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Q16NEGA_Negative answer by special negative particle

Definition
Untitled Document

This property has the value 'yes' when a minimal negative answer to a neutral, information-seeking polar question can consist of just a negative particle which differs from the ordinary sentential negation (sometimes also called standard negation).


Examples:

  1. English has the value 'yes' for this property, as the minimal negative answer to a polar question is made up of a particle which is not used as a sentential negation:
    • Question: Do you speak Arabic?
    • Answer: No. / *Not.

    • Negative Declarative: I do not speak English. / *I (do) no speak English.
  2. French has the value 'yes' for this property, as the minimal negative answer to a polar question is made up of a particle which is not used as a sentential negation:
    • Question: vous parlez anglais
        you speak English
        "Do you speak English?"
      Answer: non    
        no    
        "No."
      Negative declarative: * je non parle anglais  
          I no speak English  
           
          je (ne) parle pas anglais
          I (NEG) speak NEG English
          "I don't speak English."
  3. Spanish has the value 'no' because the particle which makes up the minimal negative answer to a polar question is indistinguishable from the sentential negation:
    • Question: hablas inglés
        speak.2SG English
        "Do you speak English?"
      Answer: no    
        no    
        "No."
      Negative declarative: no hablo inglés
        no speak.1SG English
        "I don't speak English."
Contributed by: Anders Holmberg
Language Value Contributor Comments
+ Afrikaans Yes Theresa Biberauer
  Words: A: Is jy koud? B: Nee
  Gloss: A: are you cold B: no
  Translation: A: Are you cold? B: No
  Comment: The sentential negation markers in Afrikaans are both "nie", deriving from the Dutch sentential negation marker "niet" and not from the anaphoric negator illustrated above.
  Contributor: Theresa Biberauer
+ Agni indénié Yes Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
  Words: A. kófí bá kɛ̀ ? B: cɛ̀cɛ̀
  Gloss: A. Koffi venir Q B: non
  Translation: A. Koffi vient-il ? B: non
  Contributor: Amoikon Dyhié ASSANVO
+ Albanian Yes Dalina Kallulli
  Words: Q: Erdhi njeri? A: Jo.
  Gloss: Q: came-3.SG anyone A: No.
  Translation: Q: Did anyone come? A: No.
  Contributor: Dalina Kallulli
   Amharic Yes Girma Demeke
   Ancient Greek No Richard Faure
+ Arabic, Gulf Yes Dimitrios Ntelitheos
  Words: kal-eti? la
  Gloss: eat.PST-3SGF NEG
  Translation: Did you eat? No
  Contributor: Shaikha Saeed
   Armenian (Eastern) Yes Sona Haroutyunian
+ Bafut Yes Pius Tamanji
  Words: m̀fɔ̀ wá kɨ̀ nó mɨ̀lù’ù? Answer: ŋgáŋ
  Gloss: chief the PST drink wine No
  Translation: Did the chief drink wine? No
  Contributor: Pius Tamanji
   Bambara Yes Hilda Koopman
   Bandial Yes Wolfgang Berndt
+ Basaa Yes Paul Roger Bassong
  Words: Q: ɓɔɔŋgɛ́ ɓá-ń-sɔ́mb mátówa a A: tɔ́/hɛ́ɛ́ní
  Gloss: Q: Q children SM-PRS-buy cars Q A: no/never
  Translation: Q: ‘Do children buy cars?’ A: 'No'
  Contributor: Paul Roger Bassong
   Calabrian (Northern) Yes Giuseppina Silvestri
   Cantonese (Guangzhou) No Zixian Qiu
   Catalan No Victoria Mateu
   Chickasaw No Pam Munro
+ Cypriot Greek Yes Marios Andreou
  Words: Milas ispanika? A: Oi.
