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N2 05_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a definite article

Definition
General Note: This is the first of seven properties that probe for differences in the form of definite and indefinite numeral noun combinations. Use the examples for the specific contexts in N2 01 through N2 04 to set these; Check as many "yes" values as applicable. If in doubt, leave the property value(s) unset, and contact us via email.

This property is set to "yes" if a noun phrase (Num N, N Num) in a definite context is accompanied by a definite article. It is set to "no" if there is no definite article in a definite context.

NB For this property:
(i) the noun should not be modified by a relative clause.
(ii) the noun phrase should not contain a possessor.
(iii) The noun phrase should not contain a demonstrative. The latter will fall under the property "N2 06_ Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative".

NA for this property means that the language has no Numerals or that Numerals can never be part of the Noun Phrase.

Examples:
1.
English is "yes" for this property, as a definite Numeral Noun NP contains the definite article the. A bare Numeral Noun noun phrase is excluded in a definite context.

Context: There were two monkeys and four donkeys walking on the road

Tell me more about the two monkeys.
*Tell me more about two monkeys.

2.
Gungbe is "yes" for this property as the definite article/specificity marker lɔ́ can occur in a definite NP containing a Numeral and Noun.

Wémà ɛ̀nɛ̀ lɛ́ lɔ́ kò wá
letter four PL Det already come
The four letters already arrived.
(example provided by Enoch Aboh)

Comment: Since the definite article/specificity marker lɔ́ can be absent in this context, Gungbe is also "yes" for N2 07.

Wémà ɛ̀nɛ̀ lɛ́ kò wá
letter four PL already come
'The four letters already arrived.'
(example provided by Enoch Aboh)

