N2 06_Definite NP (Num N, N Num) has a demonstrative

General Note: How do definite and indefinite noun numeral combinations differ in form? This is the second of seven properties...
To set these, use the examples for the specific contexts in N2 01 through N2 04. Check as many "yes" values as applicable. If in doubt, just leave the property value(s) unset, and contact us via email.

This property is set to "yes" if a (Num N, N Num) noun phrase in the definite contexts given in N2 03_ and N2_04 has or can have a demonstrative.

Comment: The use of a demonstrative will be quite natural in some of the definite contexts, but not in all the contexts given in N2 03 and N2 04. Please comment if a demonstrative is excluded in some contexts. This property will most likely be further refined in the future.
NA for this property means that the language has no Numerals or that Numerals can never be part of the Noun Phrase.

A yes value for this property does not require that a demonstrative is used in all definite contexts.

English is "yes" for this property:

Bill sent me four letters last week
Those/The four letters arrived yesterday

English is also "yes" for "N2 05_Definite (Num N, N Num) has a definite article.

Kilega is "yes" for this property
(Context: Abba sent four letters last week and two chairs)

tú-t-o tu-kwé tú-nazi tw-ík-il-e wálúbí
13RED-13-D 13-letter 13-four 13-SM:A-arrive-PERF-FV one.day.period.from.the.present
‘Th(os)e four letters arrived yesterday.’

This can be followed up with:
émbe bi-kizí na bí-by-o bisúmbí bí-bílí ?
EVID 8WH with 8red-8-dem 8chair 8.two
‘what about th(os)e two chairs?’