  Gloss: speak-2SG Spanish? A: No
  Translation: Do you speak Spanish? A: No.
  Contributor: Marios Andreou
   Danish Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Dholuo Yes Hilda Koopman
+ Dutch Yes Hilda Koopman
  Words: A: Is je broer met de TGV naar Parijs gegaan? B. nee /*niet/ *(hij) Is niet/ nee, dat is hij niet
  Gloss: Is your brother with the TGV to Paris gone? B. No/*niet/*(he) is not/ no, that is he not
  Translation: Did your brother go to Paris with the TGV? No.
  Contributor: Hilda Koopman
   English Yes Craig Sailor
   English (Singapore) No Adam Chong
   Faroese No Hjalmar Páll Petersen
   Finnish No Anders Holmberg
+ French Yes Vincent Homer
  Words: Est-ce que tu aimes faire du shopping? Non.
  Gloss: Q 2SG like-PRS do-INF shopping? NEG
  Translation: Do you like shopping ? No.
  Contributor: Hannah Kim
   Ga Yes Mary Esther Kropp Dakubu
   galician Yes Naír García
   Garifuna Yes Pam Munro
   georgian Yes Lea Nash
   German Yes Viola Schmitt
   Gothic Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Greek Yes Giorgos Spathas
  Words: Q: Ex-i erthi i Ana? A: Oxi.
  Gloss: Q: has-3.SG come the.SS.NOM Ann A: No.
  Translation: Q: Has Ann arrived? A: No.
  Comment: A negative declarative uses 'dhe(n)'
  Contributor: Giorgos Spathas
   Greek (Cappadocian) No Metin Bagriacik
   Greek (Homer) No Cristina Guardiano
   Greek (Medieval) Yes Io Manolessou
   Guébie Yes Hannah Sande
+ Gungbe (Porto-Novo) Yes Enoch Oladé Aboh
  Words: A. àsíbá wá  ̀ ? B. èhéò
  Gloss: A. asiba come Q B: no
  Translation: A. Did Asiba come? B: no
  Contributor: Enoch Oladé Aboh
+ Haitian Yes Michel DeGraff
  Words: Èske Jan rive? Non / *Pa
  Gloss: Q Jan arrive? No
  Contributor: Michel DeGraff
   Hausa Yes Russell Schuh
   Hebrew No Ur Shlonsky
   Hebrew (Biblical) No Massimo Gargiulo
   Hungarian No Anna Szabolcsi
   Ibibio Yes Willie Willie
   Icelandic Yes Jim Wood
   Igbo No Mary Amaechi
   imbabura quichua No UCLA Linguistics 210
   Italian Yes Adriana Belletti
   Italian (Napoletano Antico) Yes Adam Ledgeway
   Italian (Reggiano) Yes Giovanni Roversi
   Jamaican Creole English No Stephanie Durrleman
   Japanese Yes Jun Yashima
   K'iche' No Pam Munro
   Kashaya Yes John Gluckman
   KiLega Yes Kasangati Kinyalolo
+ Korean Yes Grace Lee
  Words: Q: mikwukmal halswu iss.e? A: ani
  Gloss: Q: English-speak can.e? A: No
  Translation: Q: Can you speak English? A: No
  Comment: Q: 미국말 할수있어? A:아니
  Contributor: Grace Lee
   Kuot Yes Eva Lindström
+ Kurdish (Sorani) No Yadgar Karimi
  Words: dwene na-rosht-m
  Gloss: yesterday NEG-went-1SG
  Translation: I did not go yesterday.
  Comment: Kurdish negative particle, used either as a negative answer or as clausal negation is "na:", however, in the past-tense clauses it is changed into "na".
  Contributor: Yadgar Karimi
   Kusunda No Mark Donohue
   Laal Yes Florian Lionnet
   Lao No Alif Silpachai
   Latin No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
+ Latin (Late) Yes Chiara Gianollo
  Comment: e.g. 'minime' (not at all), which is also normally used otherwise as adverbial modifier; cf. Gen 19.2 - Biblia Sacra Vulgata, 4th cent. CE
  Contributor: Chiara Gianollo
   Maasai (Kisongo) No Hilda Koopman
+ Malagasy Yes Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
  Words: Ho avy ve ny orana? Tsia.
  Gloss: FUT come Q the rain no
  Translation: Is it going to rain? No.
