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Q11_Affirmative answer by auxiliary and verb

Definition
Untitled Document

This property has the value 'yes' when a minimal affirmative answer to a neutral, information-seeking, direct polar question with an auxiliary/non-lexical verb and a verb can consist of just the auxiliary/non-lexical verb and the verb of the question.


Examples:

  1. English has the value 'no' for this property:
    • Question: Will you water the plants?
    • Answer: *Will water.
  2. Welsh has the value 'no' for this property. The affirmative answer to the question below cannot include the verb, in addition to the auxiliary:
    • Question: ga' i roi 'r llefrith yn yr oergell
        may.1SG I put:INF the milk in the refrigerator
        "May I put the milk in the fridge?"
      Answer: cei (*rhoi)            
        may.2SG (*put)            
        "Yes." (lit. "May")
  3. Thai has the value 'yes' for this property. The affirmative answer to the question below can consist of just the auxiliary, or of the auxiliary and the verb of the question:
    • Question: Taan tɔ̂ŋ àan nǎŋ-sǔu lêm níi dûay mǎy
        Taan must read book CLS this also Q
        "Must Taan read this book too?"
      Answer: tɔ̂ŋ (àan)            
        must (read)            
        "Yes." (lit. "Must (read).")
Contributed by: Anders Holmberg
Language Value Contributor Comments
   =Hoan No Chris Collins
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: Q: Ka ardhur Ana? A: Ka ardhur.
  Gloss: Q: has-3.SG come Ann-the(NOM) A: has-3.SG come
  Translation: Q: Has Ann come? A: Yes (lit 'has come')
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   American Sign Language Yes Natasha Abner
+ Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
  Words: A. timatim gäzt-äš-all? B. gäzc'-e-all-hu
  Gloss: A. tomatoe buy.gerund-3fs-Aux? B. buy.gerund-1ss-Aux-1ss
  Translation: A. 'Did you buy tomatoe?' B. lit. '(I) have bought'
  Comment: Note that Amharic is a pro-drop language and has obligatory subject agreement.
  Contributor: Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
   Arabic, Gulf No Dimitrios Ntelitheos
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bambara No Hilda Koopman
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
   Bardi NA Claire Bowern
   Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
   Burmese Yes Timothy Ho
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
+ Cantonese (Guangzhou) Yes Zixian Qiu
  Words: Q: Mary hoji laudai aa? A: hoji laudai.
  Gloss: Q: Mary can Q A: can stay
  Translation:  Q: Can Mary stay? A: Yes, she can stay.
  Contributor: Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
+ Czech No Pavel Caha
  Words: Bude Petr jíst polívku? -- Bude (*jíst)
  Gloss: will peter eat.inf soup -- will eat.inf
  Translation: Will Peter have some soup? Yes
  Comment: The example shows that the main verb cannot be included in the answer, although the aux alone can. there is perhaps an exception to the property value, see below
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
  Words: Jedl jsem tu polívku už někdy? -- jedl-(s) / *jedl jsi
  Gloss: ate am that soup already sometime -- ate-are / ate are
  Translation: Have I ever eaten that soup before -- yes, you have
  Comment: The Czech past auxiliaries are 2nd position clitics. Each seems to have slightly different properties (e.g. 1st sg can be left out when the subject is overt, 2sg cannot). The 2sg aux can be reduced to a single consonant, other auxiliaries cannot. (Even when reduced, it is a second pos clitic, it is not a bound morpheme.) I think that the reduced 2sg aux may be retained in a "minimal answer" (bit unsure what that is). No other aux has that property, as far as I can tell
  Contributor: Pavel Caha
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No Craig Sailor
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: On-ko Anna tullut? On tullut.
  Gloss: is-Q Anna come? is come
  Translation: Has Anna come? Yes.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Ga NA Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   Garifuna Yes Pam Munro
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Viola Schmitt
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Q: Ex-i erthi i Ana? A: Ex-i erthi.
  Gloss: Q: has-3.SG come the.SS.NOM Ann A: has-3.SG come
  Translation: Q: Has Ann come? A: Yes (lit 'has come')
  Comment: In case the question includes a transitive verb, the verb in the Aux V answer needs to include a clitic refering to the object (cf. Q09)
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Metin Bagriacik
   Greek (Homer) No Chiara Bozzone
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hausa No Russell Schuh
   Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hungarian NA Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   Iha Yes Mark Donohue
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
   Indonesian NA Mark Donohue
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese Yes Jun Yashima
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kashaya No John Gluckman
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
+ Korean Yes Grace Lee
  Words: Q: mwulcwulswuiss.e? A: cwulswuiss.e
  Gloss: Q: Water give.e A: Give.e
  Translation: Q: Can you give me water? A: I can give.
  Comment: Q: 물 줄수 있어? A: 줄수 있어.
  Contributor: Grace Lee
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda Yes Mark Donohue
   Laal No Florian Lionnet
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
+ Lithuanian Yes Felix Thies
  Words: Ar esi matęs tą filmą? - Esu matęs.
  Gloss: Q be.PRS.2.SG see.PST.PTCP that film - be.PRS.1.SG see.PST.PTCP
  Translation: Have you seen that film? - I have seen.
  Contributor: Felix Thies
   Maasai (Kisongo) Not Yet Set Hilda Koopman
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
   Mandarin Yes Arthur Wang
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
+ Moroccan Arabic Yes Arwa Rangwala
  Words: wash khass.oo ya.kul daaba / khass.oo ya.kul
  Gloss: Q lack.3SPOSS.M PRES.M.eat.3SG now / lack.3SPOSS PRES.M.eat.3SG
  Translation: Does he need to eat now? (= Does he lack eating now?) / He needs to eat.
  Contributor: Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Old English No ---
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Pashto No David Pate
   Polish No Barbara Tomaszewicz
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian Yes Denis Paperno
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
   Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
   Skou Yes Mark Donohue
   Spanish No Victoria Mateu
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
+ Tagalog Yes Edith Aldridge
  Words: Q: Dapat=ba-ng b<um>ili si Maria nang kape? A: Dapat bili.
  Gloss: Q: should=Q-Lk <Intr>buy Abs.PN Maria Obl coffee / A: should buy
  Translation: Q: Should Maria buy coffee? A: Yes.
  Comment: This is accepted by some but not all speakers. The most accepted answer uses the particle 'oo'.
  Contributor: Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min Yes Arthur Wang
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: ke a kutʃinitə Lenə? - (si Lenə) a kutʃinitə
  Gloss: what has cooked Elena - (yes Elena) has cooked
  Translation: did Elena cook? - (Yes Elena) has cooked
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
   Tommo-So Yes Laura McPherson
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish No Volkan Tümer
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolof No Mariame Sy
   Wuhu Chinese Yes Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba
   Yan-nhaŋu Yes Claire Bowern
   Zulu No Claire Halpert