Comment: In these contexts the demonstrative appears to be required. (example from Kinyalolo Kasangati)
Contributed by: Hilda Koopman
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ =Hoan Yes Chris Collins
  Words: ma i ʘkoa ʘ’ú ʘkoa/qaẽ ha
  Gloss: 1SG PST kill duiker two/three this
  Translation: “I killed these two/three duikers” (Collins and Gruber: 150).
  Comment: The examples are from the grammar by Collins, Chris and Gruber, Jeff. 2012. A Grammar of ǂHȍã.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Acehnese Yes Julie Legate
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: daardie twintig olifante
  Gloss: there.the twenty elephants
  Translation: those twenty elephants
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
  Words: hierdie twee probleme
  Gloss: here.the two problems
  Translation: these two problems
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
  Words: hierdie twee probleme
  Gloss: here.the two problems
  Translation: these two problems
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: àkɔ́ nzà̰ kà mɔ́
  Gloss: Poule trois ce…ci Défi+PL
  Translation: Ces trois poules.
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: Këto tre pakot arritën dje.
  Gloss: these three parcels(.the) arrived yesterday
  Translation: These three parcels arrived yesterday
  Comment: The definite determiner is optional
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language No Natasha Abner
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: ɨnäzya hulät mäs'haf-occ
  Gloss: those two book-pl
  Translation: 'those two books'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
+ Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
  Words: ékei tà tría eídē taûta
  Gloss: have-PRS.3SG ART-ACC.N.PL 3 form-ACC.PL DEM-ACC.N.PL
  Translation: The soul really contains these three forms
  Comment: Plato, Respublica, 435c5
  Contributor: Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: al-awlaad th-thalatha eshtra-w hatha al-ketab
  Gloss: DET-boy.PL DET-three buy.PST-3MPL this DET-book.PL
  Translation: the three boys bought this books
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Babanki Yes Pius Akumbu
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: mbú yìmfùrɨ̀ yíì
  Gloss: dog one that
  Translation: That one/lone dog
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bambara Yes Hilda Koopman
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi No Claire Bowern
   Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
+ Bole Yes Alhaji Gimba
  Words: gamshine bawulo maine ye minno
  Gloss: rams seven these DEF mine
  Translation: These seven rams are mine.
  Contributor: Alhaji Gimba
   Brazilian Portuguese Yes Ananda Lima
   Bulgarian Yes Roumyana Pancheva
   Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: go sei fung seon camyat dou-zo
  Gloss: that four CLF letter yesterday arrive-PFV
  Translation: Those four letters arrived yesterday.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan Yes Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: Tuta ta tessera grammata irtasin extes.
  Gloss: These the four letters arrived yesterday
  Translation: These four letters arrived yesterday.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Dagaare Yes Adams Bodomo
   Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Digo Yes Steve Nicolle
  Words: Wakati anaaza, phatupa chichetu cha kare, na bada ya kuaona hara asichana airi waaonera mbazi.
  Gloss: time they_were_wishing there_passed woman(DIM) of old, and after seeing those girls two she_saw_for_them pity
  Translation: While they were wishing (not to be eaten), there passed an old woman, and after seeing those two girls she had pity on them.
  Comment: A demonstrative seems to be obligatory in definite contexts.
  Contributor: Steve Nicolle
   Digor Ossetic Yes David Erschler
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: wat vind je van deze drie posters?
  Gloss: what find you of these drie posters?
  Translation: what do you think about these three posters?
  Comment: I strongly prefer the demonstrative in the context where there are just three posters on the wall. Maybe the definite determiner is even excluded in this case. The determiner de is perfect however if there are three posters as well as two paintings on the wall. De demonstrative is not stressed.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Eastern Armenian Yes Karine Megerdoomian
   English Yes Katie Redderson-Lear
   English (Singapore) Yes Adam Chong
   Faroese Yes Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Vincent Homer
  Words: Ces deux jouets
  Gloss: DEM.PL two toy-PL
  Translation: “those two toys”
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Frisian (West Frisian) Yes Jarich Hoekstra
   Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German Yes Viola Schmitt
+ Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: þan þans fimf hlaibans gabrak fimf þusundjom
  Gloss: when these.ACC.PL five loaves.ACC.PL break.PFV five thousand.DAT.PL
  Translation: When I brake the five loaves among five thousand, (...)
  Comment: Mark 8:19
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Arhonto Terzi
  Words: Afta ta tria demata eftasan xtes
  Gloss: these the three parcels arrived yesterday
  Translation: These three parcels arrived yesterday
  Comment: The presence of the demonstrative requires the presence of the definite article (but not vice versa).
  Contributor: Arhonto Terzi
   Greek (Calabria) Yes Cristina Guardiano
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Petros Karatsareas
  Words: eci ta tria ɟyzeʎa puθe=nde (Dawkins 1916: 304)
  Gloss: DEM.DIST ART.DEF.N.PL.NOM three fair.N.PL.NOM where=COP.PRS.3PL
  Translation: where are those three Fair Ones?
  Contributor: Petros Karatsareas
   Greek (Homer) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Greek (Pontic) Yes Cristina Guardiano and Dimitris Michelioudakis
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Haitian Yes Michel DeGraff Can have a demonstrative. The demonstrative is preferred in the "local" context.. (see example)
+ Hakka Yes Iris Wu
  Words: lia liong ki pit do le
  Gloss: DEM two CLF pen arrive PFV
  Translation: The two pens arrived.
  Contributor: Iris Wu
   Hausa Yes Michael A. Estrada
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: arba'at ha xavilot ha elu higi'u etmol
  Gloss: four the packages the these arrived yesterday
  Translation: 'these 4 packages arrived yesterday'
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: sheloshet hammelakim ha'elle (2 Ki 3,10)
  Gloss: three the-DEF.ART kings the-DEF.ART these.DEM
  Translation: these three kings
  Comment: the three kings are in the previous v.
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hindi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Hixkaryana No Laura Kalin
+ Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
  Words: ez/az a kalap
  Gloss: this/that the hat
  Translation: this hat / that hat
  Contributor: Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
   Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
   Iha Yes Mark Donohue
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210 Demonstrative may be used; not obligatory.
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Iron Ossetic Yes David Erschler
+ Italian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: Queste / quelle quattro lettere sono già arrivate
  Gloss: These / those four letters are already arrived
  Translation: These/those four letters already arrived
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Japanese Yes Ken Hiraiwa A demonstrative is only optional.
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kinande Yes Patricia Schneider-Zioga and Philip Mutaka
+ Kiyaka No Lukowa Kidima
  Words: bifúndá byeéno byá bíyá bitúdídí
