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Q15_Particle-and-verb answer to indefinite subject question

Definition
Untitled Document

This property has the value 'yes' when an affirmative answer to a polar question with an indefinite subject can consist of nothing but an affirmative particle and a bare verb, where the two form a single intonation unit, i.e. there is no intonational break ('comma break') between them.


Examples:

  1. Yemeni Arabic has the value 'no' for this property, since if the affirmative answer to a polar question includes an affirmative particle and the verb of the question, it has to include the subject of the question as well:
    • Question: shi ga had ams
        Q came anyone yesterday
        "Did anyone come yesterday?"
      Answer: aiwa ga *(wahed)  
        yes came someone  
        "Yes, someone came."
  2. Bengali has 'yes' for this property, since the affirmative answer to a polar question with an indefinite subject can consist of an affirmative particle and the verb without also including the subject of the question:
    • Question: keu eshechilo kalke
        anyone came yesterday
        "Did anyone come yesterday?"
      Answer: eshechilo  
        yes came  
        "Yes (someone came)." (lit. "Yes came.")
Contributed by: Anders Holmberg
Language Value Contributor Comments
   Afrikaans No Theresa Biberauer
   Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
   Amharic No Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: you-kum nas ams? heh yaw
  Gloss: come.PST-2PL people ysterday? yes come.PST
  Translation: did the people visitd you yesterday? yes they did
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
   Bafut No Pius Tamanji
   Bambara No Hilda Koopman
   Bandial No Wolfgang Berndt
+ Basaa No Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Q: (ɓàá) ŋgim mut i-n-tɑ́ɣɓɛ́ hɑ́nɑ́ *(ɑ̀) A:?? ŋ̀ŋ́ proᵢ iᵢ-n-táɣɓɛ̀
  Gloss: Q: Q some people SM-PST1-pass here Q A: yes pro SM-PST1-pass
  Translation: A: ‘Lit. Yes, s/she (somebody) passed’
  Comment: The property is marginally acceptable as can be seen here.
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) No Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
   Cypriot Greek No Marios Andreou
   Danish No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dutch No Hilda Koopman
   English No Craig Sailor
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
+ Finnish Yes Anders Holmberg
  Words: Tuli-ko kukaan? Kyllä tuli.
  Gloss: came-Q anyone? Yes came
  Translation: Did anyone come? Yes.
  Contributor: Anders Holmberg
   French No Vincent Homer
   Ga No Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician No Naír García
   georgian No Lea Nash
   German No Viola Schmitt
   Gothic No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek No Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Q: Irth-e kanis? A: Irth-e.
  Gloss: Q: come-PST.3.SG anyone A: come-PST.3.SG
  Translation: Q: Did anyone arrive? A: Yes (lit 'come')
  Comment: Greek has no affirmative particle.
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Cappadocian) NA Metin Bagriacik No examples in textual record
   Greek (Homer) NA Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Guébie No Hannah Sande
   Gungbe (Porto-Novo) No Enoch Oladé Aboh
   Haitian No Michel DeGraff
   Hausa No Russell Schuh
   Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hungarian Yes Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio No Willie Willie
   Icelandic No Jim Wood
   imbabura quichua Yes UCLA Linguistics 210
   Italian No Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) No Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) No Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   K'iche' Yes Pam Munro
   KiLega No Kasangati Kinyalolo
   Kom No Richard Kwamong
   Korean No Grace Lee
   Kuot No Eva Lindström
   Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda NA Mark Donohue
   Laal NA Florian Lionnet
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Latin (Late) No Chiara Gianollo
   Mada No Bebey Théodore
   Malagasy No Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam Yes Mythili Menon
   Mandarin No Arthur Wang
   Marshallese No Heather Willson Sturman
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   Nepali Yes Mark Donohue
   Norwegian No Marit Julien
   Nupe No Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Old English No ---
   Old French Yes Heather Burnett
   Old Norse No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Old Saxon No George Walkden
   Oluwanga (Eji) No Ceciliane Odangah
   Pashto No David Pate
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Romanian No Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian Yes Denis Paperno
   Shupamem No Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian No Cristina Guardiano
  Words: A: k'arrwàu kwarkarùnu? B: se (pause) kwarkarùnu arrwàu
  Gloss: A: what arrived someone B: yes someone arrived
  Translation: A: has anyone arrived? B: yes, someone arrived
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish No Victoria Mateu
   Swedish No fredrik heinat
   Tagalog No Edith Aldridge
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
+ Teramano Yes Iara Mantenuto
  Words: k' arrivitə kakkedunə? - Si kakkedunə arrivitə
  Gloss: what arrived someone? - Yes someone arrived
  Translation: did someone arrive? - Yes someone arrived
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) No Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Turkish Yes Deniz Ozyildiz
   Twi No Cansada Martin
   Vata No Hilda Koopman
   Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
   West Flemish No Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian No Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolof No Mariame Sy
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa No Xiujie Ma
   Yémba No Elsie Mawamba