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Q07_Q-marker follows narrow focus

Definition
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This property has the value 'yes' if the position of the Q-marker in a neutral, information-seeking, direct polar question is different in questions with narrow focus, with the Q-marker following the narrow focus marked constituent.


This property has the value 'no' if the syntactic environment in which the Q-marker appears does not vary with focus, or if the language does not have a polar Q marker.


Examples:

  1. Mandarin Chinese has the value 'no' for this property because the final question particle "ma" is final regardless of narrow focus:
    • Neutral: ta zhu zher ma  
        he live here Q  
        "Does he live here?"
      Narrow focus: si ta zhu zher ma
        is he live here Q
        "Is it he who lives here?"
    • [More...]
  2. Thai has the value 'yes' for this property because the Q-marker "ru", which is clause-final in neutral, information-seeking, direct polar questions, can immediately follow the focused phrase in polar questions with narrow focus:
    • Neutral: nát bɔ̀ɔk nút ru  
        Nath tell Nuch Q  
        "Did Nath tell Nuch?"
      Narrow focus: nát rǔu thîi bɔ̀ɔk nút
        Nath Q C tell Nuch
        "Was it Nath who told Nuch?"
  3. Finnish has the value 'yes' for this property, because the Q-marker "–ko", which in neutral, information-seeking, direct polar questions immediately follows the fronted verb or auxiliary, immediately follows the fronted focused phrase in polar questions with narrow focus:
    • Neutral: ostit-ko sinä maitoa
        bought-Q you milk
        "Did you buy milk?"
      Narrow focus: maitoa-ko sinä ostit
        milk-Q you bought
        "Was it milk that you bought?"
  4. Malagasy has the value 'yes' for this property because the Q-marker "ve", which follows a constituent that contains the verb in a neutral information-seeking question, follows the narrow focused constituent in polar questions:
    • Neutral: m.i.vidy mofo ho an'ny ankizy ve i Bakoly
        ASP.AT.buy bread for ACC'D child Q D Bakoly
        "Did Bakoly buy bread for the children?"
      Narrow focus: Bakoly ve no m.i.vidy mofo ho an'ny ankizy
        Bakoly Q FOC ASP.AT.buy bread for ACC'D child
        "Is it Bakoly who buys bread for the children?"
    • Comment: The question particle "ve" precedes the 'focus' particle "no" found in narrow focus constructions. More...
Contributed by: Anders Holmberg
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
   Agni indénié No Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bambara No Hilda Koopman
   Bandial No Wolfgang Berndt
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Czech No Pavel Caha
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo No Hilda Koopman
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No Craig Sailor
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Viola Schmitt
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Greek No Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Metin Bagriacik
   Greek (Homer) NA Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) No Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hausa No Russell Schuh The Q-marker, such as it is, would always be sentence final.
   Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210 Suffix -chu in almost all questions, may follow verb or narrow focus phrase.
   Indonesian No Mark Donohue
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese No Jun Yashima
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kom Yes Richard Kwamong
   Korean No Grace Lee
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal NA Florian Lionnet
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
+ Malagasy Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: Rabe ve no n-an-ao izany?
  Gloss: Rabe Q FOC PST-AT-do that
  Translation: Was it Rabe who did that?
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
   Mandarin No Arthur Wang
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Old English No ---
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Pashto No David Pate
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian Yes Denis Paperno
   San Dionisio Ocotepec Zapotec No George Aaron Broadwell
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Skou NA Mark Donohue
   Spanish No Victoria Mateu
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Swiss German No Cecile Meier
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: Sa Maynila=ba mag-a-aral ang anak=mo?
  Gloss: in Manila=Q Intr-Red-study Abs child=2s.Gen
  Translation: Is it in Manila that your child will study?
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
   Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
   Thai No Peter Jenks
   Triqui, Copala No George Aaron Broadwell
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
+ Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
  Words: (yEE) mamu odzu o-mu-suwa tsono roo (aa)
  Gloss: (Q) you FOC 2SM-P1-wash clothes your (Q)
  Translation: Is it you who washed your clothes
  Contributor: Edmond Biloa
+ Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Ere-sem-y-pe ygara suií? / Ygara suí-pe ere-sem?
  Gloss: (2.SG)-come.PRS/PST Q boat from? / boat from Q 2.SG
  Translation: Did you leave the boat? / Was it the boat that you left?
  Comment: Come from = leave
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Deniz Ozyildiz
   Twi No Cansada Martin
+ Vata No Hilda Koopman
  Words: aba mO O blI a
  Gloss: Aba PRON 3SRES sing Q
  Translation: Was it Aba who sang?
  Comment: The subject is topicalized, followed by a strong pronoun and a weak subject resumptive pronoun which carries a low tone (it can be fully segmental O, or reduced to the low tone).
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolof No Mariame Sy
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen Q-marker 'ha' precedes narrow focus
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
+ Zamboageño Chabacano Yes Grace Gaspardo
  Words: El leche ba tu ya compra?
  Gloss: the milk Q you PST buy
  Translation: Was it milk that you bought?
  Contributor: Grace Gaspardo