  Gloss: 8.packages 8.previously.mentioned 8.A 8.four 8.arrive.idi
  Translation: the four packages in question have arrived
  Comment: NB: depends on how to classify (AGR-eeno) ' in question, previously mentioned. (Deictic DEM this/that is excluded here). bima byeéno : the things we talked about vs. bima byééno: your things. (Note the difference in tonal patterns on -eeno)..
  Contributor: Lukowa Kidima
+ Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
  Words: bvI seynsI sI bo
  Gloss: good these arg two
  Translation: These two goats
  Contributor: Richard Kwamong
+ Korean YES Shin-Sook Kim
  Words: (ku) ney kwen-uy chayk-un ecey tochakha-ess-ta
  Gloss: that four CLF-GEN book-TOP yesterday arrive-PST-DECL
  Translation: The four books arrived yesterday
  Comment: A demonstrative can optionally appear in this sentence. The sentence must be understood as the continuation of the following context: Aba sent us four books last week ("four books" is new information). The example (as well as the property value) has been provided by Shin-Sook Kim.
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) Yes Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal NA Florian Lionnet
   Lango Yes Arwa Rangwala
   Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
   Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy Yes Hilda Koopman
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
   Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang Mandarin has singular demonstratives zhe 'this' and na 'that', and plural ones, zhexie 'these' and naxie 'those'. In the given context, only the singular dem is licit (zhe san ge (murals) this three CL zhexie (murals) these but not: *zhexie san ge (murals) these three CL
+ Maori Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: te wahine raa
  Gloss: the woman dist.
  Translation: ‘that woman’
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: Abnono kein ruo re-kar drelon jen ippen attorney eo.
  Gloss: complaint these two 3pl-pst submit from with attorney the.sg
  Translation: These two complaints were submitted by the attorney.
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
   Miya Yes Michael A. Estrada
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
+ Muyang Yes Bebey Théodore
  Words: Ahay heni ni
  Gloss: House DEM DEF
  Comment: The definite article ni can be absent.
  Contributor: Bebey Théodore
+ Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) Yes John Garcia
  Words: xi-nech-illi mas de ne ome burro-s
  Gloss: IMP-1SG.S-tell more of those two burro-PL
  Translation: ‘tell me more about those two burros’
  Comment: Context was "look there, theres two burros!" Language Consultant: Eduardo de la Cruz
  Contributor: John Garcia
   Nahuatl (Classical) Yes John Garcia
+ Nawdm Yes Hannah Kim
  Words: làʔà bà hɔ́lə̀ té tèréʔétéː
  Gloss: that dog black cl-pl cl-two-cl
  Translation: 'those two black dogs' (6).
  Comment: All setting and examples come from the database from a two quarter fieldmethods class at UCLA in 1998. (Albro, 1998)
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   nda'nda' Yes Christelle Niguieu Toukam
   Neapolitan Yes Giuseppe Samo
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Northern Thai Yes Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: eci guwo nana-zi ya
  Gloss: yam ten DEM-PL fall
  Translation: 'These ten yams fell.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh Yes Hilda Koopman
   Okinawan Yes Ken Hiraiwa A demonstrative is only optional.
+ Old English Yes Willem Koopman
  Comment: Old English makes no distinction between definite article and demonstrative: se.thaet, seo (inflected for number, case and gender) can be translated as the definite article or the demonstrative pronoun 'that'.
  Contributor: Willem Koopman
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden Demonstratives and definite articles seem to have the same form in Old Saxon. I am not aware of any systematic study of the stage of grammaticalization of these demonstratives.
  Words: Thuo ên thero tueliƀio, Thuomas gimâlda
  Gloss: then one the/those.GEN twelve.GEN Thomas said
  Translation: Then one of the/those twelve, Thomas, said ...
  Comment: (Heliand 3992-3993)
  Contributor: George Walkden
   Oluwanga Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Y-a-lera e-fi-sala fi-taru fi-lya erwanyi
  Gloss: 1sg-PST-bring AUG-C8 8-three 8-DEM outside
  Translation: S/he brought the three chairs outside
  Comment: The unmarked dem shows the definiteness.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   One No Mark Donohue
   panjabi Yes Gurprit Bains
   Papuan Malay No Mark Donohue
   Pashto No David Pate
   Pima No Marcus Smith
   Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Aquelas três convidadas partiram
  Gloss: DEM.F.PL three guest.F.PL depart.PRF.3PL
  Translation: Those three guests departed
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia If a demonstrative is added, then definite NPs can have numerals (drumurile acestea trei - these three roads)
   Russian Yes Denis Paperno
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sandawe Yes Helen Eaton
   Sasak No Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Scottish Gaelic Yes David Adger
   Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: mi ligghìi ssi/sti tri lìbbra
  Gloss: to.me I.read those/these three books
  Translation: I read those/these three books
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
  Words: ddi kwàttru lìttri arruvàrru ajèri
  Gloss: those four letter arrived yesterday
  Translation: those four letter arrived yesterday
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Spanish Yes Victoria Mateu
+ Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
  Words: De här/dessa fyra breven kom igår.
  Gloss: these here/these four letters.DEF arrived yesterday
  Translation: These four letters arrived yesterday
  Comment: There is dialectal difference between the two demonstratives.
  Contributor: fredrik heinat
   Swiss German Yes Cecile Meier
   Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge Definite NPs can occur with demonstratives, but the demonstrative is not obligatory.
   Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: so maɲatə ʃti tre pizzə
  Gloss: I.am eaten these three pizzas
  Translation: I ate these three pizzas
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
  Words: ʃti tre pizzə arrivitə
  Gloss: these three pizzas arrived
  Translation: these three pizzas arrived
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
+ Thai Yes Alif Silpachai
  Words: maew sip tua nii kin plaa laew
  Gloss: cat ten CLF DEM eat fish COMPL
  Translation: These ten cats have eaten fish.
  Comment: Yes but the N must have a noun classifier
  Contributor: Alif Silpachai
+ Tigre Yes Zhenyu Sun
  Words: 'əlli dəggena
  Gloss: this our-village
  Translation: 'our village'
  Contributor: Zhenyu Sun
+ Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
  Words: gàmmàL nèè-gòL nɔ̀=mbé
  Gloss: cat two-ADV this=PL
  Translation: ‘these two cats’ (123: 157c).
  Comment: From A Grammar of Tommo So by Laura Mcpherson (2012).
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) Yes Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Murat Kural
   Tuvan No Mark Donohue
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Ukrainian Yes Roksolana Mykhaylyk
   Vata Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Vietnamese Yes Binh Ngo
  Words: Nam thích ba bức tranh này.
  Gloss: Nam like three CL painting this
  Translation: "Nam likes these three paintings."
  Contributor: Binh Ngo
   Vlaški-Žejanski-Istro-Romanian Yes Zvjezdana Vrzic
   West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolof Yes Mariame Sy
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Yawa No Mark Donohue