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Q09_Affirmative answer by verb

Definition
Untitled Document

This property has the value 'yes' when a minimal affirmative answer to a neutral, information-seeking, direct polar question can consist of a verb in isolation, 'echoing' the verb of a question.


To assess the value of this property, check questions without an auxiliary, and check the answers of the following type of questions: "Did you put the tomatoes in the fridge yet? Did John leave the door open? Did you come here by car?".


A 'yes' value is compatible with a 'yes' value for other expressions of minimal answers to neutral polar questions.


Examples:

  1. English is 'no' for this property, as the answer cannot echo the verb in question, and the polar question must contain an auxiliary:
    • Question: Did you put the tomatoes in the fridge?
    • Answer: *Put (intended answer: yes).
  2. Portuguese (European and Brazilian) has the value 'yes' for the property 'Affirmation by verb', since the minimal affirmative answer to a neutral, information-seeking polar question with a single verb can be a bare verb, echoing the verb of the question:
    • Question: puseste os tomates no frigorífico
        put.2SG the tomatoes in.the refrigerator
        "Did you put the tomatoes in the fridge?"
      Answer: pus        
        put.1SG        
        "Yes." (lit. "Put.")
  3. Spanish has the value 'no' for this property. The minimal affirmative answer to a neutral, information-seeking polar question cannot be a bare verb (but must be a particle "sí").
    • Question: pusiste los tomates en el frigorífico
        put.2SG the tomatoes in the refrigerator
        "Did you put the tomatoes in the fridge?"
      Answer: * puse          
          put.1SG          
Contributed by: Anders Holmberg and Craig Sailor
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: Q: Erdhi Ana? A: Erdhi.
  Gloss: Q: came-3SG Ann-the(NOM) A: came-3SG.
  Translation: Q: Did Ann come?
  Comment: A: Yes, she came.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: A. kasa yɨ-mt'a? B. yɨ-mt'a
  Gloss: A. Kasa 3ms-come.Jussive B. 3ms-come.Jussive
  Translation:  A. Shall Kasa come? B. lit. '(let he) come'
  Comment: Affirmative answer by bare verb is not possible when the verb is in the perfective and imperfective aspects. The verb always needs an auxiliary as we can see in (Q11). Affirmative answer by bare verb form is okay when the verb is in jussive mood (as in the example here) and with the copula n- and the auxiliary all- 'to exist'. [entered by HK for GD because of bug in program. Will be transferred to GB after migration]
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
  Words: A. kasa yɨ-mt'a? B. yɨ-mt'a
  Gloss: A. Kasa 3ms-come.jussive B. 3ms-come.jussive
  Translation: A. 'Shall Kasa come? B. lit. '(let he) come'.
  Comment: Affirmative answer by bare verb is not possible when the verb is in the perfective and imperfective aspects. In these aspects the verb always needs an auxiliary as we can see in (Q11). Affirmative answer by bare verb form is okay when the verb is in a jussive mood (as in the example here) and with the copula n- and the auxiliary all- 'to exist'.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek Yes Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: ha6elt-i al-ketab? he6slt-ah
  Gloss: find.PST-2SGF DET-book? find.PST-it
  Translation: did you find the book? I found it
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
  Words: 7e6et 6ema6 f-th-alagah? 7e6et
  Gloss: put.PST.2SGM tomato P-DET-frigh? put.PST.2SGM
  Translation: Did you put any tomato in the fridge? I put
  Comment: the verb in the aswer has subject Agteement
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
  Words: 7e6et 6-6ema6 f-th-alagah? 7e6et-ah
  Gloss: put.PST.2SGM DET-tomato P-DET-fridge? put.PST.1SG-3
  Translation: Did you put the tomato in the fridge? (I) put (them)
  Comment: with definite Object the verb in the answer requires a difinte clitic
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bambara No Hilda Koopman
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi No Claire Bowern
+ Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Q:(ɓàá) mudaá *(a)-n- lɑ́mb *(ɛ́) A: proᵢ *(aᵢ)-n- lɑ́mb
  Gloss: Q: Q woman SM-PST1-cook Q A: pro SM-PST1-cook
  Translation: Q: ‘Has the woman cooked ?’ A: (Lit. She cooked)
  Comment: This seems to be possible in pro-drop contexts and if we assume that the subject marker is part of the verbal morphology as can be seen here.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Brazilian Portuguese Yes Ananda Lima
   Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: Q: nei lei me? A: lei.
  Gloss: Q: you come Q Q A: come
  Translation: Q: Are you coming? A: Yes.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw Yes Pam Munro
+ Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
  Words: Q: Evales tes ntomates mes to psigion? A: *Evala
  Gloss: put.PST.2SG the tomatoes in the fridge? A: put.PST.1SG
  Translation: Did you put the tomatoes in the fridge? A: *Put (intended answer: yes).
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Pavel Caha
  Words: Jí Petr polívku? -- Jí.
  Gloss: eats peter soup -- eats
  Translation: Does Peter eat soup? -- yes
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No Craig Sailor
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: Tuli-ko Anna? Tuli.
  Gloss: came-Q Anna? came
  Translation: Did Anna come? Yes.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna Yes Pam Munro
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German No Viola Schmitt
+ Greek Yes Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Q: E-val-es domat-es s-to psigi-o? A1: E-val-a A2: *Tis=e-val-a Q: E-val-es tis domat-es s-to psigi-o? A1: *E-val-a A2: Tis=e-val-a
