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Q10_Affirmative answer by auxiliary

Definition
Untitled Document

This property has the value 'yes' when a minimal affirmative answer to a neutral, information-seeking, direct polar question with an auxiliary/non-lexical verb (like "be" or "do", or a modal) and a lexical verb can consist of an auxiliary/non-lexical verb in isolation echoing the auxiliary/non-lexical verb of the question.


Examples:

  1. Welsh has the value 'yes' for this property:
    • Question: all Mair aros
        can Mair stay
        "Can Mair stay?"
      Answer: gall    
        can    
        "Yes." (lit. "Can.")
  2. English has the value 'no' for this property, since although an affirmative reply can echo the auxiliary of a question, it must be accompanied by the subject:
    • Question: Can Mary stay?
    • Answer: She can.
    • Answer: *Can.
    • [More...]
Contributed by: Anders Holmberg
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
   Albanian No Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: A. kasa astämari näw? B. näw
  Gloss: A. Kasa teacher be.3ms B. be.3ms
  Translation: A. 'Is Kasa a teacher?' B. lit. 'is'
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) No Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bambara No Hilda Koopman
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi NA Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: Q: Mary hoji laudai aa? A: hoji.
  Gloss: Q: Mary can Q A: can
  Translation: Q: Can Mary stay? A: Yes.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
+ Czech Yes Pavel Caha
  Words: Bude Petr jíst polívku? -- Bude / *Jíst
  Gloss: will peter eat.inf soup? -- will / eat.inf
  Translation: Will Peter have some soup? -- yes
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: Jedli jste polívku? -- jedli / *jsme
  Gloss: eat-past.part aux=be-2.pl soup -- eat.past.part / aux-1.pl
  Translation: Did you eat the soup? -- Yes (we did)
  Comment: this example shows that the past tense aux behaves differently from the future aux. probably related to the fact that the past aux is a second position clitic. compare Q06-Aux fronting for a related difference between the past and future aux.
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No Craig Sailor
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: On-ko Anna tullut? On.
  Gloss: is-Q Anna come? is
  Translation: Has Anna come? Yes.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Ga NA Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna No Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Viola Schmitt
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Q: Ex-i erthi i Ana? A: Ex-i.
  Gloss: Q: has-3.SG come the.SS.NOM Ann A: has-3.SG
  Translation: Q: Has Ann come? A: Yes (lit. 'has').
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
+ Greek (Cappadocian) Yes Metin Bagriacik
  Words: Q: pal indi ta paraðʝa mi? A: indi (Dawkins 1916: 406)
  Gloss: Q: still be.3PL ART.DEF.PL.NOM money.PL.NOM Q A: be.3PL
  Translation: Q: 'Is there still money?' A: lit. 'is'
  Contributor: Metin Bagriacik
   Greek (Homer) No Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hausa No Russell Schuh
+ Hebrew Yes Ur Shlonsky
  Words: Rina yexola le hiša'er ? yexola
  Gloss: Rina can to stay? can
  Translation: 'Can Rina stay ?
  Contributor: Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) NA Massimo Gargiulo
   Hungarian NA Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha No Mark Donohue
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian NA Mark Donohue
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kashaya NA John Gluckman
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
+ Korean Yes Grace Lee
  Words: Q: yoli halswu iss.e? A: halswuiss.e
  Gloss: Q: Cooking do.e A: Do.e
  Translation: Q: Can you cook? A: I can
  Comment: Q: 요리 할수 있어? A: 할수 있어.
  Contributor: Grace Lee
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
  Words: Ar esi matęs tą filmą? - Esu.
  Gloss: Q be.PRS.2.SG see-PST.PTCP that film - be.PRS.1.SG
  Translation: Have you seen that film? - I have.
  Contributor: Felix Thies
   Maasai (Kisongo) Yes Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
   Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: wash khass.oo ya.kul daaba / khass.oo
  Gloss: Q lack.3SPOSS.M PRES.M.eat.3SG now / lack.3SPOSS
  Translation: Does he need to eat now? (= Does he lack eating now?) / He needs to.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Old English No ---
   Old French No Heather Burnett
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Pashto No David Pate
+ Polish Yes Barbara Tomaszewicz
  Words: Będzie Piotr pisał list? -- Będzie.
  Gloss: aux.Fut Peter write letter --- aux.Fut
  Translation: Will Peter be writing a letter? - Yes.
  Contributor: Barbara Tomaszewicz
+ Portuguese Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
  Words: Pedro tem lido muito? Tem.
  Gloss: Q: Pedro has-3.SG read-PST.PCTP a-lot? Has-PRS.3.SG
  Translation: Has Peter read a lot (implicit: lately)? (Yes, he) has
  Comment: This property has the value yes for all tenses to which auxiliar verbs apply.
  Contributor: Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian Yes Denis Paperno
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Spanish No Victoria Mateu
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: Q: Dapat=ba-ng b<um>ili si Maria nang kape? A: Dapat.
  Gloss: Q: should=Q=Lk <Intr>buy Abs.PN Maria Obl coffee / A: should
  Translation: Q: Should Maria buy coffee? A: Yes.
  Comment: This is accepted by some speakers but not all. The most accepted answer uses the particle 'oo'.
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: ke a kutʃinitə Lenə? - (si Lenə) a (kutʃinitə)
  Gloss: what has cooked Elena - (yes Elena) has (cooked)
  Translation: did Elena cook? - (Yes Elena) has (cooked)
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Volkan Tümer
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolof No Mariame Sy
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu No Claire Bowern
   Zulu No Claire Halpert