3. Japanese is "no" for this property as there is no definite article in definite NP (Num N, N Num).
Contributed by: Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Acehnese No Julie Legate
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: die vyftien kameelperde
  Gloss: the fifteen camel.horses
  Translation: the fifteen giraffes
  Comment: example to be transferred to Theresa Biberauer
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
   Akan-twi Yes AUGUSTINA OWUSU
   Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language NA Natasha Abner
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: lɨğğ-occ-u
  Gloss: child-pl-def
  Translation: 'the children'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: ho kíndunos hoûtos
  Gloss: ART-NOM.M.SG danger-NOM.SG DEM-NOM.M.SG
  Translation: This danger
  Comment: Lysias 34.9
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos Definiteness can be expressed either by a prefixed determiner or by a suffixed possessive pronoun
  Words: al-awlaad th-thalatha eshtra-w al-keteb
  Gloss: DET-boy.PL DET-three buy.PST-3MPL DET-book.PL
  Translation: the three boys bought the books
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Babanki No Pius Akumbu
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: mbú yìmfùùrɨ̀ yâ
  Gloss: dog one the
  Translation: The (lone) dog that we have talked about
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bambara No Hilda Koopman
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi No Claire Bowern there are definite articles
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
+ Bole Yes Alhaji Gimba
  Words: wa (pfv) gamshine bawulo ye le?
  Gloss: happen rams seven DEF what?
  Translation: What happed to the seven rams?
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese Yes Ananda Lima
   Bulgarian Yes Roumyana Pancheva
   Burmese No Timothy Ho
+ Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
  Words: *i dujə kwatrarə su proprəjə adavətə
  Gloss: the two kids are very tall
  Translation: the two people are very tall
  Contributor: Giuseppina Silvestri
  Contributor: Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: Ta tessera grammata irtasin extes.
  Gloss: the four letters arrived yesterday
  Translation: The four letters arrived yesterday
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Czech Yes Pavel Caha
   Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
   Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Dida Lakota (diéko) Yes Gohon Fabienne Stéphanie Attéby
   Digo No Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic No David Erschler There is a demonstrative "i" that seems to only mark definiteness, but it is optional and very rare in natural texts.
   Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian No Karine Megerdoomian
   English Yes Hilda Koopman
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
   Ewe Yes Chris Collins
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Vincent Homer
  Words: Les trois garçons mangent au café.
  Gloss: DEF-DET.M.PL three boy-PL eat-PRS LOC DEF-DET-M cafe
  Translation: The three boys eat at the cafe.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
+ Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: tsũ̀ kòmé lɛ
  Gloss: building one DEF
  Translation: the one building
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
  Words: tsũ̀-ì é!nyɔ̃ !lɛ
  Gloss: building-PL two DEF
  Translation: the two buildings/rooms
  Contributor: Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German Yes Viola Schmitt
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: Ta tria demata eftasan xtes
  Gloss: the three parcels arrived yesterday
  Translation: The three parcels arrived yesterday
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: apu arɣas irtan ta efta ta palikarʝa (Dawkins 1916: 442)
  Gloss: PREP late come.PST.3PL ART.DEF.PL.NOM seven ART.DEF.PL.NOM lad.PL.NOM
  Translation: late in the evening the seven lads came
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greek (Pontic) Yes Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hakka No Iris Wu
+ Hausa Yes Michael A. Estrada
  Words: biira biyun
  Gloss: monkey.PL two.DET
  Translation: the two monkeys
  Contributor: Michael A. Estrada
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: arba'at ha xavilot higi'u etmol
  Gloss: four the packages arrived yesterday
  Translation: 'the 4 packages arrived yesterday'
  Comment: YES (even though the definite article appears in the 'wrong' position, as is the case with construct state DPs.)
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Comment: See examples in N2 03 and 04
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi No Gurprit Bains
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: a hat kalap
  Gloss: the six hat
  Translation: the six hats
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
   Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic No David Erschler
+ Italian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: Le quattro lettere sono già arrivate
  Gloss: The four letters are already arrived
  Translation: The four letters already arrived
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Japanese No Jun Yashima
   K'iche' NA Pam Munro
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
+ Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
  Words: Ifwo ateyn Ibwo ALSO: Ifwo Ibwo naweyn
  Gloss: things def two ALSO: things two def
  Translation: the (se) two things
  Comment: Kom has two definite article one that comes before the numeral ‘ateyn”-“the” and one that comes after the numeral “naweyn’ “the”
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
   Korean No Grace Lee
   Kuot NA Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
   Kusaal Yes Hasiyatu Abubakari
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal NA Florian Lionnet
   Lango Yes Arwa Rangwala
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Lithuanian No Felix Thies
   Malagasy Yes Hilda Koopman
   Malayalam No Mythili Menon
   Mandarin No Arthur Wang
+ Maori Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: te tangata whakamutunga
  Gloss: the man last
  Translation: ‘the last man’
  Comment: P154
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: Kuuj ko ruo r-ar cross iaļ eo.
  Gloss: cat the.pl.nh two 3pl-pst cross road the.sg
  Translation: The two cats crossed the road.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
   Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
   Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
  Words: Ahay ni
  Gloss: House DEF
  Translation: The house
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
  Words: yalhwaya ahci-co nahui ama-meh
  Gloss: yesterday arrived-DIR four paper-PL
  Translation: “the four papers arrived yesterday”
  Comment: The Definite NP lacks a Definite article. Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
   Navajo No Hilda Koopman
   Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: ekungunci-zi guta-ta a tsu
  Gloss: warrior-PL three-RED PRF die
  Translation: 'All (the) three warriors have died.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Okinawan No Ken Hiraiwa
+ Old English Yes Willem Koopman
  Comment: Old English makes no distinction between definite article and demonstrative: se, thaet, seo (inflected for number, case and gender) can be translated as the definite article or as the demonstrative 'that'.
  Contributor: Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden Demonstratives and definite articles seem to have the same form in Old Saxon. I am not aware of any systematic study of the stage of grammaticalization of these demonstratives.
  Words: Iacob endi Iohannes, thea gumon tuêne
  Gloss: James and John the men two
  Translation: James and John, the two men
  Comment: (Heliand 3109)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   One NA Mark Donohue
   panjabi No Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No David Pate
   Pima No Marcus Smith
   Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: As tres convidadas partiram
  Gloss: the.F.PL three guest.F.PL depart.PRF.3PL
  Translation: The three guests departed
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia Morphologically, definite NP cannot take numerals (*trei drumurile vs. trei drumuri (three roads)
   Russian No Denis Paperno
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Sasak Yes Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic Yes David Adger
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: mi ligghìi i tri llìbbra
  Gloss: to.me I.read the three books
  Translation: I read the three books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: i kwàttru lìttri arruvàrru ajèri
  Gloss: the four letters arrived yesterday
  Translation: the four letters arrived yesterday
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Spanish Yes Victoria Mateu
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat Double definiteness
  Words: Berätta mer om de två aporna
  Gloss: tell more about DET two monkey.PL.DEF
  Translation: Tell me/us more about the two monkeys.
  Comment: If the noun is modified there are a determiner and a definiteness suffix on the noun. For more on double definiteness, see "extra examples"
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so maɲatə li tre pizzə
  Gloss: I.am eaten the three pizzas
  Translation: I ate three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: li tre pizzə arrivitə
  Gloss: the three pizzas arrived
  Translation: the three pizzas arrived
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Alif Silpachai
+ Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: la-šek
  Gloss: the-sheik
  Translation: 'the sheik'
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
  Words: gámmá néé-go=gɛ=mbe
  Gloss: cat two-ADV=DEF=PL
  Translation: ‘the two cats’ (125: 161c).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi NA Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Murat Kural There are no definite articles, with or without numerals
   Tuvan No Mark Donohue
   Twi Yes Cansada Martin
   Ukrainian No Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
   West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolof Yes Mariame Sy
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yawa No Mark Donohue
   Yoruba Yes Johnson Folorunso Ilori
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: Habla conmigo aserca del dos chongo.
  Gloss: say with.me about of.the two monkey
  Translation: Tell me about the two monkeys.
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo
   Zulu No Claire Halpert