan No Claire Bowern
   Tiwa Yes Virginia Dawson
+ Tlingit Yes James Crippen
  Words: yées ḵáa
  Gloss: young man
  Translation: boy, young man
  Contributor: James Crippen
+ Tocharian A Yes Bernhard Koller
  Words: ñäkci wäl
  Gloss: divine king
  Translation: divine king
  Comment: source: A 355 a3
  Contributor: Bernhard Koller
   Tocharian B Yes Bernhard Koller
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
+ Tongan Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: ha fu'u me'a
  Gloss: a big thing
  Translation: a big thing
  Comment: few adjectives precede N: fu'u (big) ki'i (tiny); these can be preceded by the dual 'ongo' or plural classifiers (u, kau, fanga), and can coocur with postnominal size adjectives: ha fu'u me'a lahi 'a great big thing, a very big thing
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) Yes Edmond Biloa
  Words: Putá a- mu osya okutu
  Gloss: Puta SM be.3.PRS beautiful woman
  Translation: Puta is a beautiful woman
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
  Words: Mbárá a- má- fowa akáná yĕndze púú
  Gloss: Mbara SM- PST2- build big house white
  Translation: Mbara built a big white house
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Turkish Yes Volkan Tümer
  Words: genç kız
  Gloss: young girl
  Translation: young girl
  Contributor: Volkan Tümer
+ Tuvan Yes Brian Hsu
  Words: berge nom
  Gloss: difficult book
  Translation: a difficult book
  Contributor: Brian Hsu
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Udmurt Yes Orsolya Tanczos
+ Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
  Words: cikava knyha
  Gloss: interesting book
  Translation: (an) interesting book
  Contributor: Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
+ Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian Yes Zvjezdana Vrzic
  Words: mušåtę fętę (mušåta fęta)
  Translation: pretty girl
  Contributor: Zvjezdana Vrzic
+ Warlpiri NA Margit Bowler Warlpiri lacks adjectives. Adjectives in the language pattern morphologically with nouns.
  Words: Wiri-jarlu-rlu jarntu-ngku yarlkurnu kurdu.
  Gloss: big-AUG-ERG dog-ERG bite.PST child
  Translation: The big dog bit the child.
  Contributor: Margit Bowler
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
  Words: grot-e huiz-en
  Gloss: big-pl house-pl
  Translation: big houses
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
  Words: grot-e huz-en
  Gloss: bog-pl hous-pl
  Translation: big houses
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
+ Wolane Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: yɛgɛdɛrɛ-y gār
  Gloss: big-DEF house
  Translation: ‘the big house’ (231).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Wolof No Harold Torrence
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
+ Yiddish Yes Shannon Mooney
  Words: der gut-er man
  Gloss: the.M.SG good-M.SG man
  Translation: "the good man"
  Contributor: Shannon Mooney
   Yoruba No Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: el blanco casa
  Gloss: the white house
  Translation: the white house
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Yo tiene un colorao bisicleta
  Gloss: 1SG have a red bicycle
  Translation: I have a red bicycle.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
   Zulu No Claire Halpert