  Comment: 'Tsia' is clearly related to the regular sentential negation, 'tsy'.
  Contributor: Ed Keenan and Laura Kalin
   Malayalam No Mythili Menon
   Mandarin No Arthur Wang
+ Marshallese Yes Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: Kw-ar ke m̧ōn̄ā steak?
  Gloss: 2sg-pst Q eat steak
  Translation: Did you eat steak?
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
  Words: Jaab
  Gloss: no
  Translation: no
  Contributor: Heather Willson Sturman
   Moroccan Arabic No Arwa Rangwala
   Muyang No Bebey Théodore
   Nahuatl (Central Huasteca) No John Garcia
   Nepali No Mark Donohue
   Northern Thai No Alif Silpachai
   Norwegian Yes Marit Julien
+ Nupe Yes Jason Kandybowicz
  Words: Speaker A: Ngba Musa gi bise? Speaker B: Haha.
  Gloss: Speaker A: Q Musa eat hen. Speaker B: No
  Translation: Speaker A: Did Musa eat the hen? Speaker B: No.
  Comment: The particle 'haha' is unique to negative answers. Sentential negation is marked by way of sentence-final 'a', not 'haha'. e.g: 'Musa gi bise a.' "Musa did not eat the hen". *'Musa gi bise haha.'
  Contributor: Jason Kandybowicz
   Nweh No Hilda Koopman
   Old French No Heather Burnett
+ Old Saxon Yes George Walkden Only one example in the Heliand, but no other examples of negative answers.
  Words: queđe nên, af it nis
  Gloss: say no if it NEG-is
  Translation: Say "no" if it is not (true)
  Comment: (Heliand 1523)
  Contributor: George Walkden
+ Oluwanga (Eji) Yes Ceciliane Odangah
  Words: Question: O –lomaloma-nga lusungu? Answer: ata (Si-e-lomaloma-nga lusungu tawe.)
  Gloss: NEG-1sg-speak-HAB. English NEG
  Translation: Do you speak English? No. I don't speak English.
  Comment: ata looks somewhat related to tawe, not to si.
  Contributor: Ceciliane Odangah
   Portuguese No Fabricio M. F. Gerardi
   Q'anjob'al Yes Kathleen O'Flynn
   Romanian Yes Monica Alexandrina Irimia
   Russian Yes Denis Paperno
   Sasak Yes Nur Ahmadi and Eli Asikin-Garmager
   Shupamem Yes Abdoulaye Laziz Nchare
+ Sicilian Yes Cristina Guardiano
  Words: A: ki arrwàu Màrju? B: no
  Gloss: A: what arrived Mario B: no
  Translation: A: Has Mario arrived? B: No
  Contributor: Cristina Guardiano
   Spanish No Victoria Mateu
   Swedish Yes fredrik heinat
   Taiwanese Southern Min No Arthur Wang
+ Teramano No Iara Mantenuto
  Words: k' arrivitə Lenə? - None/No
  Gloss: what arrived Elena? - No/No
  Translation: did Elena arrive? - No
  Comment: Generally, there is not a special negative particle; however, when we want to emphasize the negation we can use a special particle (nonə).
  Contributor: Iara Mantenuto
   Thai Yes Peter Jenks
   Tommo-So No Laura McPherson
   Tukang Besi No Mark Donohue
   Tuki (Tukombo) Yes Edmond Biloa
   Tupi (Ancient) Yes Fabricio M. F. Gerardi The particle for negating is a’an.
   Turkish Yes Deniz Ozyildiz
   Twi Yes Cansada Martin
   Vietnamese No Binh Ngo
+ West Flemish Yes Liliane Haegeman
  Words: Is Valère no Parys geweest? Nee-j
  Gloss: be-pres-3sg Valère to Parys be-part. No-he
  Translation: Has Valère been to Paris? No he hasn't
  Comment: The negative particle nee ('no') is inflected like the finite verb and the complementizer and is followed by a clitic form of the subject pronoun.
  Contributor: Liliane Haegeman
   Western Armenian Yes Hrayr Khanjian
   Wolof Yes Mariame Sy
   Wuhu Chinese No Zhuo Chen
   Xhosa Yes Xiujie Ma
   Yémba Yes Elsie Mawamba
   Zulu Yes Claire Halpert