  Gloss: Q: PST-put-PST.2.SG tomatoes-PL.ACC in-the.SG.ACC fridge-SG.ACC A1: PST-put-PST.1.SG A2: them.PL.ACC=PST-put-PST.1.SG Q: PST-put-PST.2.SG the.PL.ACC tomatoes-PL.ACC in-the.SG.ACC fridge-SG.ACC A1: PST-put-PST.1.SG A2: them.PL.ACC=PST-put-PST.1.SG
  Translation: Q: Did you put tomatoes in the fridge? A1: Yes (lit. 'put') A2: Yes (lit. 'them-put') Q: Did you put the tomatoes in the fridge? A1: Yes (lit. 'put') A2: Yes (lit. 'them-put')
  Comment: In the presense of a definite object which can be resumed by a clitic, the presense of a clitic in a short answer is obligatory.
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Metin Bagriacik
  Words: Q: darɯlses mi? A: darɯlsa (Dawkins 1916: 370)
  Gloss: Q: be.angry.PST.2SG Q A: be.angry.PST.1SG
  Translation: Q: 'are you angry?' A: '(I) am angry'
  Contributor: Metin Bagriacik
   Greek (Homer) Yes Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hausa No Russell Schuh Q09-Q15: No for all of these. If one answered with something more than just 'yes' or 'no', it would have to be an otherwise complete clause, i.e. in answer to 'did you go?', one could not give an answer equivalent to 'went', 'did', 'yes, went', etc.
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: hixnasta et ha a'gvanyiot la marker ? hixnasti
  Gloss: put+in-you.m acc the tomatoes to-the fridge ? put-in-I
  Translation: 'I did'
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
  Words: ha rakevet higi'a ? ken
  Gloss: the train arrived yes
  Translation: 'Has the train arrived ? "yes''
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
+ Hebrew (Biblical) Yes Massimo Gargiulo
  Words: "ha-yeda'ttem 'et Laban?"..."Yada'nu" (Gen 29,5)
  Gloss: "Q-know.PF 2PL ACC marker ('et) Laban"..."know.PFV 1PL"
  Translation: "Do you know Laban?"..."Yes (we know)
  Contributor: Massimo Gargiulo
   Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha Yes Mark Donohue
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian Yes Mark Donohue
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Japanese Yes Jun Yashima The verb must always occur with a bound inflectional element (most typically a tense morpheme.)
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
+ Korean Yes Grace Lee
  Words: Q: pap mek.ess.e? A: mek.ess.e
  Gloss: Q: food ate(past)? A: ate(past).
  Translation: Q: Did you eat? A: I ate.
  Comment: Q: 밥 먹었어? A: 먹었어.
  Contributor: Grace Lee
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Lao Yes Alif Silpachai
+ Latin Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: non audis quae hic loquitur? Audio!
  Gloss: not listen.PRS.2.SG what.N here.ADV speak.PRS.1.SG ? I listen.PRS.1SG
  Translation: Do you not listen to what I am saying? I do (hear)!
  Comment: Plaut.Pseud I, 3 (230)
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Comment: More in general, the element in focus can be repeated; cf. 'ego' as answer to the polar question in Q04_Polar question by intonation
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
+ Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
  Words: Ar matei tą filmą? - Mačiau.
  Gloss: Q see.PST.2.SG that film - see.PST.1.SG
  Translation: Did you see that film? - I saw.
  Contributor: Felix Thies
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
+ Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
  Words: Q: ni lai ma? A: lai.
  Gloss: : Q: you come Q A: come
  Translation: lit: Q: Are you coming? A: Yes.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Nkore-Kiga No Arwa Rangwala
   Northern Thai Yes Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Old English No ---
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Pashto No David Pate
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Czy Piotr je zupę? --- Je.
  Gloss: Q Peter eats soup -- eats
  Translation: Does Peter eat soup? - Yes.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Colocou os tomates na geladeira? Coloquei
  Gloss: put.PRF.3SG(2SG) the.M.PL tomato.PL in.the.F ? Put.1SG
  Translation: Did you put the tomatoes in the fridge? Put (yes)
  Comment: In brazilian portuguese the 2 person SG takes the verb in the 3.SG depending on the pronoun used. The 2SG pronoun 'you' is rarely used with the verb in the 2.SG
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian Yes Denis Paperno
   Shan Yes Alif Silpachai
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: A: ki arrrwàu Màrju? B: se // arrwàu // se arrwàu
  Gloss: A: what arrived Mario? B: yes // he.arrived // yes he.arrived
  Translation: A: has Mario arrived? B: Yes (he has arrived)
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Spanish No Victoria Mateu
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: Q: Bi-bili=ka=ba nang kape? A: Bi-bili.
  Gloss: Q: Red-buy=2s.Abs=Q Obl coffee / A: Red-buy
  Translation: Q: Are you going to buy coffee? A: Yes.
  Comment: This is possible for some speakers, but some speakers can only answer with the particle 'oo'.
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: ke maɲə Lenə? - (si) maɲə (Lenə)
  Gloss: what eat Elena? - (yes) eats (Elena)
  Translation: does Elena eat? - (yes Elena) eats
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Alif Silpachai
   Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
   Tukang Besi Yes Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Deniz Ozyildiz
+ Twi No Cansada Martin
  Words: Kofi twaa brodo no ana?
  Gloss: Kofi cut.PST bread DET Q
  Translation: Did Kofi cut the bread?
  Comment: Question
  Contributor: Cansada Martin
  Words: Ane, Kofi twaa yɛ.
  Gloss: Yes Kofi cut.PST do
  Translation: Yes, Kofi cut it.
  Comment: grammatical answer
  Contributor: Cansada Martin
  Words: *Twaa (yɛ).
  Gloss: cut.PST (do)
  Comment: ungrammatical answer
  Contributor: Cansada Martin
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolof No Mariame Sy
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern